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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081983

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly transmissible and pathogenic coronavirus that has caused a 'coronavirus disease 2019' (COVID-19) pandemic in multiple waves, which threatens human health and public safety. During this pandemic, some patients with COVID-19 acquired secondary infections, such as mucormycosis, also known as black fungus disease. Mucormycosis is a serious, acute, and deadly fungal infection caused by Mucorales-related fungal species, and it spreads rapidly. Hence, prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to avoid high mortality and morbidity rates. Major risk factors for this disease include uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and immunosuppression that can also facilitate increases in mucormycosis infections. The extensive use of steroids to prevent the worsening of COVID-19 can lead to black fungus infection. Generally, antifungal agents dedicated to medical applications must be biocompatible, non-toxic, easily soluble, efficient, and hypoallergenic. They should also provide long-term protection against fungal growth. COVID-19-related black fungus infection causes a severe increase in fatalities. Therefore, there is a strong need for the development of novel and efficient antimicrobial agents. Recently, nanoparticle-containing products available in the market have been used as antimicrobial agents to prevent bacterial growth, but little is known about their efficacy with respect to preventing fungal growth, especially black fungus. The present review focuses on the effect of various types of metal nanoparticles, specifically those containing silver, zinc oxide, gold, copper, titanium, magnetic, iron, and carbon, on the growth of various types of fungi. We particularly focused on how these nanoparticles can impact the growth of black fungus. We also discussed black fungus co-infection in the context of the global COVID-19 outbreak, and management and guidelines to help control COVID-19-associated black fungus infection. Finally, this review aimed to elucidate the relationship between COVID-19 and mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Nanoparticles , Zinc Oxide , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Silver/pharmacology , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology , Copper/pharmacology , Titanium/pharmacology , Iron/pharmacology , Gold/pharmacology , Carbon/pharmacology
2.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272042, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, an increased incidence of ROCM was noted in India among those infected with COVID. We determined risk factors for rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) post Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among those never and ever hospitalized for COVID-19 separately through a multicentric, hospital-based, unmatched case-control study across India. METHODS: We defined cases and controls as those with and without post-COVID ROCM, respectively. We compared their socio-demographics, co-morbidities, steroid use, glycaemic status, and practices. We calculated crude and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) through logistic regression. The covariates with a p-value for crude OR of less than 0·20 were considered for the regression model. RESULTS: Among hospitalised, we recruited 267 cases and 256 controls and 116 cases and 231 controls among never hospitalised. Risk factors (AOR; 95% CI) for post-COVID ROCM among the hospitalised were age 45-59 years (2·1; 1·4 to 3·1), having diabetes mellitus (4·9; 3·4 to 7·1), elevated plasma glucose (6·4; 2·4 to 17·2), steroid use (3·2; 2 to 5·2) and frequent nasal washing (4·8; 1·4 to 17). Among those never hospitalised, age ≥ 60 years (6·6; 3·3 to 13·3), having diabetes mellitus (6·7; 3·8 to 11·6), elevated plasma glucose (13·7; 2·2 to 84), steroid use (9·8; 5·8 to 16·6), and cloth facemask use (2·6; 1·5 to 4·5) were associated with increased risk of post-COVID ROCM. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia, irrespective of having diabetes mellitus and steroid use, was associated with an increased risk of ROCM independent of COVID-19 hospitalisation. Rational steroid usage and glucose monitoring may reduce the risk of post-COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Pandemics
3.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(12): 1309-1313, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis is a rapidly progressive disease with high mortality rates of about 60 per cent. The increasing incidence of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis in coronavirus disease 2019 patients in India and worldwide has become a matter of concern owing to the case fatality rate. This study explored the use of low dose aspirin in decreasing the mortality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis. METHOD: This was a retrospective observational study. Patients suffering from post-coronavirus disease 2019 mucormycosis were included in the study. Each patient was treated with surgical debridement and systemic amphotericin B. Low dose aspirin was added, and mortality rates were compared with the patients who did not receive aspirin. RESULTS: The demographic data and rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis staging between the two groups were not significantly different. There was a statistically significant difference in mortality outcomes between the two groups (p = 0.029) and a 1.77 times higher risk of dying for patients not receiving aspirin. Kaplan-Meier survival indicated that patients receiving aspirin had better survival rates (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Low dose aspirin improves survival rates in coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Debridement
4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(10): 3638-3642, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055709

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To explore the various globe salvaging treatment strategies for patients with coronavirus disease 2019-associated mucormycosis (CAM). Methods: This was a prospective: interventional analytical study conducted at a Medical College in rural India. A total of 84 patients of CAM admitted between May 2021 and August 2021 were enrolled for the study. Patients with histologically proven CAM with clinical and/or radiological evidence of orbital involvement were divided into three treatment categories based on the site and extent of the lesion. Re-assessment was performed after 7 days. For patients who worsened with the primary approach, orbital exenteration was considered based on a Sion Hospital Scoring System. A novel approach to intra-orbital anti-fungal therapy, site-centered peri-bulbar injection of amphotericin B (SCPeriAmB), was also explored. All the patients were followed up for at least 3 months. Convenience sampling with descriptive statistics was used. Results: Six patients had to finally undergo exenteration by the end of the study period. The rest of the patients were reported to be stable or improved. No mortalities were reported on delaying the exenteration. No adverse events were noted in patients who were given SCPeriAmB. Conclusion: Globe salvaging treatment options should be advocated as a primary approach in patients with CAM. Site-centered peri-bulbar injections can be considered as an approach for delivering intra-orbital anti-fungal therapy in selected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Prospective Studies
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 937481, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039658

ABSTRACT

The second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused severe infections with high mortality. An increase in the cases of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) was reported predominantly in India. Commonly present in immunocompromised individuals, mucormycosis is often a life-threatening condition. Confounding factors and molecular mechanisms associated with CAM are still not well understood, and there is a need for careful research in this direction. In this review, a brief account of the diagnosis, management, and advancement in drug discovery for mucormycosis has been provided. Here, we summarize major factors that dictate the occurrence of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients through the analysis of published literature and case reports. Major predisposing factors to mucormycosis appear to be uncontrolled diabetes, steroid therapy, and certain cancers. At the molecular level, increased levels of iron in COVID-19 might contribute to mucormycosis. We have also discussed the potential role and regulation of iron metabolism in COVID-19 patients in establishing fungal growth. Other factors including diabetes prevalence and fungal spore burden in India as contributing factors have also been discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology
6.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(32): 5348-5357, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022256

ABSTRACT

The incidence rate of opportunistic secondary infections through invasive fungi has been observed to be 14.5% to 27% in the SARS CoV pandemic during the year 2003. However, the incidence of SARS CoV-2 is accompanied by a substantial rise in secondary opportunistic infections like mucormycosis (black fungus), mainly in the immunocompromised individuals and diabetic patients taking steroids. Substantial rates of COVID-19 cases with mucormycosis were reported in India and other parts of the world. Previous research reports delineated the ability of Mucorales to invade the various tissues like lungs, brain, and sinus through the GRP78, and subsequently, this infection could invoke crusting, edema, and necrosis of the brain parenchyma, ptosis, proptosis, and vision loss due to intraorbital and intracranial complications. Similarities of these pathophysiological complications with already existing diseases are causing clinicians to face several challenges in order to diagnose and treat this disease effectively at the early stage. This minireview depicts the mucormycosis-induced immune and pathophysiological alterations in COVID-19 patients comorbid with diabetes and immunosuppression and also reported the various clinical manifestations, the therapeutic modalities, and the failures of anti-fungal vaccines. Therefore, the emerging mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients needs rapid investigation and selective optimization of the effective therapeutic modalities, including antifungal vaccines, to minimize the mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , Antibody Formation , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/microbiology
7.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 38(5): 425-432, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985157

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Following COVID-19 infection a rising count of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis is observed, requiring orbital exenteration, a disabling lifetime affecting surgery. One of the potential interventions for globe salvage in these patients is retrobulbar injections of amphotericin B. This study was conducted to review protocols, outcomes, and side effects of retrobulbar injection of amphotericin B in patients with COVID-19 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (CAM). METHODS: The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched using a comprehensive string of relevant keywords. All English studies with the confirmed diagnosis of CAM infection were included. We excluded all studies in which retrobulbar injection of amphotericin B was not implemented in any of the patients or there was a lack of clarified and detailed data about this procedure among participants. RESULTS: A total of 647 cases had a history of retrobulbar injection(s) of amphotericin B in 13 reviewed studies with 3,132 subjects of CAM. The most common protocol was the retrobulbar injection of 1 ml of 3.5 mg/ml liposomal amphotericin B for 3 doses daily or on alternate days. We discerned that the globe salvage rate was 95.0% in eyes with a history of retrobulbar injection(s). The total rate of orbital exenteration was 14.9%, regardless of the history of retrobulbar injection of the drug. Other outcomes of this intervention were vision salvage and reduced major ophthalmic complaints, including pain, swelling, chemosis, ptosis, and ophthalmoplegia. The side effects of this intervention were not serious, and most of them were transient. They included swelling at the injection site, restriction of ocular motilities, exacerbation of orbital inflammation, and even intensification of visual impairment in a few cases. CONCLUSIONS: Retrobulbar injection of amphotericin B should be considered a nearly safe and protective intervention against orbital exenteration in patients with CAM. It may also be effective in saving vision. Since the effectiveness of orbital exenteration in the survival of patients is not ascertained, retrobulbar injections can be considered an alternative intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Paranasal Sinus Diseases , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/diagnosis
8.
Clin Lab ; 68(7)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening fungal infection mostly occurring in immunosuppressed patients such as organ transplant or diabetic patients. In this paper, we described a case of COVID-19 with rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. METHODS: The nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) from a nasopharyngeal sample for SARS-CoV-2 was done. Demographic data, biochemical tests, paranasal sinuses (PNS) CT scan, brain CT scan, chest CT scan, and palate biopsy were performed. RESULTS: The NAAT was positive for SARS-CoV-2. PNS CT scan revealed mucosal thickening of all paranasal sinuses, brain CT scan showed hypodense area in antero-inferior cortex, and chest CT scan revealed diffuse ground glass opacity in favor of COVID-19 infection. Palate biopsy revealed fibroconnective tissue with broad pauciseptated ribbon-like hyphae. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, a case of COVID-19 with rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis was described. The treatment with immunosuppressive drugs predisposed this patient to secondary fungal infection. Immunosuppression is a double-edged sword in COVID-19 treatment and immunosuppressive drugs should be prescribed only in severely ill patients and for a short period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/pathology , Orbital Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 1107-1113, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963288

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a relatively rare infection but with a high mortality rate due to the difficult and time-consuming diagnostic and therapeutic process. The authors present the first case of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis, histologically and microbiologically proven, in a patient after COVID-19 infection in Bulgaria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Bulgaria , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 900522, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903024

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) still cause substantial morbidity and mortality, and new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Recent data suggest a benefit of checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). We report the case of a diabetic patient with refractory IFD following a SARSCoV-2 infection treated by ICI and interferon-gamma associated with antifungal treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/therapeutic use , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/drug therapy
11.
Med Mycol ; 60(7)2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901215

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had led to an increase in a surge of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients, especially in India. Diabetes and irrational usage of corticosteroids to treat COVID-19 were some of the factors implicated for COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM). We designed this case-control study to identify risk factors for mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients. The study was conducted at a private tertiary care center in western India. Data were extracted from records of COVID 19 patients (January-May 2021) and divided into two groups: Those with proven or probable mucormycosis, and those without mucormycosis with a ratio of 1:3. A binary logistic regression analysis was done to assess potential risk factors for CAM. A total of 64 CAM and 205 controls were included in the analysis. Age and sex distribution were similar in cases and controls with the majority of males in both the groups (69.9%) and the mean age was 56.4 (±13.5) years. We compared the comorbidities and treatment received during acute COVID-19, specifically the place of admission, pharmacotherapy (steroids, tocilizumab, remdesivir), and the requirement of oxygen as a risk factor for CAM. In a multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with increased odds of CAM were new-onset diabetes (vs. non-diabetics, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 48.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.3-166), pre-existing diabetes (vs. non-diabetics, aOR 2.93, 95%CI 1.4-6.1), corticosteroid therapy (aOR 3.64, 95%CI 1.2-10.9) and home isolation (vs. ward admission, aOR 4.8, 95%CI 2-11.3). Diabetes, especially new-onset, along with corticosteroid usage and home isolation were the predominant risk factors for CAM. LAY SUMMARY: This study revealed new-onset diabetes, pre-existing diabetes, corticosteroid therapy, and home isolation as risk factors for COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. Avoiding the use of corticosteroids in non-severe COVID-19 disease coupled with proper blood sugar monitoring and control will help to reduce the CAM burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/veterinary , India/epidemiology , Male , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/veterinary , Risk Factors
12.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(9): 788-798, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900379

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compute the pooled prevalence of diabetes mellitus and other underlying conditions in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. METHOD: A systematic literature review was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Google Scholar. The cross-sectional studies that reported the frequency of diabetes mellitus in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis were included. RESULTS: Eighteen eligible studies with a total number of 3718 patients were included in the current study. The pooled prevalence of diabetes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis was 89 per cent and with new-onset diabetes was 32 per cent. The pooled prevalence of steroid use was high (79 per cent) too. The all-cause mortality rate was 24 per cent. CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus was the most frequent underlying condition in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. The second most frequent underlying condition was steroid use during coronavirus disease 2019 infection. The appropriate control of hyperglycaemia and rational prescription of steroids during the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology
13.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 1248325, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891938

ABSTRACT

Background: Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a serious invasive fungal infection that is one of the most aggressive and lethal of invasive mycoses. The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been linked to immune dysregulation, and patients with COVID-19 have been reported to be at risk for developing invasive fungal infections. This study is conducted to evaluate the concurrence of mucormycosis among COVID-19 patients. Methods: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, hospital records of patients with mucormycosis, as well as COVID-19 admitted to Khalili Hospital, as the major referral center for functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) in southern Iran, were collected. Demographic and clinical information was extracted and subsequently analyzed. Results: Among 59 mucormycosis patients undergoing FESS, 41 (69.5%) were during the COVID-19 pandemic, while 18 (30.5%) were during one year before the COVID-19 pandemic. The average age was 49.33 ± 20.52, and 64.4% had diabetes mellitus, while 62.7% had COVID-19. The most common presentation was periorbital edema (56.9%), followed by necrotic tissue (48.3%). Although the total number of cases increased during the COVID-19 period compared to the case before the pandemic, the overall pattern and features of the patients had no significant difference, except regarding a significant increase in the presentation of necrotic tissue and also the use of corticosteroids. Most cases developed mucormycosis two weeks after COVID-19. The overall mortality was 36.8%, which is not statistically associated with COVID-19. Conclusion: Even in the absence of comorbidities, physicians should be aware of the risk of secondary fungal infections in patients with COVID-19 who were treated with corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/surgery , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 120: 177-178, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889485

ABSTRACT

The surge of COVID-19 associated Mucormycosis (CAM) in India during the second wave of COVID-19 led to lack of availability of amphotericin B(AmB). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome in 28 consecutive patients with CAM who received posaconazole (PCZ) or isavuconazole (ISVCZ) as sole or predominant therapy, based on factors like availability, affordability, site of infection or lack of treatment response. Therapeutic drug monitoring was used for PCZ in all cases & for ISVCZ in some cases. Higher trough levels were aimed to ensure therapeutic effect. Overall, 16 patients were cured, 5 patients improved, 6 patients died, of which 2 deaths were attributable to mucormycosis and 1 patient was lost to follow-up. The outcomes and survival were comparable to those reported in the literature. Although wider applicability of these results cannot be assumed, it leads to a speculation that treatment of mucormycosis with PCZ or ISVCZ, without AmB, is possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Nitriles , Pyridines , Retrospective Studies , Triazoles
16.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(2): 183-190, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882247

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly become a global threaten since its emergence in the end of 2019. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection could also present with co-infection or secondary infection by other virus, bacteria, or fungi. Among them, mucormycosis is a rare but aggressive fungal disease and it mainly affects patients particularly with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We here did a comprehensive review of literature reporting COVID-19 associated with mucormycosis (CAM) cases, which have been reported worldwide. The prevalence is higher in India, Iran, and Egypt than other countries, particularly highest in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra in India. Poor diabetic control and the administration of systemic corticosteroids are the common precipitating factors causing mucormycosis in the severe and critical COVID-19 patients. In addition, COVID-19 itself may affect the immune system resulting in vulnerability of the patients to mucormycosis. Appropriate treatments of CAM include strict glycemic control, extensive surgical debridement, and antifungal therapy with amphotericin B formulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Mucormycosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 755-762, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879384

ABSTRACT

During the past few months, mucormycosis has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections. Molecular docking combined with molecular dynamics simulation is utilized to test nucleotide-based inhibitors against the RdRps of SARS-CoV-2 solved structure and Rhizopus oryzae RdRp model built in silico. The results reveal a comparable binding affinity of sofosbuvir, galidesivir, ribavirin and remdesivir compared with the physiological nucleotide triphosphates against R. oryzae RdRp as well as the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp as reported before. Additionally, other compounds such as setrobuvir, YAK, IDX-184 and modified GTP compounds 2, 3 and 4 show potential calculated average binding affinities against R. oryzae RdRp. The present in silico study suggests the dual inhibition potential of the recommended drugs and compounds against SARS-CoV-2 and R. oryzae RdRps.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fungi , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 203-210, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A surge in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis cases has been observed during the second wave of COVID-19 in summer of 2021. Most cases were reported from India. The Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was the most common variant circulating at that time. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic angioinvasive fungal infection with high morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We present 10 cases of COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital and rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis managed in a secondary hospital in Oman. RESULTS: The median time for developing mucormycosis was two weeks after COVID-19 diagnosis. All patients were newly diagnosed or already known to have poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Five patients received corticosteroid therapy for COVID-19. Three patients had severe COVID-19 and died of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock. Another three patients died of advanced mucormycosis and cerebral involvement. Despite aggressive medical and surgical intervention, the mortality rate was 60% (6/10). CONCLUSION: Mucormycosis is an aggressive opportunistic infection with high morbidity and mortality that requires prompt recognition and urgent intervention. Uncontrolled blood sugar, the use of corticosteroids, and immune dysfunction due to COVID-19 are all important risk factors for development of mucormycosis. Worse outcomes are associated with poor glycemic control despite aggressive medical and surgical interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Opportunistic Infections , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
A A Pract ; 16(4): e01581, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862205

ABSTRACT

Orbital exenteration is occasionally required for rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis. Multiple associated comorbidities can pose a risk for general anesthesia. There is only 1 report of exenteration being performed under trigeminal nerve block. We describe 5 patients who underwent orbital exenteration under local infiltration anesthesia with sedation. Patients and surgeons reported satisfactory conditions, with stable hemodynamics and successful day care management. Orbital exenteration under local infiltration anesthesia can be a safe and effective alternative for patients with rhino-orbital mucormycosis who are at risk with use of general anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Anesthesia, Local , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/surgery , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/surgery
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