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1.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(3): 623-632, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The association between dysregulated innate immune responses seen in Kawasaki disease (KD) with predisposition to Kawasaki-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) remains unclear. We aimed to compare the innate immunity transcriptome signature between COVID-19 and KD, and to analyze the interactions of these molecules with genes known to predispose to KD. METHODS: Transcriptome datasets of COVID-19 and KD cohorts (E-MTAB-9357, GSE-63881, GSE-68004) were downloaded from ArrayExpress for innate immune response analyses. Network analysis was used to determine enriched pathways of interactions. RESULTS: Upregulations of IRAK4, IFI16, STING, STAT3, PYCARD, CASP1, IFNAR1 and CD14 genes were observed in blood cells of acute SARS-CoV-2 infections with moderate severity. In the same patient group, increased expressions of TLR2, TLR7, IRF3, and CD36 were also noted in blood drawn a few days after COVID-19 diagnosis. Elevated blood PYCARD level was associated with severe COVID-19 in adults. Similar gene expression signature except differences in TLR8, NLRP3, STING and IRF3 levels was detected in KD samples. Network analysis on innate immune genes and genes associated with KD susceptibility identified enriched pathways of interactions. Furthermore, higher expression levels of KD susceptibility genes HLA-DOB, PELI1 and FCGR2A correlated with COVID-19 of different severities. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that most enriched innate immune response pathways were shared between transcriptomes of KD and COVID-19 with moderate severity. Genetic polymorphisms associated with innate immune dysregulation and KD susceptibility, together with variants in STING and STAT3, might predict COVID-19 severity and potentially susceptibility to COVID-19 related MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
3.
Cardiol Young ; 32(3): 506-507, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692704

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is a new entity in association with SARS-CoV2. Clinical features of Kawasaki disease were noted from the first reported cases of MIS-C. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, Kawasaki disease shock syndrome was considered to be a distinct and unique form of KD. We present a representative case that prove the current difficulty in clearly distinguishing MIS-C from pre-COVID-19-KDSS and emphasie the overlap of the diagnostic criteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Shock , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
5.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(5): 2031-2043, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669804

ABSTRACT

Multisystemic inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) diagnosis remains difficult because the clinical features overlap with Kawasaki disease (KD). The study aims to highlight the clinical and laboratory features and outcomes of patients with MISC whose clinical manifestations overlap with or without KD. This study is a retrospective analysis of a case series designed for patients aged 1 month to 18 years in 28 hospitals between November 1, 2020, and June 9, 2021. Patient demographics, complaints, laboratory results, echocardiographic results, system involvement, and outcomes were recorded. A total of 614 patients were enrolled; the median age was 7.4 years (interquartile range (IQR) 3.9-12 years). A total of 277 (45.1%) patients with MIS-C had manifestations that overlapped with KD, including 92 (33.3%) patients with complete KD and 185 (66.7%) with incomplete KD. Lymphocyte and platelet counts were significantly lower in patients with MISC, overlapped with KD (lymphocyte count 1080 vs. 1280 cells × µL, p = 0.028; platelet count 166 vs. 216 cells × 103/µL, p < 0.001). The median serum procalcitonin levels were statistically higher in patients overlapped with KD (3.18 vs. 1.68 µg/L, p = 0.001). Coronary artery dilatation was statistically significant in patients with overlap with KD (13.4% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.007), while myocarditis was significantly more common in patients without overlap with KD features (2.6% vs 7.4%, p = 0.009). The association between clinical and laboratory findings and overlap with KD was investigated. Age > 12 years reduced the risk of overlap with KD by 66% (p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.217-0.550), lethargy increased the risk of overlap with KD by 2.6-fold (p = 0.011, 95% CI 1.244-5.439), and each unit more albumin (g/dl) reduced the risk of overlap with KD by 60% (p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.298-0.559). CONCLUSION: Almost half of the patients with MISC had clinical features that overlapped with KD; in particular, incomplete KD was present. The median age was lower in patients with KD-like features. Lymphocyte and platelet counts were lower, and ferritin and procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in patients with overlap with KD. WHAT IS KNOWN: • In some cases of MIS-C, the clinical symptoms overlap with Kawasaki disease. • Compared to Kawasaki disease, lymphopenia was an independent predictor of MIS-C. WHAT IS NEW: • Half of the patients had clinical features that overlapped with Kawasaki disease. • In patients whose clinical features overlapped with KD, procalcitonin levels were almost 15 times higher than normal. • Lethargy increased the risk of overlap with KD by 2.6-fold in MIS-C patients. • Transient bradycardia was noted in approximately 10% of our patients after initiation of treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Lethargy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(6): 814-818, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649662

ABSTRACT

Patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) can develop clinical features resembling Kawasaki disease (KD). A full picture of MIS-C in East Asia which has higher incidence of KD than other regions remains unclear. We report on a 15-year-old Japanese boy with refractory MIS-C who was successfully treated with infliximab. A Japanese boy who was diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) before a month developed MIS-C with fulfilling six principal symptoms of KD. Laboratory data showed extreme hyperferritinemia (11,404 ng/mL), besides lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. The patient was refractory to initial therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG; 2 g/kg), aspirin, and prednisolone. He was therefore administered a second IVIG (2 g/kg) and infliximab (5 mg/kg) on days 7 and 8 from the onset of fever, respectively, which resulted in an improvement of clinical symptoms. Only four Japanese cases with MIS-C were reported and all of them were responsive to IVIG. The hyperferritinemia in this case was distinctive from previously reported MIS-C cases in Japan and other cohorts and may be associated with refractoriness to IVIG therapy. Marked elevation of circulating ferritin levels is known to be induced by tumor necrosis factor-α, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of both KD and MIS-C. Thus, for MIS-C patients with hyperferritinemia, early intervention with adjunctive infliximab may induce a more rapid resolution of inflammation and improve outcome. Because MIS-C may be heterogeneous with respect to immunopathology, genetic background, clinical phenotypes and response to therapies, optimized treatment strategies according to immunopathogenesis are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Hyperferritinemia , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Japan , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23562, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623168

ABSTRACT

During the winter months of 2020/2021 a wave of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged in Poland. We present the results of a nationwide register aiming to capture and characterise MIS-C with a focus on severity determinants. The first MIS-C wave in Poland was notably high, hence our analysis involved 274 children. The group was 62.8% boys, with a median age of 8.8 years. Besides one Asian, all were White. Overall, the disease course was not as severe as in previous reports, however. Pediatric intensive care treatment was required for merely 23 (8.4%) of children, who were older and exhibited a distinguished clinical picture at hospital admission. We have also identified sex-dependent differences; teenage boys more often had cardiac involvement (decreased ejection fraction in 25.9% vs. 14.7%) and fulfilled macrophage activation syndrome definition (31.0% vs. 15.2%). Among all boys, those hospitalized in pediatric intensive care unit were significantly older (median 11.2 vs. 9.1 years). Henceforth, while ethnicity and sex may affect MIS-C phenotype, management protocols might be not universally applicable, and should rather be adjusted to the specific population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Prevalence , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
9.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 571, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki Disease (KD) is the most common childhood vasculitis and cause of acquired heart disease for no apparent reason. There is some evidence indicating infectious agents as possible triggers for KD. During the COVID-19 pandemic, vasculitis has been a presentation of COVID-19 in children. We performed this study to assess the association between KD and COVID-19. We evaluated KD hospitalized children during February to September 2020 for COVID-19 (group one) and compared their demographic, clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic findings with KD patients from the same period time in 2019 (group two). We also compared the same data in COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative KD patients in 2020 pandemic period in Shiraz Namazi referral hospital at southwest of Iran. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients in group one compared with 44 patients in group two. Sixty-eight percent of group one KD patients were positive for COVID-19 during the pandemic period. KD Age of onset in the group one was lower than group two (4.38 years VS 5.5 years, P-value = 0.044). There was no difference in the demographic, clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic features of the patients during and before the COVID-19 pandemic (p-value > 0.05). Moreover, Comparing COVID-19 positive and negative the incidence of rash was higher within COVID-19 positive cases (p < 0.05), and coronary artery abnormalities were more prevalent in COVID-19 negative cases (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Admission rate of KD was almost similar during the COVID-19 pandemic but 68% of KD admitted patient were COVID-19 positive. Age of onset for KD during the COVID-19 pandemic was lower and skin manifestation was higher than the same period time in last year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Age of Onset , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e933356, 2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute inflammatory vasculitis, which occurs mostly in childhood, predominantly between the ages of 6 months and 5 years. The incidence of coronary artery abnormalities associated with KD has decreased from 25% to 4% as a result of timely diagnosis and treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Infants ≤6 months of age are the most likely to develop prolonged fever without the other clinical criteria for KD, and diagnosis can sometimes be challenging or delayed. They are therefore at particularly high risk of developing coronary artery abnormalities. CASE REPORT A 2-month-old male infant with no significant medical history initially presented with a history of nasal congestion, right conjunctivitis, red lips, and 1 loose stool in the pre-COVID-19 era. He was diagnosed with otitis media and was started on oral amoxicillin. By day 7 of fever, he had developed symptoms and signs and laboratory findings consistent with Kawasaki disease, which is rare in this age group. His echocardiogram showed dilated proximal left anterior descending and right coronary arteries. He was successfully treated, and his most recent echocardiogram, performed 17 months after his treatment, showed remarkable improvement in the coronary arteries. CONCLUSIONS Kawasaki disease in children less than 6 months of age is still rare, and the presentation can sometimes make the diagnosis somewhat challenging. Increased clinical suspicion is required for recognition in the youngest patients, as they are more likely to present with few features of KD. Early diagnosis and treatment are needed to prevent or minimize the risk of significant coronary artery abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Child , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Dilatation , Humans , Infant , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Ghana Med J ; 55(2 Suppl): 64-67, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502655

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019 has seen evolving data reporting infrequent infection in children and mostly mild disease for children who contract the infection. A severe form of COVID-19 in children recently reported in Europe and North America describes a multisystem inflammation syndrome in children (MIS-C), presenting as toxic-shock-like and Kawasaki-like syndromes. Data on MIS-C in Africa is being documented with recent reports from South Africa and Nigeria in black children, but information on MIS-C in Ghana is yet to be characterized. We report the first case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in a child who tested PCR positive to SARS-CoV2 in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. The case describes a 10-year-old boy who reported Kawasaki-like syndrome without shock but with moderate respiratory distress requiring supportive acute care without the need for intensive care. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
13.
J Pediatr ; 240: 292-296, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490349

ABSTRACT

We compared cardiac findings in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and Kawasaki disease in the first 6 months of the 2020 coronavirus disease pandemic to patients with Kawasaki disease during 2016-2019. We saw a high rate of coronary aneurysms in 2020, with a similar rate of coronary involvement but greater volume and incidence of cardiac dysfunction compared with previous years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Aneurysm/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronary Aneurysm/complications , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Los Angeles , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
14.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(1): 123-137, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441963

ABSTRACT

The immunopathogenesis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in children that may follow exposure to SARS-CoV-2 is incompletely understood. Here, we studied SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in MIS-C, Kawasaki disease (KD), and SARS-CoV-2 convalescent controls using peptide pools derived from SARS-CoV-2 spike or nonspike proteins, and common cold coronaviruses (CCC). Coordinated CD4+ and CD8+ SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were detected in five MIS-C subjects with cross-reactivity to CCC. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses alone were documented in three and one subjects, respectively. T-cell specificities in MIS-C did not correlate with disease severity and were similar to SARS-CoV-2 convalescent controls. T-cell memory and cross-reactivity to CCC in MIS-C and SARS-CoV-2 convalescent controls were also similar. The chemokine receptor CCR6, but not CCR9, was highly expressed on SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ but not on CD8+ T cells. Only two of 10 KD subjects showed a T-cell response to CCC. Enumeration of myeloid APCs revealed low cell precursors in MIS-C subjects compared to KD. In summary, children with MIS-C mount a normal T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 with no apparent relationship to antecedent CCC exposure. Low numbers of tolerogenic myeloid DCs may impair their anti-inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Immunity, Cellular , Immunologic Memory , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology
15.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(12): 3688-3698, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439708

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been described to partially overlap with Kawasaki disease (KD) with regard to clinical symptoms, but they are unlikely to share the same disease entity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the laboratory parameters of MIS-C compared with those of KD and Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS). Databases were searched for studies on laboratory parameters of MIS-C (hematology, inflammatory markers, cardiac markers, and biochemistry) through May 31, 2021. Twelve studies with 3073 participants yielded 969 MIS-C patients. In terms of hematology, MIS-C patients had lower levels of leukocytes, absolute lymphocyte count and platelet count (PLT) than KD patients and had similar absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. In terms of inflammatory markers, MIS-C patients had higher levels of C-reactive protein, D-dimer and ferritin than KD patients and had similar levels of procalcitonin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). In terms of cardiac markers, MIS-C patients had higher CPK levels than KD patients. The levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, troponin and aspartate aminotransferase were not significantly different between MIS-C and KD patients. In terms of biochemistry, MIS-C patients had lower levels of albumin, sodium and alanine aminotransferase and higher levels of creatinine than KD patients. In addition, MIS-C patients had lower levels of PLT, Hb and ESR and higher levels of ANC than KDSS patients. Measurement of laboratory parameters might assist clinicians with accurate evaluation of MIS-C and further mechanistic research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Laboratories , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
16.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(5): 879-889, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400097

ABSTRACT

To compare the clinical and laboratory findings of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) and with macrophage activating syndrome due to systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA-MAS) on real-life data. Patients diagnosed with MIS-C, KD, and sJIA-MAS from 12 different centers in Turkey who were followed for at least 6 months were included in the study. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings of all patients were analyzed. A total of 154 MIS-C, 59 KD, and 31 sJIA-MAS patients were included. The median age of patients with MIS-C were higher than those with KD while lower than those with sJIA-MAS (8.2, 3, 12 years, respectively). Myalgia (39.6%), cardiac (50.6%), gastrointestinal (72.7%), and neurological (22.1%) involvements were more common in patients with MIS-C compared to others. MIS-C patients had lower levels of lymphocyte (950 vs 1700 cells/µl) and thrombocyte (173,000 vs 355,000 cells/µl) counts and higher pro-BNP (1108 vs 55 pg/ml) levels than KD. Ferritin levels were higher in patients with MIS-C compared to patients with KD while they were lower than patients with sJIA-MAS (440, 170, 10,442 ng/ml, respectively). Patients with MIS-C had a shorter duration of hospitalization than sJIA-MAS (p = 0.02) while they required intensive care unit admission more frequently (55 vs 8 patients, p < 0.001). The median MAS/sJIA score of MIS-C patients was - 1.64 (- 5.23 to 9.68) and the median MAS/sJIA score of sJIA-MAS patients was -2.81 ([- 3.79] to [- 1.27]). MIS-C patients displayed certain differences in clinical and laboratory features when compared to KD and sJIA-MAS. Definition of the differences and similarities between MIS-C and the other intense inflammatory syndromes of childhood such as KD and MAS will help the clinicians while making timely diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Arthritis, Juvenile/complications , Arthritis, Juvenile/diagnosis , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Child , Ferritins , Humans , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Macrophages , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e407-e412, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis of young children. A comparison of US hospitalization rates and epidemiologic features of KD in 2020 to those of precoronavirus disease years has yet to be reported. METHODS: Using a large, inpatient database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study and analyzed data for patients with (1) diagnosis coding for KD, (2) IV immunoglobulin treatment administered during hospitalization and (3) discharge date between January 1, 2016, and December 30, 2020. Severe cases were defined as those requiring adjunctive therapy or IV immunoglobulin-resistant therapy. RESULTS: The annual number of KD hospitalizations were stable from 2016 to 2019 (n = 1652, 1796, 1748, 1692, respectively) but decreased in 2020 (n = 1383). KD hospitalizations demonstrated seasonal variation with an annual peak between December and April. A second peak of KD admissions was observed in May 2020. The proportion of KD cases classified as severe increased to 40% in 2020 from 33% during the years 2016-2019 (P < 0.01). Median age in years increased from 2.9 in subjects hospitalized from 2016 to 2019 to 3.2 in 2020 (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the previous 4 years, the annual number of pediatric KD admissions decreased, and children discharged with diagnostic codes for KD in 2020 were generally older and more likely to have severe morbidity possibly reflective of misdiagnosed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Clinicians should be wary of a possible rise in KD rates in the postcoronavirus disease 2019 era as social distancing policies are lifted and other viruses associated with KD return.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Mortality , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/history , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index
19.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(7): 135-137, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317407

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis of unknown cause affecting children under 5 years of age. It is thought to be triggered by several viruses. Recently, Kawasaki-like disease has been reported worldwide in patients with COVID-19, giving rise to a new term of multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We report a case of a previously healthy 7-year boy, referred to our hospital with provisional diagnosis of measles due to generalised erythematous, maculopapular rash and conjunctivitis. On detailed evaluation, the patient fulfilled the clinical and laboratory criteria of MIS-C, and COVID-19 antibodies were positive. He was treated successfully with high dose of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and methylprednisolone. Patient was followed one week later with repeat echocardiography, which showed improvement. In conclusion, early recognition and timely treatment can prevent adverse outcomes in MIS-C. Key Words: COVID-19, Kawasaki disease, MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
20.
Cardiol Young ; 32(3): 506-507, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316693

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is a new entity in association with SARS-CoV2. Clinical features of Kawasaki disease were noted from the first reported cases of MIS-C. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, Kawasaki disease shock syndrome was considered to be a distinct and unique form of KD. We present a representative case that prove the current difficulty in clearly distinguishing MIS-C from pre-COVID-19-KDSS and emphasie the overlap of the diagnostic criteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Shock , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
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