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2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(20): e141, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on Kawasaki disease (KD) has not yet been established. We investigated changes in the observed number and severity of KD cases and accompanying coronary artery complications during the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included patients aged < 18 years with acute-phase KD diagnosed between March 2018 and February 2021. Data were extracted from the Clinical Data Warehouse that houses data from five affiliated university hospitals in Korea. We analyzed changes in the number of patient admissions and clinical characteristics, including cardiac complications, before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 475 admissions were included in the analysis. After March 2020, we observed a significant decrease of 33% in the number of hospitalizations for KD compared with the average number of hospitalizations during the previous 2 years. The number of admissions per month significantly decreased by 7.9 persons/month (95% confidence interval, -13.8 to -2.0; P < 0.05) compared with that before COVID-19. By contrast, the proportion of patients aged < 1 year with KD increased. The proportion of patients with refractory KD and the rate of cardiac complications did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the total number of hospital admissions for KD has decreased in Korea. Although the proportion of admissions of infants aged < 1 year increased, no changes were observed in clinical courses and complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(9): 3342-3350, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) can occur in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is not easy to differentiate MIS-C from severe COVID-19 or Kawasaki disease based on symptoms. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of MIS-C. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed/Medline for case series and reports of MIS-C published until June 20, 2020. From a total of nine articles involving 45 cases, various clinical and laboratory data were extracted. Each target case was evaluated by using different diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The average age at onset of MIS-C was 8.6 years. In 80% of cases, the age of patients ranged from 5 to 15 years. Fever (100%) and shock (82%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Sixty percent of cases met the diagnostic criteria for typical or atypical Kawasaki disease. Biomarkers indicative of inflammation, coagulopathy, or cardiac injury were characteristically elevated as follows: ferritin (mean: 1,061 ng/mL), CRP (217 mg/L), ESR (69 mm/hr), IL-6 (214.8 pg/mL), TNFα (63.4 pg/mL), D-dimer (3,220 ng/mL), PT (15.5 s), troponin I (1,006 ng/L), and BNP (12,150 pg/mL). Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered in all target cases, and inotropic agents were commonly used as well. No case of death was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that MIS-C is a serious condition that presents with fever, rash, as well as cardiovascular and gastrointestinal symptoms. Although it is challenging to differentiate MIS-C from Kawasaki disease or severe COVID-19, initiation of appropriate treatments through early diagnosis is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Fever/diagnosis , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
4.
J Emerg Med ; 62(1): 28-37, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a newly recognized condition affecting children with recent infection or exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MIS-C has symptoms that affect multiple organs systems, with some clinical features resembling Kawasaki disease (KD) and toxic shock syndrome (TSS). OBJECTIVE OF THE REVIEW: Our goal was to review the current literature and describe the evaluation and treatment algorithms for children suspected of having MIS-C who present to the emergency department. DISCUSSION: MIS-C has a wide clinical spectrum and diagnosis is based on a combination of both clinical and laboratory findings. The exact mechanism of immune dysregulation of MIS-C is not well understood. Physical findings may evolve and do not necessarily appear at the same time. Gastrointestinal, cardiac, inflammatory, and coagulopathy manifestations and dysfunction are seen frequently in MIS-C. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of MIS-C is based on clinical presentation and specific laboratory findings. In the emergency setting, a high level of suspicion for MIS-C is required in patients exposed to COVID-19. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy offer the best chance for optimal outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology
5.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 33 Suppl 27: 102-104, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840515

ABSTRACT

One of the most challenging and intriguing phenomena observed during the COVID-19 pandemic has been the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Patients with this condition present with some clinical features similar to those of Kawasaki disease (KD) and display signs and symptoms that are uncommon or rarely occur in this disorder, such as gastrointestinal complaints and myocarditis, often leading to myocardial failure and shock. In addition, patients' age is older than that of children with classic KD. Management is based on administering intravenous immunoglobulin, glucocorticoids, and anakinra in the most severe instances. It is still debated whether MIS-C and KD are different illnesses or represent a disease continuum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(3): 623-632, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The association between dysregulated innate immune responses seen in Kawasaki disease (KD) with predisposition to Kawasaki-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) remains unclear. We aimed to compare the innate immunity transcriptome signature between COVID-19 and KD, and to analyze the interactions of these molecules with genes known to predispose to KD. METHODS: Transcriptome datasets of COVID-19 and KD cohorts (E-MTAB-9357, GSE-63881, GSE-68004) were downloaded from ArrayExpress for innate immune response analyses. Network analysis was used to determine enriched pathways of interactions. RESULTS: Upregulations of IRAK4, IFI16, STING, STAT3, PYCARD, CASP1, IFNAR1 and CD14 genes were observed in blood cells of acute SARS-CoV-2 infections with moderate severity. In the same patient group, increased expressions of TLR2, TLR7, IRF3, and CD36 were also noted in blood drawn a few days after COVID-19 diagnosis. Elevated blood PYCARD level was associated with severe COVID-19 in adults. Similar gene expression signature except differences in TLR8, NLRP3, STING and IRF3 levels was detected in KD samples. Network analysis on innate immune genes and genes associated with KD susceptibility identified enriched pathways of interactions. Furthermore, higher expression levels of KD susceptibility genes HLA-DOB, PELI1 and FCGR2A correlated with COVID-19 of different severities. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that most enriched innate immune response pathways were shared between transcriptomes of KD and COVID-19 with moderate severity. Genetic polymorphisms associated with innate immune dysregulation and KD susceptibility, together with variants in STING and STAT3, might predict COVID-19 severity and potentially susceptibility to COVID-19 related MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
Vaccine ; 40(24): 3305-3312, 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Background incidence rates are critical in pharmacovigilance to facilitate identification of vaccine safety signals. We estimated background incidence rates of 11 adverse events of special interest related to COVID-19 vaccines in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective observational study using linked health administrative databases for hospitalizations and emergency department visits among Ontario residents. We estimated incidence rates of Bell's palsy, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, febrile convulsions, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, Kawasaki disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, acute myocardial infarction, and anaphylaxis during five pre-pandemic years (2015-2019) and 2020. RESULTS: The average annual population was 14 million across all age groups with 51% female. The pre-pandemic mean annual rates per 100,000 population during 2015-2019 were 191 for acute myocardial infarction, 43.9 for idiopathic thrombocytopenia, 28.8 for anaphylaxis, 27.8 for Bell's palsy, 25.0 for febrile convulsions, 22.8 for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 11.3 for myocarditis/pericarditis, 8.7 for pericarditis, 2.9 for myocarditis, 2.0 for Kawasaki disease, 1.9 for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and 1.7 for transverse myelitis. Females had higher rates of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis and anaphylaxis while males had higher rates of myocarditis, pericarditis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Bell's palsy, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome increased with age. The mean rates of myocarditis and/or pericarditis increased with age up to 79 years; males had higher rates than females: from 12 to 59 years for myocarditis and ≥12 years for pericarditis. Febrile convulsions and Kawasaki disease were predominantly childhood diseases and generally decreased with age. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimated background rates will permit estimating numbers of expected events for these conditions and facilitate detection of potential safety signals following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Bell Palsy/chemically induced , Bell Palsy/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/chemically induced , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/epidemiology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/chemically induced , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/chemically induced , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Myelitis, Transverse/chemically induced , Myelitis, Transverse/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Ontario/epidemiology , Pericarditis/chemically induced , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies , Seizures, Febrile/chemically induced , Seizures, Febrile/epidemiology
8.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(7): 2563-2573, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782803

ABSTRACT

Key aspects of the medical management of Kawasaki disease (KD) are not yet supported by a high evidence level, thus making room for individual recommendations. We performed a structured comparison of existing international KD guidelines to analyze potential differences in the implementation of evidence-based KD recommendations regarding diagnosis and therapy. To identify country-specific guidelines, we took a multilateral approach including a comprehensive PubMed literature, online research, and directly contacting national pediatric associations. We then ran a structured guidelines' analysis and evaluated the diagnostic and therapeutic differences in the context of evidence-based medicine. In this structured guideline analysis, we identified nine national and one European guidelines. According to them all, the diagnosis of KD still relies on its clinical presentation with no reliable biomarker recommended. First-line treatment consistently involves only intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. Recommendations in terms of acetylsalicylic acid, corticosteroids, and additional therapeutic options vary considerably. CONCLUSION: According to all guidelines, KD is diagnosed clinically with some variance in defining incomplete KD and being a non-responder to treatment. First-line treatment consistently includes IVIG. Recommendations for additional therapeutic strategies are more heterogeneous. WHAT IS KNOWN: • The diagnosis of KD relies on the clinical presentation, entailing challenges in timely diagnosis. • Other treatment options then IVIG are not supported by a high evidence level, making room for individual recommendations. WHAT IS NEW: • Definition of incomplete KD and being non-responsive to an initial treatment vary to some extent between the national guidelines. • Only IVIG is consistently proposed throughout all guidelines, further therapeutic recommendations vary between the national recommendations.


Subject(s)
Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Child , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy
12.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 28(2): e623-e625, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection produces a wide variety of inflammatory responses in children, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, which has similar clinical manifestations as Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS: We performed a chart review of all patients with KD-like illnesses from January 1, 2016, to May 31, 2020, at a tertiary care children's hospital within a larger health system. Relevant symptoms, comorbid illnesses, laboratory results, imaging studies, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed. Descriptive analyses to compare features over time were performed. RESULTS: We identified 81 cases of KD-like illnesses from January 1, 2016, to May 31, 2020. Few clinical features, such as gallbladder involvement, were more prevalent in 2020 than in previous years. A few patients in 2020 required more intensive treatment with interleukin 1 receptor antagonist therapy. There were no other clear differences in incidence, laboratory parameters, number of doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, or outcomes over the years of the study. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in incidence, laboratory parameters, or number of doses of intravenous immunoglobulin required for treatment of KD-like illnesses during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with previous years at our institution. Kawasaki disease-like illnesses, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, may not have changed substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Medical Records , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
13.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 58(6): 1069-1078, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699400

ABSTRACT

AIM: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may cause shock and even death in children. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features, laboratory characteristics and outcome of children diagnosed with MIS-C in 25 different hospitals in Turkey. METHODS: The retrospective study was conducted between 8 April and 28 October 2020 in 25 different hospitals from 17 cities. Data were collected from patients' medical records using a standardised form. Clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcomes according to different age groups, gender and body mass index percentiles were compared using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The study comprised 101 patients, median age 7 years (interquartile range (IQR) 4.6-9.3); 51 (50.5%) were boys. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was positive in 21/100 (21%) patients; 62/83 (74.6%) patients had positive serology for SARS-CoV-2. The predominant complaints were fever (100%), fatigue (n = 90, 89.1%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 81, 80.2%). Serum C-reactive protein (in 101 patients, median 165 mg/L; range 112-228), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (73/84, median 53 mm/s; IQR 30-84) and procalcitonin levels (86/89, median 5 µg/L; IQR 0.58-20.2) were elevated. Thirty-eight patients (37.6%) required admission to intensive care. Kawasaki disease (KD) was diagnosed in 70 (69.3%) patients, 40 of whom had classical KD. Most patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (n = 92, 91%) and glucocorticoids (n = 59, 58.4%). Seven patients (6.9%) died. CONCLUSION: The clinical spectrum of MIS-C is broad, but clinicians should consider MIS-C in the differential diagnosis when persistent fever, fatigue and gastrointestinal symptoms are prominent. Most patients diagnosed with MIS-C were previously healthy. Immunomodulatory treatment and supportive intensive care are important in the management of cases with MIS-C. Glucocorticoids and intravenous immunoglobulins are the most common immunomodulatory treatment options for MIS-C. Prompt diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential for optimal management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Fatigue , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Turkey/epidemiology
14.
Cardiol Young ; 32(3): 506-507, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692704

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is a new entity in association with SARS-CoV2. Clinical features of Kawasaki disease were noted from the first reported cases of MIS-C. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, Kawasaki disease shock syndrome was considered to be a distinct and unique form of KD. We present a representative case that prove the current difficulty in clearly distinguishing MIS-C from pre-COVID-19-KDSS and emphasie the overlap of the diagnostic criteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Shock , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
16.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 24(1): 1-11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1681785

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multisystem inflammatory disease in children (MIS-C) is a novel post-infectious phenomenon following coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Herein, we present an in-depth review of the latest MIS-C literature related to clinical findings, pathophysiology, imaging and laboratory studies, treatment algorithms, and disease outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: With its non-specific presentation of fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, cardiovascular injury and shock, systemic inflammation, and Kawasaki disease (KD)-like features, MIS-C can be a diagnostic challenge, overlapping with KD and active COVID-19 infection. However, common laboratory features, imaging findings, and historical clues can lead to accurate diagnosis and allow for appropriate treatment with a variety of immunomodulatory therapies, including intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Aggressive treatment of MIS-C leads to good outcomes. Longitudinal studies continue to illuminate long-term cardiac sequelae and recovery. MIS-C presents with fever, KD features, gastrointestinal symptoms, cardiac inflammation, and shock. Early recognition and prompt institution of IVIG and glucocorticoids provide for rapid improvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
17.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(5): 2031-2043, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669804

ABSTRACT

Multisystemic inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) diagnosis remains difficult because the clinical features overlap with Kawasaki disease (KD). The study aims to highlight the clinical and laboratory features and outcomes of patients with MISC whose clinical manifestations overlap with or without KD. This study is a retrospective analysis of a case series designed for patients aged 1 month to 18 years in 28 hospitals between November 1, 2020, and June 9, 2021. Patient demographics, complaints, laboratory results, echocardiographic results, system involvement, and outcomes were recorded. A total of 614 patients were enrolled; the median age was 7.4 years (interquartile range (IQR) 3.9-12 years). A total of 277 (45.1%) patients with MIS-C had manifestations that overlapped with KD, including 92 (33.3%) patients with complete KD and 185 (66.7%) with incomplete KD. Lymphocyte and platelet counts were significantly lower in patients with MISC, overlapped with KD (lymphocyte count 1080 vs. 1280 cells × µL, p = 0.028; platelet count 166 vs. 216 cells × 103/µL, p < 0.001). The median serum procalcitonin levels were statistically higher in patients overlapped with KD (3.18 vs. 1.68 µg/L, p = 0.001). Coronary artery dilatation was statistically significant in patients with overlap with KD (13.4% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.007), while myocarditis was significantly more common in patients without overlap with KD features (2.6% vs 7.4%, p = 0.009). The association between clinical and laboratory findings and overlap with KD was investigated. Age > 12 years reduced the risk of overlap with KD by 66% (p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.217-0.550), lethargy increased the risk of overlap with KD by 2.6-fold (p = 0.011, 95% CI 1.244-5.439), and each unit more albumin (g/dl) reduced the risk of overlap with KD by 60% (p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.298-0.559). CONCLUSION: Almost half of the patients with MISC had clinical features that overlapped with KD; in particular, incomplete KD was present. The median age was lower in patients with KD-like features. Lymphocyte and platelet counts were lower, and ferritin and procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in patients with overlap with KD. WHAT IS KNOWN: • In some cases of MIS-C, the clinical symptoms overlap with Kawasaki disease. • Compared to Kawasaki disease, lymphopenia was an independent predictor of MIS-C. WHAT IS NEW: • Half of the patients had clinical features that overlapped with Kawasaki disease. • In patients whose clinical features overlapped with KD, procalcitonin levels were almost 15 times higher than normal. • Lethargy increased the risk of overlap with KD by 2.6-fold in MIS-C patients. • Transient bradycardia was noted in approximately 10% of our patients after initiation of treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Lethargy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2147363, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669330

ABSTRACT

Importance: Infections are proposed to be triggering factors for Kawasaki disease (KD), although its etiological factors remain unknown. Recent reports have indicated a 4- to 6-week lag between SARS-CoV-2 infection and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with a similar presentation to that of KD. Objective: To investigate the temporal correlation between KD and viral infections, focusing on respiratory viruses. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among individuals aged 0 to 19 years diagnosed with KD between January 2010 and September 2020 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. Data on infectious disease outbreaks from 2016 to 2019 were collected from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, Korean Influenza and Respiratory Virus Monitoring System, Korea Enteroviruses Surveillance System, and the Enteric Pathogens Active Surveillance Network in South Korea. Data were analyzed from December 2020 to October 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: National databases for infectious diseases were used for a time-series analysis of the correlation between viral infections and KD. The temporal correlation between infectious disease outbreaks and KD outbreaks was evaluated using the Granger causality test (G-test), which is a useful tool to estimate correlations between 2 time series of diseases based on time lags. Results: Overall, 53 424 individuals with KD were identified, including 22 510 (42.1%) females and 30 914 (57.9%) males and 44 276 individuals (82.9%) younger than 5 years. Intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant KD was identified in 9042 individuals (16.9%), and coronary artery abnormalities were identified in 384 individuals (0.7%). Of 14 infectious diseases included in the analyses, rhinovirus infection outbreaks were identified as significantly correlated at 1 to 3 months before KD outbreaks in South Korea (r = 0.3; 1 month: P < .001; 2 months: P < .001; 3 months: P < .001). Outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus infection were identified as significantly correlated with KD outbreaks by 2 months (r = 0.5; 2 months: P < .001). Additionally, varicella outbreaks were identified as significantly correlated at 2 and 3 months before KD outbreaks (r = 0.7; 2 months: P < .001; 3 months: P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study with a time series analysis of children and youth in South Korea with KD, respiratory infections caused by rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus and varicella outbreaks were significantly correlated with KD at 1 to 3 months before KD outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
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