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3.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 28(2): e623-e625, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection produces a wide variety of inflammatory responses in children, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, which has similar clinical manifestations as Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS: We performed a chart review of all patients with KD-like illnesses from January 1, 2016, to May 31, 2020, at a tertiary care children's hospital within a larger health system. Relevant symptoms, comorbid illnesses, laboratory results, imaging studies, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed. Descriptive analyses to compare features over time were performed. RESULTS: We identified 81 cases of KD-like illnesses from January 1, 2016, to May 31, 2020. Few clinical features, such as gallbladder involvement, were more prevalent in 2020 than in previous years. A few patients in 2020 required more intensive treatment with interleukin 1 receptor antagonist therapy. There were no other clear differences in incidence, laboratory parameters, number of doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, or outcomes over the years of the study. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in incidence, laboratory parameters, or number of doses of intravenous immunoglobulin required for treatment of KD-like illnesses during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with previous years at our institution. Kawasaki disease-like illnesses, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, may not have changed substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Medical Records , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2147363, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669330

ABSTRACT

Importance: Infections are proposed to be triggering factors for Kawasaki disease (KD), although its etiological factors remain unknown. Recent reports have indicated a 4- to 6-week lag between SARS-CoV-2 infection and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with a similar presentation to that of KD. Objective: To investigate the temporal correlation between KD and viral infections, focusing on respiratory viruses. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among individuals aged 0 to 19 years diagnosed with KD between January 2010 and September 2020 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. Data on infectious disease outbreaks from 2016 to 2019 were collected from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, Korean Influenza and Respiratory Virus Monitoring System, Korea Enteroviruses Surveillance System, and the Enteric Pathogens Active Surveillance Network in South Korea. Data were analyzed from December 2020 to October 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: National databases for infectious diseases were used for a time-series analysis of the correlation between viral infections and KD. The temporal correlation between infectious disease outbreaks and KD outbreaks was evaluated using the Granger causality test (G-test), which is a useful tool to estimate correlations between 2 time series of diseases based on time lags. Results: Overall, 53 424 individuals with KD were identified, including 22 510 (42.1%) females and 30 914 (57.9%) males and 44 276 individuals (82.9%) younger than 5 years. Intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant KD was identified in 9042 individuals (16.9%), and coronary artery abnormalities were identified in 384 individuals (0.7%). Of 14 infectious diseases included in the analyses, rhinovirus infection outbreaks were identified as significantly correlated at 1 to 3 months before KD outbreaks in South Korea (r = 0.3; 1 month: P < .001; 2 months: P < .001; 3 months: P < .001). Outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus infection were identified as significantly correlated with KD outbreaks by 2 months (r = 0.5; 2 months: P < .001). Additionally, varicella outbreaks were identified as significantly correlated at 2 and 3 months before KD outbreaks (r = 0.7; 2 months: P < .001; 3 months: P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study with a time series analysis of children and youth in South Korea with KD, respiratory infections caused by rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus and varicella outbreaks were significantly correlated with KD at 1 to 3 months before KD outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
5.
APMIS ; 130(2): 101-110, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650387

ABSTRACT

In the milieu of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there are increasing reports of paediatric hyperinflammatory conditions (PHICs), including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) and Kawasaki disease (KD). Few analyses of PHIC prevalence in paediatric and adolescent hospitalized COVID-19 patients exist. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to determine a pooled prevalence estimate of PHICs in paediatric and adolescent hospitalized patients admitted for treatment due to COVID-19. Individual studies were retrieved from PubMed/Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Relevant prevalence, baseline, treatment and outcome data were extracted using a standardized datasheet. The systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted as per the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Overall, 14 studies with 2202 patients admitted for treatment due to COVID-19, among whom 780 were diagnosed with PHICs, were included. The crude estimate of prevalence was 35.42%, and the pooled estimate of prevalence was 29% (random pooled ES = 0.29; 95% CIs = 0.18-0.42; p < 0.0001; z = 7.45). A sizeable proportion of paediatric and adolescent hospitalized patients admitted for treatment due to COVID-19 are diagnosed with a PHIC warranting a high index of clinical suspicion for PHICs. Further studies are required to validate these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23562, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623168

ABSTRACT

During the winter months of 2020/2021 a wave of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged in Poland. We present the results of a nationwide register aiming to capture and characterise MIS-C with a focus on severity determinants. The first MIS-C wave in Poland was notably high, hence our analysis involved 274 children. The group was 62.8% boys, with a median age of 8.8 years. Besides one Asian, all were White. Overall, the disease course was not as severe as in previous reports, however. Pediatric intensive care treatment was required for merely 23 (8.4%) of children, who were older and exhibited a distinguished clinical picture at hospital admission. We have also identified sex-dependent differences; teenage boys more often had cardiac involvement (decreased ejection fraction in 25.9% vs. 14.7%) and fulfilled macrophage activation syndrome definition (31.0% vs. 15.2%). Among all boys, those hospitalized in pediatric intensive care unit were significantly older (median 11.2 vs. 9.1 years). Henceforth, while ethnicity and sex may affect MIS-C phenotype, management protocols might be not universally applicable, and should rather be adjusted to the specific population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Prevalence , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
9.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 571, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki Disease (KD) is the most common childhood vasculitis and cause of acquired heart disease for no apparent reason. There is some evidence indicating infectious agents as possible triggers for KD. During the COVID-19 pandemic, vasculitis has been a presentation of COVID-19 in children. We performed this study to assess the association between KD and COVID-19. We evaluated KD hospitalized children during February to September 2020 for COVID-19 (group one) and compared their demographic, clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic findings with KD patients from the same period time in 2019 (group two). We also compared the same data in COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative KD patients in 2020 pandemic period in Shiraz Namazi referral hospital at southwest of Iran. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients in group one compared with 44 patients in group two. Sixty-eight percent of group one KD patients were positive for COVID-19 during the pandemic period. KD Age of onset in the group one was lower than group two (4.38 years VS 5.5 years, P-value = 0.044). There was no difference in the demographic, clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic features of the patients during and before the COVID-19 pandemic (p-value > 0.05). Moreover, Comparing COVID-19 positive and negative the incidence of rash was higher within COVID-19 positive cases (p < 0.05), and coronary artery abnormalities were more prevalent in COVID-19 negative cases (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Admission rate of KD was almost similar during the COVID-19 pandemic but 68% of KD admitted patient were COVID-19 positive. Age of onset for KD during the COVID-19 pandemic was lower and skin manifestation was higher than the same period time in last year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Age of Onset , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Microvasc Res ; 140: 104269, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473424

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis with possible long-term impact of general cardio-vascular health. An endothelial glycocalyx disorder during the disease's acute phase might predispose to long-term vascular anomalies leading to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. To investigate any association between increased cardiovascular risk and endothelial glycocalyx, we assessed circulating glycocalyx components in patients with a KD history, and analysed their association with acute-phase clinical features and more importantly, with patients' current cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study included 51 subjects: 31 patients with a history of KD, and 20 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. We analysed serum syndecan-1 and hyaluronan via ELISA. We assessed features reported during the acute phase of KD such as blood counts, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and coronary artery aneurysms (CAA), and their current blood pressure and lipid markers in relation to measured glycocalyx components. RESULTS: Our multivariate analysis revealed that hyaluronan and syndecan-1 levels were not associated with KD. However, the latter exhibited a significant association with acute-phase blood count alterations in patients with KD. Furthermore, significant interactions of hyaluronan and syndecan-1 with certain cardiovascular risk factors like blood lipids and blood pressure were only present in KD patients. CONCLUSION: Vasculitis during KD's acute phase might predispose to a long-term endothelial glycocalyx alteration, influenced by other factors having a vascular impact such as blood pressure and circulating lipids. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register on 25th February 2016, DRKS00010071 https://www.drks.de/drks_web/.


Subject(s)
Coronary Aneurysm/blood , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Glycocalyx/metabolism , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Syndecan-1/blood , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Pressure , Child , Coronary Aneurysm/diagnosis , Coronary Aneurysm/epidemiology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Female , Glycocalyx/pathology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid/blood , Incidence , Lipids/blood , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Young Adult
11.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 17(12): 731-748, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493129

ABSTRACT

Children and adolescents infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are predominantly asymptomatic or have mild symptoms compared with the more severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) described in adults. However, SARS-CoV-2 is also associated with a widely reported but poorly understood paediatric systemic vasculitis. This multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has features that overlap with myocarditis, toxic-shock syndrome and Kawasaki disease. Current evidence indicates that MIS-C is the result of an exaggerated innate and adaptive immune response, characterized by a cytokine storm, and that it is triggered by prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Epidemiological, clinical and immunological differences classify MIS-C as being distinct from Kawasaki disease. Differences include the age range, and the geographical and ethnic distribution of patients. MIS-C is associated with prominent gastrointestinal and cardiovascular system involvement, admission to intensive care unit, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, high levels of IFNγ and low counts of naive CD4+ T cells, with a high proportion of activated memory T cells. Further investigation of MIS-C will continue to enhance our understanding of similar conditions associated with a cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Epidemiol ; 31(11): 573-580, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease is suspected to be triggered by previous infection. The prevention measures for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have reportedly reduced transmission of certain infectious diseases. Under these circumstances, the prevention measures for COVID-19 may reduce the incidence of Kawasaki disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using registration datasets of patients with Kawasaki disease who were diagnosed in all 11 inpatient pediatric facilities in Yamanashi Prefecture. The eligible cases were 595 cases that were diagnosed before the COVID-19 pandemic (from January 2015 through February 2020) and 38 cases that were diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic (from March through November 2020). Incidence of several infectious disease were evaluated using data from the Infectious Disease Weekly Report conducted by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. RESULTS: Epidemics of various infectious diseases generally remained at low levels during the first 9 months (March through November 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the incidence of COVID-19 was 50-80 times lower than the incidence in European countries and the United States. The total number of 38 cases with Kawasaki disease for the 9 months during the COVID-19 pandemic was 46.3% (-3.5 standard deviations [SDs] of the average [82.0; SD, 12.7 cases] for the corresponding 9 months of the previous 5 years. None of the 38 cases was determined to be triggered by COVID-19 based on their medical histories and negative results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 testing at admission. CONCLUSION: These observations provide a new epidemiological evidence for the notion that Kawasaki disease is triggered by major infectious diseases in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
13.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103199, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2. OBJECTIVE: To study the demographic and clinical presentations of COVID-19 with their types including MIS-C and Kawasaki among children who were admitted to Doctor Jamal Ahmad Rashid Pediatric Teaching Hospital (DJARPTH) at Sulaimaniyah city, Iraq. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted from June to December 2020 in which 50 cases suspected of COVID-19 were enrolled in the study that was admitted at the first visit to the emergency department of DJARPTH and their age ranged between 3 months to 14 years. Then, the collected data were divided into 3 groups: COVID-19, Kawasaki disease (KD), and MIS-C. RESULTS: The fever was the most common presented symptom in all cases with COVID-19 regardless of the severity. COVID-19 may be presented as KD as well as MIS-C. There is an increase in the number of Kawasaki cases since 2019 by 6.7 fold due to the increased number of COVID-19 cases in children. Death was more related to MIS-C and primary COVID-19 diseases. Most COVID-19 cases presented with pericardial effusion; although coronary involvement and LV dysfunction mostly seen with MIS-C cases. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is not uncommon in pediatric patients and it presents as either primary, MIS-C, and KD. Most of the deaths and ICU outcomes were related to MIS-C presentations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Iraq/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e407-e412, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis of young children. A comparison of US hospitalization rates and epidemiologic features of KD in 2020 to those of precoronavirus disease years has yet to be reported. METHODS: Using a large, inpatient database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study and analyzed data for patients with (1) diagnosis coding for KD, (2) IV immunoglobulin treatment administered during hospitalization and (3) discharge date between January 1, 2016, and December 30, 2020. Severe cases were defined as those requiring adjunctive therapy or IV immunoglobulin-resistant therapy. RESULTS: The annual number of KD hospitalizations were stable from 2016 to 2019 (n = 1652, 1796, 1748, 1692, respectively) but decreased in 2020 (n = 1383). KD hospitalizations demonstrated seasonal variation with an annual peak between December and April. A second peak of KD admissions was observed in May 2020. The proportion of KD cases classified as severe increased to 40% in 2020 from 33% during the years 2016-2019 (P < 0.01). Median age in years increased from 2.9 in subjects hospitalized from 2016 to 2019 to 3.2 in 2020 (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the previous 4 years, the annual number of pediatric KD admissions decreased, and children discharged with diagnostic codes for KD in 2020 were generally older and more likely to have severe morbidity possibly reflective of misdiagnosed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Clinicians should be wary of a possible rise in KD rates in the postcoronavirus disease 2019 era as social distancing policies are lifted and other viruses associated with KD return.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Mortality , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/history , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(11): 3063-3068, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334426

ABSTRACT

AIM: We investigated whether the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic was associated with the occurrence of Kawasaki disease or with multi-inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This national Finnish register-based study was based on laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, MIS-C and Kawasaki disease cases. We performed a time series analysis on the occurrence of Kawasaki disease in 2016-2020. RESULTS: In 2020, there were 5170 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases in children under 18 years of age and five fulfilled the MIS-C case definition. The occurrence of MIS-C was 0.97 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-2.26) laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in children. Our time series analysis showed that Kawasaki disease cases decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic. The seasonally adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0.49 (95% confidence interval: 0.32-0.74) when it was compared to pre-pandemic levels. This coincided with a reduced occurrence of respiratory infections, due to social distancing in the population. CONCLUSION: This nationwide register-based study found that MIS-C was a rare complication of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The occurrence of Kawasaki disease and respiratory infections decreased during the pandemic. This suggests that transmissible microbes may play an important role in Kawasaki disease and social distancing may have a protective effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
16.
J Pediatr ; 239: 50-58.e2, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330999

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiologic association between Kawasaki disease and common pediatric infectious diseases (PIDs) identified during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic period to confirm whether the infection-triggered theory is a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective epidemiologic study was conducted using datasets obtained from Web-based surveillance of Kawasaki disease and PIDs in Japan. We compared weekly numbers of patients who developed Kawasaki disease and specific PIDs between 2020 and 2017-2019 and evaluated the association between the percent reduction in the number of patients with these diseases. RESULTS: A total of 868 patients developed Kawasaki disease in 2020. During the social distancing period in 2020, the number of patients with Kawasaki disease was approximately 35% lower than in 2017-2019. Time from the onset of Kawasaki disease until the first hospital visit did not differ significantly among the examined years. The proportion of older children with Kawasaki disease decreased more than that of infants with Kawasaki disease (age <1 year), resulting in a significant difference in the proportion of infant patients between 2020 and 2017-2019 (24% vs 19%; P < .01). The number of patients with incomplete Kawasaki disease was unchanged from that of previous years. The weekly percent reduction in patient numbers differed between Kawasaki disease and PIDs during 2020, with no strong correlation between the 2 diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that parents of patients with Kawasaki disease did not avoid hospital visits during the COVID-19 pandemic period. The findings indicate the possibility that triggering Kawasaki disease might be associated with presently unidentified respiratory pathogen(s) that potentially might be acquired from both within and outside the household.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
17.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 33(5): 378-386, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309638

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review diagnosis, clinical characteristics and treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). RECENT FINDINGS: MIS-C emerged in spring 2020 as a hyperinflammatory syndrome following SARS-CoV-2 exposure in children. Despite growing awareness of MIS-C, diagnosis remains challenging due to the range of phenotypes and severity. Fever accompanied by shock, cardiac dysfunction, gastrointestinal symptoms, or mucocutaneous signs suggestive of Kawasaki disease, especially in the presence of known or suspected coronavirus disease 2019 exposure, should trigger consideration of MIS-C. However, clinical presentations are highly varied and may overlap with other infectious diseases. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for MIS-C and be aware that patients may develop coronary artery aneurysms and myocarditis even with few or no Kawasaki disease symptoms. More precise diagnostic criteria and specific biomarkers are needed to aid diagnosis. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is first-line therapy, and steroids should be considered as initial adjunctive treatment for patients with severe manifestations or other risk factors. Prompt treatment is essential, as patients may worsen acutely, though overall prognosis is reassuring. SUMMARY: MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 has varied clinical manifestations. Clinicians must be aware of the common presentation and potential for decompensation and cardiac sequalae to guide appropriate evaluation and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(10): e383-e384, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251715

ABSTRACT

We conducted a cohort study to estimate the impact of social distancing on incidence of Kawasaki disease (KD) in Korean children, using the nationally representative data. The KD-related hospitalization rate has declined significantly from -38.8% (April) to 81.7% (June). The decrease in diagnosis of KD adds clue for infectious etiology of KD and the establishment of preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
19.
World J Pediatr ; 17(3): 263-271, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of Kawasaki disease (KD) and concurrent pathogens due to a stay-at-home isolation policy during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS: All patients with KD admitted between February and April in 2015-2020, were classified into before (group 1, in 2015-2019) and after (group 2, in 2020) isolation groups. A total of 4742 patients [with KD (n = 98) and non-KD (n = 4644)] referred to Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and virus detection were analyzed in 2020. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and 13 pathogens were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Group 2 had a significantly increased incidence of KD (0.11%) with 107 patients compared to that of group 1 (0.03%) with 493 patients. The comparisons of oral mucosal change, strawberry tongue, desquamation of the fingertips, cervical lymphadenopathy and neutrophil percentage decreased in group 2 compared to group 1. The infection rate of MP increased significantly in group 2 (34.7%) compared to group 1 (19.3%), while the positive rate of viruses decreased significantly in group 2 (5.3%) compared to group 1 (14.3%). In 2020, the positive rate of MP infection increased significantly in patients with KD compared to the increase in patients with non-KD. The infection rate of MP for younger children aged less than 3 years old was higher in group 2 than in group 1. CONCLUSION: Compared with the characteristics of KD from 2015 to 2019 years, the incidence of KD was increased in 2020 and was accompanied by a high incidence of MP infection, especially in younger children (less than 3 years old) during the isolation due to COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology
20.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 28(2): e623-e625, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection produces a wide variety of inflammatory responses in children, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, which has similar clinical manifestations as Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS: We performed a chart review of all patients with KD-like illnesses from January 1, 2016, to May 31, 2020, at a tertiary care children's hospital within a larger health system. Relevant symptoms, comorbid illnesses, laboratory results, imaging studies, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed. Descriptive analyses to compare features over time were performed. RESULTS: We identified 81 cases of KD-like illnesses from January 1, 2016, to May 31, 2020. Few clinical features, such as gallbladder involvement, were more prevalent in 2020 than in previous years. A few patients in 2020 required more intensive treatment with interleukin 1 receptor antagonist therapy. There were no other clear differences in incidence, laboratory parameters, number of doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, or outcomes over the years of the study. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in incidence, laboratory parameters, or number of doses of intravenous immunoglobulin required for treatment of KD-like illnesses during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with previous years at our institution. Kawasaki disease-like illnesses, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, may not have changed substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Medical Records , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
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