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1.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 88(2): 31-37, 2023.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the dynamics of symptoms in patients with COVID-19 associated sino-orbital mucormycosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We describe a series of 13 patients with COVID-19 associated sino-orbital mucormycosis aged 43 to 80 years diagnosed from August to October 2021. All of the patients had a severe disease and required noninvasive ventilation or intubation and administration of dexamethasone. 12 out of 13 patients (92.3%) suffered from diabetes mellitus. Symptoms of fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses appeared in the interval from 7 to 25 days of hospital stay, most often in the second week (from 8 to 12 days). According to clinical and CT features the patients were divided into three groups, combining similar phenotypes of the disease. Group 1 - 1 patient with sinonasal mucormycosis, destruction of the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. Group 2 - 12 patients with sino-orbital mucormycosis. We noted, that in cases of bilateral sinus lesions orbital complications were unilateral in all patients, on the side of more severe lesion. Group 2 was divided into 2 subgroups: subgroup 2a included 2 patients with the superior orbital fissure syndrome: ptosis, proptosis, ophthalmoplegia, periorbital pain, pain or hypoesthesia of half face; subgroup 2b included 10 patients with the orbital apex syndrome, who, in addition to the above symptoms, had loss of vision and conjunctival chemosis. Group 3 - rhino-sino-cerebral mucormycosis. 2 patients from subgroup 2b were transferred to this group due to the intracranial spread of the process and focal neurological symptoms. CONCLUSION: Clinical forms of mucormycosis reflect successive stages of invasive spread of fungi.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exophthalmos , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Paranasal Sinuses , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/therapy , Orbital Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis
2.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 81(5): 221-225, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232586

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is a rare disease with a significant mortality rate, even when promptly diagnosed and treated. An unusual complication was observed in India during the second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Two incidences of gastric mucormycosis were found. A 53-year-old male patient with a history of COVID-19 one month earlier came into the intensive care unit. After admission, the patient developed hematemesis, which was initially treated with blood transfusions and digital subtraction angiography embolization. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a large ulcer with a clot in the stomach. During an exploratory laparotomy, the proximal stomach was necrotic. Histopathological examination confirmed mucormycosis. The patient was started on antifungals, but despite rigorous therapy, the patient died on the tenth postoperative day. Another patient, an 82-year-old male with a history of COVID-19, arrived with hematemesis two weeks earlier and was treated conservatively. EGD revealed a large white-based ulcer with abundant slough along the larger curvature of the body. Mucormycosis was verified by biopsy. He was treated with amphotericin B and isavuconazole. He was discharged after two weeks in a stable condition. Despite quick detection and aggressive treatment, the prognosis is poor. In the second case, prompt diagnosis and treatment saved the patient's life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hematemesis/etiology , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Ulcer , COVID-19/complications , Fungi
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 898477, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235279

ABSTRACT

A fatal case of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) affected a 40-year-old woman who was initially admitted to our hospital due to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Her clinical condition worsened, and she finally died because of respiratory failure, hemodynamic instability, and mucormycosis with invasion into the orbit and probably the brain. According to DNA sequence analysis of the fungus isolated from the patient, Apophysomyces variabilis was involved. This is the first published case of CAM and the third case of mucormycosis due to this mold.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Humans , Female , Adult , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Mucorales/genetics , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
4.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 37(8): e24895, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised and COVID-19 patients. CASE REPORT: Here, we report a fatal rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis caused by Lichtheimia ramosa, in a 79-year-old diabetic female. She was initially admitted to the hospital for COVID-19 infection and received broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids. After 1 month, she was admitted again because of persistent headaches and decreased right eye movement when the computed tomography scan showed mucosal thickening and opacification of paranasal sinuses. Microbiological investigations, including culture and direct microscopy, and histopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of proven mucormycosis. The isolated causal agent was identified as Lichtheimia ramosa by sequencing the entire ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Despite surgical debridement and administration of liposomal amphotericin B 5 mg/kg/day, the patient's level of consciousness suddenly deteriorated; she was intubated and mechanically ventilated in the ICU and died on the same day. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first worldwide case of COVID-19-associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis due to Lichtheimia ramosa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Humans , Female , Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Antifungal Agents , COVID-19/complications
5.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 12(1): 16-20, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311237

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate patient profiles of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) cases with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) postcoronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: A nonrandomized retrospective case-control study. METHODS: The ROCM cases presenting with CRAO were compared with a control ROCM group without CRAO at a tertiary care center. Demography, systemic status, clinical features, histopathology, imaging, and blood profile were assessed for any specific risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 12 patients were seen in the CRAO group and 16 in the non-CRAO group. The male-to-female ratio was 3:1 with a mean age of 49.5 years. In the CRAO group, 75% had diabetes mellitus with mean hemoglobin A1c of 9.03%, and 66.7% had received steroid treatment. All cases were histopathologically confirmed positive for mucor. There was a significant difference in mean D-dimer and serum ferritin between the 2 groups, with higher level in the CRAO group. All patients with CRAO had light perception-negative vision, with total ophthalmoplegia and proptosis seen in 66.7% of cases. Four patients had orbital apex involvement, 5 had cavernous sinus involvement, and 8 had intracranial involvement in the CRAO group. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory markers D-dimer and serum ferritin were significantly associated with CRAO, suggestive of hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable state. A high index of suspicion should be maintained in cases with elevated markers and prophylactic anticoagulants can be started to prevent CRAO in a subset of patients.


Subject(s)
Inflammation , Mucormycosis , Retinal Artery Occlusion , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Diseases/blood , Brain Diseases/immunology , Brain Diseases/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Ferritins/blood , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/microbiology , Mucormycosis/blood , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/immunology , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Nose Diseases/blood , Nose Diseases/immunology , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/blood , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Orbital Diseases/therapy , Retinal Artery Occlusion/blood , Retinal Artery Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Artery Occlusion/immunology , Retinal Artery Occlusion/microbiology , Retrospective Studies
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(4)2023 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291806

ABSTRACT

A man in his 50s presented with a 2-month history of left ear discharge associated with hearing loss and weakness of left half of face since 15 days. The patient had no comorbidities, but he gave history of being treated for COVID-19 pneumonia 2 months ago post which he started experiencing left-sided aural symptoms. Clinical examination of ear revealed a subtotal perforation with multiple granulations in middle ear. Facial nerve examination revealed grade 3 lower motor neuron palsy. The biopsy of the granulations was sent to aid in diagnosis which later confirmed left ear mucormycosis. Otological involvement with facial palsy and sudden sensorineural loss in a patient with prior history of COVID-19 has not been reported until in literature. We try to communicate our experience to bridge the gap in understanding and managing this extremely rare occurrence of mucormycosis in the ear of a patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facial Paralysis , Hearing Loss , Mucormycosis , Male , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Ear , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Hearing Loss/etiology , Disease Progression
7.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 97(6): 1159-1160, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297766
8.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 69(2): 93-97, 2023 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A variety of bacterial and fungal co-infections may be attributed to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly in people who already have a medical condition such diabetes mellitus or those who received large dosages of steroids. CASE REPORT: We described a 52-year-old diabetic man who was receiving high doses of dexamethasone and antibiotics while receiving ambulatory care for COVID-19 pneumonia. His anterior rhinoscopy revealed a necrotic scab, and a sample confirmed Mucor spp. He underwent surgery and was given amphotericin as a result of the severity of the condition, palpebral ptosis, and right ocular palsy he was experiencing. The patien ́s progression was satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: pre-existing diabetes mellitus, previous steroid and antimicrobial use, as well as SARS-CoV-2 infection are some of the risk factors associated with Mucor spp. infection. Prompt detection of mucormycosis is important in the management of these affected patients.


ANTECEDENTES: A la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) se le han atribuido diversas coinfecciones bacterianas y fúngicas, especialmente en sujetos con enfermedades preexistentes (diabetes mellitus) o en quienes han recibido altas dosis de corticosteroides. REPORTE DE CASO: Paciente masculino de 52 años, con antecedente de diabetes mellitus, quien recibió altas dosis de dexametasona y antibióticos mientras recibía atención ambulatoria por neumonía secundaria a COVID-19. La rinoscopia anterior reveló una costra necrótica, y una muestra de exudado confirmó la coexistencia de Mucor spp. Debido a la complicación del cuadro clínico, ptosis palpebral y parálisis ocular derecha, se le administró anfotericina B y fue intervenido quirúrgicamente. La evolución del paciente fue satisfactoria. CONCLUSIONES: La diabetes mellitus preexistente, el consumo de corticosteroides y antimicrobianos, además de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 son factores de riesgo asociados con la infección por Mucor spp. Es importante la detección oportuna de mucormicosis en el tratamiento de estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Nose
10.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 12(1): 96-99, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267010

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is called as black fungus, which is caused by fungus belonged to Mucorales. If this fungus, effects healthy individuals it won't cause any serious complications, but it may cause life-threatening issues when Mucorales affects individuals who have low immunity. The mortality rate of black fungus is more than 50%, and it may also range till 100% if the individual is having any preexisting or chronic disease. This was the case of a 55-year-old male patient complaint of having generalized pain in the maxillary teeth bilaterally and suffering fullness in the maxillary sinus. To check on other possible diseases, doctors have conducted other diagnosis tests, and orthopantomogram revealed in the diagnosis that there was the presence of haziness in the left maxillary sinus, which looked like an incompletely formed soap bubble and additionally he diagnosed with coronavirus disease positive. Then, doctors suggested a chest computerized tomography (CT) along with head CT excluding the brain and further investigation of this case was given below in detail. The report reveals acute necrotizing suppurative sinusitis with dead bony tissue, soft-tissue necrosis with fungal infestation showing broad hyphae with right-angle branching suggestive of mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Sinusitis , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/complications , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/microbiology
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(3)2023 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273693

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is an acute, life-threatening infection and isolated renal involvement is rare. Due to the angioinvasive nature of the disease, it is rapidly progressive and can be lethal if not managed expeditiously. In patients with underlying conditions of immunosuppression, diabetes mellitus, transplantation, COVID-19, intravenous drug and substance use and pyelonephritis, which is unable to be controlled via regular antibiotics, mucormycosis must be considered on the differential and antifungals must be empirically started. Most cases are often diagnosed on histopathology, which causes delayed treatment and resolution. We present a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis diagnosed on imaging and was later found to have mucormycosis on histopathological examination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Emphysema , Mucormycosis , Pyelonephritis , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Pyelonephritis/diagnostic imaging , Pyelonephritis/drug therapy , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/pathology , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Emphysema/complications
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(3)2023 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270396

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection is often associated with a vast spectrum of opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections. Herein, we share a summary of the first case of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) in a patient from Romania. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old male non-smoker, with no known relevant medical history, who denied any previous alcohol use and was vaccinated against COVID-19 (complete scheme with Vaxzevria), was admitted to the hospital for severe COVID-19 infection. The first mucormycosis-related symptoms were reported on the eighth day of admission and were followed by the rapid deterioration of the patient's condition and, consequently, death. The main aggravating factors, which were identified to be associated with the development of mucormycosis and with the poor outcome, were the association of severe COVID-19, new-onset COVID-19-triggered type 2 diabetes, and corticoid treatment for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The association between severe COVID-19 and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, triggered by COVID-19 infection, increases the risk of severe opportunistic fungal infections and the associated mortality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Mucormycosis , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Romania/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Patients
13.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(4): 872-873, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259288

ABSTRACT

New manifestations of coronavirus disease are appearing over time. The association between coronavirus and mucormycosis must be given serious consideration. Without early diagnosis and treatment, there may be rapid progression of the disease, with high mortality from complications. We present a case of a 40-year-old male who presented with rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis and COVID-19 infection. With this case, we highlight the importance of considering mycotic coinfection in COVID-19 patients with diabetes and the significance of its early diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Male , Humans , Adult , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Nose
14.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 53(3): 173-174, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257078

ABSTRACT

[Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2022;53:173-174.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vision Disorders
17.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(2): 452-456, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225954

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe the long-term outcomes of transcutaneous retrobulbar amphotericin B (TRAMB) in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. Methods: In total, 18 cases of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis were reviewed. In addition to the recommended treatment protocol, all patients were to be given 3.5 mg/ml/day of TRAMB for five days. Results: Of the 18 patients, 2 presented with stage 3a disease, 13 had stage 3c disease, and 3 patients had central nervous system (CNS) involvement (stage 4a and 4c). In addition to planned retrobulbar doses, five patients were given more while two patients received fewer injections (i.e., <5). At the last mean follow-up of 34.67 (±8.88) weeks, 11 patients were in radiological regression and 4 had stable disease while 2 patients had to undergo exenteration; one mortality was observed because of disease progression. Clinical regression in terms of visual and ptosis improvement was seen in seven and nine patients, respectively. Conclusion: Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis is a serious condition which warrants an aggressive treatment strategy. In unprecedented situations witnessed recently, TRAMB turned out to be an effective and economical alternative. Though large randomized studies are needed to establish its efficacy, TRAMB still manages to halt progression and salvage the globe in significant number of patients, and hence its use should be encouraged on a case-to-case basis especially in developing countries with limited resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Amphotericin B , COVID-19/complications , Face , Nose , Antifungal Agents , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/etiology
18.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 89(4): 510-523, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2218004

ABSTRACT

Background Cutaneous mucormycosis has shown a significant upsurge during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the rapid progression and high mortality of cutaneous mucormycosis in this context, it is important to identify it early. However, very few studies report detailed clinical descriptions of cutaneous mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients. Objectives To describe mucocutaneous lesions of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis based on clinical morphology and attempt to correlate them with radiological changes. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care centre from 1st April to 31st July 2021. Eligibility criteria included hospitalised adult patients of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis with mucocutaneous lesions. Results All subjects were recently recovering COVID-19 patients diagnosed with cutaneous mucormycosis. One of fifty-three (2%) patients had primary cutaneous mucormycosis, and all of the rest had secondary cutaneous mucormycosis. Secondary cutaneous mucormycosis lesions presented as cutaneous-abscess in 25/52 (48%), nodulo-pustular lesions in 1/52 (2%), necrotic eschar in 1/52 (2%) and ulcero-necrotic in 1/52 (2%). Mucosal lesions were of three broad sub-types: ulcero-necrotic in 1/52 (2%), pustular in 2/52 (4%) and plaques in 1/52 (2%). Twenty out of fifty-two patients (38%) presented with simultaneous mucosal and cutaneous lesions belonging to the above categories. Magnetic resonance imaging of the face showed variable features of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue involvement, viz. peripherally enhancing collection in the abscess group, "dot in circle sign" and heterogeneous contrast enhancement in the nodulo-pustular group; and fat stranding with infiltration of subcutaneous tissue in cases with necrotic eschar and ulcero-necrotic lesions. Limitations The morphological variety of cutaneous mucormycosis patients in a single-centre study like ours might not be very precise. Thus, there is a need to conduct multi-centric prospective studies with larger sample sizes in the future to substantiate our morphological and radiological findings. Conclusions COVID-19-associated mucormycosis patients in our study presented with a few specific types of mucocutaneous manifestations, with distinct magnetic resonance imaging findings. If corroborated by larger studies, these observations would be helpful in the early diagnosis of this serious illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Vascular Diseases , Adult , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/complications , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Abscess , Necrosis
19.
Clin Lab ; 68(12)2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged as a fatal infection, especially in immunocompromised patients. Currently, this infection is managed with systemic corticosteroids. Co-infection of CO-VID-19 with opportunistic fungi is increasingly recognized. METHODS: We describe a case of rhino-cerebral mucormycosis 12 days following severe COVID-19 in a diabetic patient. RESULTS: He received 50 mg amphotericin B and surgical debridement. The patient's symptoms improved following medical and surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis is an uncommon but serious infection that complicates the course of severe COVID-19. Subjects with diabetes mellitus and multiple risk factors may be at a higher risk for developing mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , Male , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , Rhizopus , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
20.
World Neurosurg ; 172: e335-e342, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis in mucormycosis is a rare phenomenon and has been reported usually following trauma or in immunocompromised individuals. Osteonecrosis of skull as a complication of mucormycosis is a rare presentation, which makes the study ever so rare and interesting. METHODS: Within 6 months, a total of 114 patients presented with mucormycosis as COVID-19 sequel, 60 of whom underwent form of endoscopic sinus debridement. Six of these 60 patients presented with frontal bone osteonecrosis and were included in the study. All 6 patients presented within a time period of 2-4 months' post FESS. RESULTS: One of the 6 patients succumbed to her illness. Another patient presented with local recurrence after 3 months, for which she underwent resurgery and debridement. The other 4 patients showed gradual recovery and are without symptoms or radiologic progression at 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Osteonecrosis in mucormycosis is a rare phenomenon, and the 2 entities have rarely been reported together. The disease usually limits itself to the frontal bone only, and pathogenesis for spread is due to a vicious cycle of infection and ischemia. Prompt diagnosis via imaging, aggressive surgical debridement with a good antifungal cover, good patient compliance, and regular follow-up form the mainstay of treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Osteonecrosis , Humans , Female , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/surgery , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Frontal Bone , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Osteonecrosis/diagnostic imaging , Osteonecrosis/etiology , Osteonecrosis/surgery
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