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1.
Ter Arkh ; 94(11): 1320-1325, 2022 Dec 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240652

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic is being revealed from a new angle every month. In particular, with the appearance of the delta strain, mucormycosis began to manifest in some patients, which had previously been extremely rare. Mucormycosis is a rare, aggressive infection caused by filamentous fungi of the Mucorales family and associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The main risk factors for the mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19 are diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis, uncontrolled hyperglycemia and massive use of glucocorticoids, vascular damage, thrombosis, lymphopenia, which often occur against the background of COVID-19 and make a person vulnerable to secondary or opportunistic fungal infection. We present a clinical case of mucormycosis in a 21-year-old female patient with COVID-19-associated severe pneumonia and concomitant type I diabetes mellitus. The patient was hospitalized and received standard therapy during inpatient treatment, including glucocorticosteroids in accordance with the severity of the course of COVID-19. On the 12th day from the hospitalization, the patient's condition deteriorated significantly, and the visible changes in the skin and soft tissues of the face, characteristic of mucormycosis appeared. Despite the drug therapy correction, the patient died because of the acute respiratory failure in combination with septic fungal damage of the brain stem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Mucormycosis , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Risk Factors
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 898477, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235279

ABSTRACT

A fatal case of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) affected a 40-year-old woman who was initially admitted to our hospital due to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Her clinical condition worsened, and she finally died because of respiratory failure, hemodynamic instability, and mucormycosis with invasion into the orbit and probably the brain. According to DNA sequence analysis of the fungus isolated from the patient, Apophysomyces variabilis was involved. This is the first published case of CAM and the third case of mucormycosis due to this mold.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Humans , Female , Adult , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Mucorales/genetics , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 44: 100382, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328092
4.
J Investig Med ; 70(4): 914-918, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295977

ABSTRACT

An epidemic of mucormycosis followed the second wave of COVID 19 in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India in May 2021. This epidemic, however, had additional challenges to offer in the form of acute shortage of all forms of amphotericin B, posaconazole and isavuconazole. It was, therefore, planned to assess the trends in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antifungal agents, viz itraconazole and terbinafine, and provide a template for personalized therapy to see whether the results could be translated clinically. This is an observational, single-center study. Samples comprising nasal swab, nasal and paranasal sinus tissue, brain tissue, brain abscess and orbital content, derived from 322 patients from northern India with mucormycosis, of whom 215 were male and 107 were female, were used for analysis. Cultures were identified both by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and conventional methods of identification. Antifungal susceptibility was done for amphotericin B, posaconazole, isavuconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine as per Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute M38-A2. The outcome was identification of the species of mucormycosis and susceptibility to itraconazole and terbinafine besides other primary antifungal agents. Patients or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting or in the dissemination plans of our research. Of 322 patients, 203 were culture-positive, of whom 173 were positive by both MALDI-TOF and conventional methods of identification. Final antifungal susceptibility testing was available for 150 patients. The most common Mucorales found to cause this epidemic was Rhizopus oryzae, followed by R. microsporus Amphotericin B, posaconazole and isavuconazole had low MIC values in 98.8% of all Mucorales identified. The MIC of itraconazole was species-dependent. 97.7% of Roryzae had MIC ≤2 µg/mL. However, only 36.5% of Rmicrosporus had MIC ≤2 µg/mL. For terbinafine, 85.2% of R. microsporus had MIC ≤2 µg/mL. We conclude that identification at the species level is required as antifungal susceptibilities seem to be species-dependent. Assessment of the efficacy of itraconazole and terbinafine warrants further studies with clinical assessment and therapeutic drug monitoring as they seem to be potential candidates especially when the primary agents are not available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Male , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Terbinafine/pharmacology , Terbinafine/therapeutic use
5.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(6): 4042-4057, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293878

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a rare but serious fungal infection caused by a group of moulds called mucormycetes. More attention has recently been paid to it due to its association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, it is important to review the progress of studies on mucormycosis and highlight the important findings in relation to epidemiology, clinical manifestation, major risk factors, diagnostic strategies and management. An electronic literature search was performed in PubMed using the keywords: Rhizopus, Mucorales, mucormycosis, zygomycosis, zygomycetes, COVID-19, the drugs (azoles, posaconazole, isavuconazole, amphotericin B pharmaceutical preparations and caspofungin), combination therapy, diagnosis and clinical manifestations. Studies written in the English language from January 1960 to 2021 were considered for this review article. All search results were reviewed, and the relevance of each article was determined by the authors independently. The review emphasized the fact that the diagnosis of mucormycosis is difficult, it is necessary to have a high index of suspicion to identify it, surgical debridement should be done prior to the dissemination of infection to improve clinical outcomes and identifying underlying risk factors is important for proper treatment. Moreover, antifungal therapeutic options are few with polyenes and their combinations should be appropriate for empirical therapy while posaconazole and isavuconazole are best reserved for de-escalation, refractory cases or patients intolerant to amphotericin B.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Debridement , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology
6.
Mycoses ; 66(8): 688-696, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of nebulized amphotericin B (NAB) in managing pulmonary mucormycosis (PM) is unknown. METHODS: In this open-label trial, we randomized PM subjects to receive either intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (control arm, 3-5 mg/kg/day) alone or along with nebulized amphotericin B deoxycholate (NAB, 10 mg twice a day, every alternate day). The primary outcomes were: (1) overall response ('success' [complete or partial response] or 'failure' [stable disease, progressive disease, or death]) at 6 weeks; and (2) the proportion of subjects with adverse events (AE). The key secondary outcome was 90-day mortality. We performed a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) analysis where we included only subjects receiving at least a single dose of NAB. RESULTS: Fifteen and 17 subjects were randomized to the control and NAB arms; two died before the first dose of NAB. Finally, we included 30 subjects (15 in each arm; mean age 49.8 years; 80% men) for the mITT analysis. Diabetes mellitus (n = 27; 16/27 were COVID-19-associated PM) was the most common predisposing factor. The overall treatment success was not significantly different between the control and the NAB arms (71.4% vs. 53.3%; p = .45). Twenty-nine subjects experienced any AE, but none discontinued treatment. The 90-day mortality was not significantly different between the control (28.6%) and NAB arm (53.3%; p = .26). CONCLUSION: Adjunctive NAB was safe but did not improve overall response at 6 weeks. A different dosing schedule or nebulized liposomal amphotericin B may still need evaluation. More research is needed to explore other treatment options for PM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Mucormycosis/drug therapy
7.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 29(6): 722-731, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis, a rare fungal infection, has shown an increase in the number of reported cases during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To provide a comprehensive insight into the characteristics of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis, through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS OF DATA SYNTHESIS: Demographic information and clinical features were documented for each patient. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the risk of mortality. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, and FungiSCOPE. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies reporting individual-level information in patients with adult COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) between 1 January 2020 and 28 December 2022. PARTICIPANTS: Adults who developed mucormycosis during or after COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Patients with and without individual clinical variables were compared. ASSESSMENT OF RISK OF BIAS: Quality assessment was performed based on the National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool for case series studies. RESULTS: Nine hundred fifty-eight individual cases reported from 45 countries were eligible. 88.1% (844/958) were reported from low- or middle-income countries. Corticosteroid use for COVID-19 (78.5%, 619/789) and diabetes (77.9%, 738/948) were common. Diabetic ketoacidosis (p < 0.001), history of malignancy (p < 0.001), underlying pulmonary (p 0.017), or renal disease (p < 0.001), obesity (p < 0.001), hypertension (p 0.040), age (>65 years) (p 0.001), Aspergillus coinfection (p 0.037), and tocilizumab use during COVID-19 (p 0.018) increased the mortality. CAM occurred on an average of 22 days after COVID-19 and 8 days after hospitalization. Diagnosis of mucormycosis in patients with Aspergillus coinfection and pulmonary mucormycosis was made on average 15.4 days (range, 0-35 days) and 14.0 days (range, 0-53 days) after hospitalization, respectively. Cutaneous mucormycosis accounted for <1% of the cases. The overall mortality rate was 38.9% (303/780). CONCLUSION: Mortality of CAM was high, and most reports were from low- or middle-income countries. We detected novel risk factors for CAM, such as older age, specific comorbidities, Aspergillus coinfection, and tocilizumab use, in addition to the previously identified factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mucormycosis , Adult , Humans , Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization
8.
Mycoses ; 66(7): 555-562, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275106

ABSTRACT

Mucorales fungi cause mucormycosis, an invasive and rapidly progressive disease which increasingly affects mostly immunocompromised but also immunocompetent individuals. The objective of this study was to highlight the epidemiology, diagnostic modalities, treatment and overall survival of mucormycosis in Africa. We searched for relevant publications in PubMed, Google Scholar and African Journal Online databases covering the period 1960-2022. A total of 147 articles were identified, of which 66 were included in the review, detailing 408 individual cases from 12 African countries; 330 (80.9%) from North Africa, 63 (15.4%) from Southern Africa, seven (1.7%) from East Africa, seven (1.7%) from West Africa and a single case (0.2%) from Central Africa. The most frequently described clinical forms were rhino-orbital-cerebral (n = 307, 75.2%) and gastrointestinal (n = 51, 12.5%). Diabetes mellitus, COVID-19, malignancies and neutropaenia were the commonest underlying risks in 203 (49.8%), 101 (24.8%), 65 (15.9%) and 53 (13.0%) cases respectively. Most cases, 296 (72.5%) were diagnosed by histopathology. Fungal aetiology was identified in 38 (9.3%), of which the commonest was Rhizopus oryzae/arrhizus (27/38, 71.1%). Of the 408 cases, 334 (81.9%) patients received antifungal therapy, while 244 (59.8%) had surgery. In cases with a specified outcome, survival rate was 59.1% (228/386). Based on case reporting, a substantial burden of mucormycosis occurs in North Africa but the disease is rarely reported in most of the sub-Saharan region. Establishing a comprehensive registry for standardised data collection could improve understanding of the epidemiology of mucormycosis in the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Africa , Rhizopus oryzae , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing
9.
Future Microbiol ; 18: 217-234, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261624

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is an emerging opportunistic angioinvasive fungal infection. Predisposing factors such as diabetes, neutropenia, long-term corticosteroid therapy, solid organ transplantation and immunosuppression contribute to its occurrence. This disease was not of significant concern prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, but gained prominence due to infections in COVID-19 patients. Mucormycosis needs special attention and coordinated efforts of the scientific community and medical professionals to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here we present an overview of the epidemiology and prevalence of mucormycosis in the pre- and post-COVID-19 eras, the factors that contributed to the abrupt increase in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM), the actions taken by the regulatory agencies (including Code Mucor and CAM registry), the existing diagnostic tools and CAM management strategies.


The devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have been further enhanced by various secondary illnesses, particularly opportunistic fungal infections such as mucormycosis. Mucormycosis or 'black fungus' primarily affects people with weakened immunity, those with medical conditions such as diabetes or cancer and those who use medications that reduce the body's capacity to resist infections and disease. The infection starts in the sinuses or the lungs after breathing in spores of the black fungus from the air. In just 2 months between 5 May and 12 July 2021, this uncommon but fatal fungal illness was responsible for 41,512 cases and 3554 fatalities in India alone. The government of India declared a mucormycosis epidemic in May 2021. The majority of such cases occurred during active SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in India in 2021. Black fungus took over while the host defenses were compromised and the globe was preoccupied tackling the COVID-19 pandemic. Steroids prescribed in amounts and time spans that far exceeded WHO recommendations to manage severe COVID-19 cases, potentially weakened patients' immune systems, and raised blood sugar levels making them vulnerable to fungal invasion. Early diagnosis and treatment are the keys to a patient's survival. Simple means such as maintaining hygienic conditions, avoiding contact with an infected person, judiciously using steroid medications and antibiotics and properly managing high blood sugar can help protect an individual from black-fungus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Neutropenia , Opportunistic Infections , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Immunosuppression Therapy
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 108(3): 584-587, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270433

ABSTRACT

We update results from the Mycotic Infections in COVID-19 (MUNCO) Registry, May-September 2021. Data collection from May to September 2021 yielded 728 cases from India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, and the United States. The cases consisted of mostly mucormycosis (97.6%), primarily rhinocerebral, and were analyzed to investigate clinical characteristics associated with negative outcomes. Patients were mostly diabetic (85%) and male (76%), with significant mortality (11.7%). All patients received treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as well as antifungal treatment. The crude mortality rate was 11.3% for mucormycosis and 22.7% formixed infections. This study demonstrates the utility of online databases in the collection of high-caliber data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Mucormycosis , Humans , Male , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Registries
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(3)2023 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270396

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection is often associated with a vast spectrum of opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections. Herein, we share a summary of the first case of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) in a patient from Romania. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old male non-smoker, with no known relevant medical history, who denied any previous alcohol use and was vaccinated against COVID-19 (complete scheme with Vaxzevria), was admitted to the hospital for severe COVID-19 infection. The first mucormycosis-related symptoms were reported on the eighth day of admission and were followed by the rapid deterioration of the patient's condition and, consequently, death. The main aggravating factors, which were identified to be associated with the development of mucormycosis and with the poor outcome, were the association of severe COVID-19, new-onset COVID-19-triggered type 2 diabetes, and corticoid treatment for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The association between severe COVID-19 and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, triggered by COVID-19 infection, increases the risk of severe opportunistic fungal infections and the associated mortality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Mucormycosis , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Romania/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Patients
12.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0279118, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269932

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) is an emerging disease affecting immunocompromised patients. Prevention of such infections using probiotics and their metabolites persist as effective therapeutic agents. Therefore, the present study emphasizes on assessment of their efficacy and safety. Samples from different sources like human milk, honey bee intestine, toddy, and dairy milk were collected, screened and characterized for potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their metabolites to be used as effective antimicrobial agents to curtail CAM. Three isolates were selected based on probiotic properties and characterized as Lactobacillus pentosus BMOBR013, Lactobacillus pentosus BMOBR061 and Pediococcus acidilactici BMOBR041 by 16S rRNA sequencing and MALDI TOF-MS. The antimicrobial activity against standard bacterial pathogens showed ˃9 mm zone of inhibition. Furthermore, the antifungal activity of three isolates was tested against Aspergillus flavus MTCC 2788, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis where the results showed significant inhibition of each fungal strain. Further studies were carried out on lethal fungal pathogens like Rhizopus sp. and two Mucor sp. which are associated with post Covid-19 infection in immunosuppressed diabetic patients. Our studies on CAM inhibitory effect of LAB revealed the efficient inhibition against Rhizopus sp. and two Mucor sp. The cell free supernatants of three LAB showed varied inhibitory activity against these fungi. Following the antimicrobial activity, the antagonistic metabolite 3-Phenyllactic acid (PLA) in culture supernatant was quantified and characterized by HPLC and LC-MS using standard PLA (Sigma Aldrich). The isolate L. pentosus BMOBR013 produced highest PLA (0.441 g/L), followed by P. acidilactici BMOBR041 (0.294 g/L) and L. pentosus BMOBR061 (0.165 g/L). The minimum inhibitory concentration of HPLC eluted PLA on the Rhizopus sp. and two Mucor sp. was found to be 180 mg/ml which was further confirmed by inhibition of total mycelia under live cell imaging microscope.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Lactobacillales , Mucormycosis , Probiotics , Humans , Animals , Bees/genetics , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Lactobacillales/genetics , Fungi/genetics , Probiotics/pharmacology , Polyesters
13.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 28(2): e99-e107, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the recent times have instilled signs of immunosuppression globally which has further precipitated increasing range of opportunistic infections. Mucormycosis is a distressing opportunistic fungal infection with a high incidence and is the third commonest acute invasive infection following candidiasis and aspergillosis. The aim of the present observational study is to delineate the enigmatic histopathological profile between mucormycosis cases seen prior to pandemic (PPM) and pandemic associated mucormycosis (PAM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tissue archives of 105 histopathologically diagnosed cases of mucormycosis were included and analysed for demographical details and histopathological parameters like fungal load and localization, granuloma formation, necrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and tissue invasion. RESULTS: 0ut of 105 included cases, 11/105 (10.48%) were reported PPM and 94/105 (89.52%) PAM. Among 94 cases of PAM, 51/94 (54%) cases also showed COVID-19 positivity, while 43/94 (46%) did not. Of all the histological variables, increased fungal load and necrosis were observed in PAM relative to PPM cases. CONCLUSIONS: The histopathological variables like fungal load, necrosis, granuloma formation and tissue invasion, could help the clinician in assessing the clinical status at the time of tissue diagnosis and improve the treatment accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Necrosis/complications , Necrosis/epidemiology , Granuloma
15.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 24(13): 1645-1656, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284903

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has shown an adverse effect worldwide, but in India, it has been observed during the second wave that people who recovered from COVID-19 infection developed a secondary infection because it grows in tandem with COVID-19 treatment. Meanwhile, news of a new deadly fungus has surfaced known as Mucormycosis (Black fungus). Mucormycosis is a fungal infection that invades the blood vessels and is caused by Mucormycetes, a group of fungi. Due to the post-pandemic effect of COVID-19 many fungal and bacterial diseases have affected the population. The reason behind the frequent development of opportunistic infections like mucormycosis is the use of steroids, oxygen masks, and antibiotics throughout the treatment of critically and severely ill patients with COVID-19. Inhaling filamentous fungi from the natural environment and a lack of supportive care units can be a risk factor for mucormycosis. It is usually found in people who are immunocompromised. Mucormycosis is more common in people with HIV/AIDS, COVID-19, congenital bone marrow disease, viral diseases, malignancies, severe burns, and irregularly or untreated and treated diabetes. This review emphasizes triggers that may precipitate mucormycosis related to corticosteroids, recent epidemiology, and incidence of mucormycosis. The infection was diagnosed and identified using a variety of cutting-edge medical techniques, including clinical diagnosis, histopathology, and serology. Many treatment methods, such as antifungal medications and therapies, have also been successfully used. The mortality rate, however, remains high due to an aggressive surgical excision or debridement and lack of early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors , COVID-19 Testing
16.
Mycoses ; 66(6): 515-526, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aetiology of the major outbreak of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) in India in spring 2021 remains incompletely understood. Herein, we provide a multifaceted and multi-institutional analysis of clinical, pathogen-related, environmental and healthcare-related factors during CAM outbreak in the metropolitan New Delhi area. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of all patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven CAM (n = 50) at 7 hospitals in the New Delhi, and NCR area in April-June 2021. Two multivariate logistic regression models were used to compare clinical characteristics of CAM cases with COVID-19-hospitalised contemporary patients as controls (n = 69). Additionally, meteorological parameters and mould spore concentrations in outdoor air were analysed. Selected hospital fomites were cultured. Mucorales isolates from CAM patients were analysed by ITS sequencing and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). RESULTS: Independent risk factors for CAM identified by multivariate analysis were previously or newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, active cancer and severe COVID-19 infection. Supplemental oxygen, remdesivir therapy and ICU admission for COVID-19 were associated with reduced CAM risk. The CAM incidence peak was preceded by an uptick in environmental spore concentrations in the preceding 3-4 weeks that correlated with increasing temperature, high evaporation and decreasing relative humidity. Rhizopus was the most common genus isolated, but we also identified two cases of the uncommon Mucorales, Lichtheimia ornata. WGS found no clonal population of patient isolates. No Mucorales were cultured from hospital fomites. CONCLUSIONS: An intersection of host and environmental factors contributed to the emergence of CAM. Surrogates of access to advanced COVID-19 treatment were associated with lower CAM risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Risk Factors , Disease Outbreaks , India/epidemiology
17.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 44(2): 103702, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245096

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of 0.1 % w/w Liposomal Amphotericin-B gel with 10 % w/w Povidone-Iodine and saline nasal douching in preventing revision surgery in patients with CAM. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-arm, parallel randomized control trial. STUDY SETTING: The trial was conducted in the Department of ENT, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Bhubaneswar. METHODS: Participants: Microbiologically and histologically proven cases of mucormycosis who underwent surgical debridement were included in the study. INTERVENTIONS: Postoperatively, patients were randomized into three groups based on the type of topical intervention received, in the form of Lipid-based Amphotericin B gel, povidone­iodine ointment or saline nasal douching. OUTCOME: Requirement of revision surgery in postoperative cases of CAM. RANDOMIZATION: Participants were allotted to one of the three arms by block randomization. BLINDING: Single-blinded trial. RESULTS: Numbers randomized: 15 participants were randomized to each group. Recruitment: Completed recruiting. Numbers analyzed: 15 participants were analyzed in each group. OUTCOMES: Control arm's risk of revision surgery was 4.50 (95 % CI: 1.16-17.44) times than Lipid-based Amphotericin B gel arm and 1.50 (95 % CI: 0.71-3.16) times that of the Povidone- Iodine arm. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02) for Amphotericin but not for Povidone-Iodine. CONCLUSIONS: Topical Amphotericin-B gel application in the postoperative cavity can decrease the need for revision surgery and help in early recovery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2021/10/037257. Clinical Trials Registry of India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Amphotericin B , SARS-CoV-2 , Povidone-Iodine , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/surgery , Lipids , Treatment Outcome
18.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 56(3): 442-454, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241580

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated mold infection (CAMI) is defined as development of mold infections in COVID-19 patients. Co-pathogenesis of viral and fungal infections include the disruption of tissue barrier following SARS CoV-2 infection with the damage in the alveolar space, respiratory epithelium and endothelium injury and overwhelming inflammation and immune dysregulation during severe COVID-19. Other predisposing risk factors permissive to fungal infections during COVID-19 include the administration of immune modulators such as corticosteroids and IL-6 antagonist. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) is increasingly reported during the COVID-19 pandemic. CAPA usually developed within the first month of COVID infection, and CAM frequently arose 10-15 days post diagnosis of COVID-19. Diagnosis is challenging and often indistinguishable during the cytokine storm in COVID-19, and several diagnostic criteria have been proposed. Development of CAPA and CAM is associated with a high mortality despiteappropriate anti-mold therapy. Both isavuconazole and amphotericin B can be used for treatment of CAPA and CAM; voriconazole is the primary agent for CAPA and posaconazole is an alternative for CAM. Aggressive surgery is recommended for CAM to improve patient survival. A high index of suspicion and timely and appropriate treatment is crucial to improve patient outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , Fungi
19.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 54(6): 417-422, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a rare but serious fungal infection which has dramatically increased in post-COVID patients. There is a paucity of safety data on amphotericin B (amphoB) used for mucormycosis treatment. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this prospective, observational, active safety surveillance study was to evaluate the safety profile of amphoB in a cohort of hospitalized patients who were on the drug for suspected mucormycosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in hospitalized mucormycosis patients who had received amphoB were analyzed. The nature, severity, outcome of the ADRs were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 77 patients enrolled, 70% had documented history of prior COVID-19 infection. 96% had comorbidities, the most common being diabetes. Majority received conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate formulation. 97% experienced at least one suspected ADR and the median ADR/patient was 3. Out of 214 ADRs, 91 were serious but there were no ADR-related deaths. The most common ADRs were hypokalemia (31.78%), infusion-related reactions (22.43%), and anemia (17.29%). Thirty-three patients had serum potassium <2.5 mEq/L, while 11 had serum magnesium <1.25 mg/dL. Doubling of pretreatment creatinine level was noted in 15 patients. Seventy percent ADRs were of "possible" category as per the World Health Organization Uppsala Monitoring Centre categorization. CONCLUSION: AmphoB deoxycholate use in mucormycosis patients was associated with a high incidence of electrolyte abnormalities and infusion-related reactions. All ADRs subsided with medical management and none were fatal. The safety data generated from this study may be useful in resource-limited settings where the far more expensive liposomal formulation is not being used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Mucormycosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Pharmacovigilance , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , India/epidemiology
20.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(2): 452-456, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225954

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe the long-term outcomes of transcutaneous retrobulbar amphotericin B (TRAMB) in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. Methods: In total, 18 cases of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis were reviewed. In addition to the recommended treatment protocol, all patients were to be given 3.5 mg/ml/day of TRAMB for five days. Results: Of the 18 patients, 2 presented with stage 3a disease, 13 had stage 3c disease, and 3 patients had central nervous system (CNS) involvement (stage 4a and 4c). In addition to planned retrobulbar doses, five patients were given more while two patients received fewer injections (i.e., <5). At the last mean follow-up of 34.67 (±8.88) weeks, 11 patients were in radiological regression and 4 had stable disease while 2 patients had to undergo exenteration; one mortality was observed because of disease progression. Clinical regression in terms of visual and ptosis improvement was seen in seven and nine patients, respectively. Conclusion: Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis is a serious condition which warrants an aggressive treatment strategy. In unprecedented situations witnessed recently, TRAMB turned out to be an effective and economical alternative. Though large randomized studies are needed to establish its efficacy, TRAMB still manages to halt progression and salvage the globe in significant number of patients, and hence its use should be encouraged on a case-to-case basis especially in developing countries with limited resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Amphotericin B , COVID-19/complications , Face , Nose , Antifungal Agents , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/etiology
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