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Mol Biol Rep ; 49(4): 3349-3356, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640943


The COVID-19 patients, both infected and recovered are rapidly contracting mucormycetes infections due to the 'Mucorales' order, under Zygomycetes class of fungi. The mucorales fungi commonly known to exist in our natural surroundings including soil, but the frequency of incidences was never rampant. This sudden spike in infections, is locally known as 'black fungus,' and is affecting various organs, including- eyes, sinuses, nose, brain, skin, intestine, lungs, etc. The severity of situation is ascertainable from the fact that, in certain cases surgical eye/jaws removal persists as the only viable option to avert mortality, as therapeutic interventions are limited. This epidemic situation intrigued experts to investigate the probable reason behind this unpredicted escalation in reported cases, including in recuperated COVID-19 patients, as person-to-person spread of infection is not common. The comparison of physiological parameters in healthy and COVID-19 afflicted patients highlights that the underlying conditions including diabetes mellitus, steroidal therapy, lymphopenia (decreased CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes), deregulated cytokine release storm, elevated free iron levels (hemosiderosis) in blood and insulin insensitivity are playing major roles in deteriorating conditions in rarely pathogenic fungal infections. This review is an attempt to explain the rationalities that makes people vulnerable to mucormycetes infection.

Mucorales/immunology , Mucormycosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Humans , Mucormycosis/etiology , Mucormycosis/immunology , Mucormycosis/mortality , Mucormycosis/therapy
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401162


BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.

COVID-19/immunology , Mucormycosis/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diagnostic Imaging , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(4): 317-327, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367964


Since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic, parallel opportunistic infections have also been emerging as another disease spectrum. Among all these opportunistic infection, mucormycosis has become a matter of concern with its rapid increase of cases with rapid spread as compared to pre-COVID-19 era. Cases have been reported in post-COVID-19-related immune suppression along with the presence of comorbidity which adds on the deadly outcome. There is no systematic review addressing the issue of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. This is the first systematic review of published studies of mucormycosis associated with COVID-19. The aim was to analyze the real scenario of the disease statement including all the published studies from first November 2019 to 30th June to analyze the contemporary epidemiology, clinical manifestations, risk factor, prognosis, and treatment outcome of COVID-19 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis. A comprehensive literature search was done in following databases, namely, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and EMBASE using keywords mucormycosis, rhino orbital cerebral mucormycosis, COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 (from November 01, 2019 to June 30, 2021). Our study shows that, while corticosteroids have proved to be lifesaving in severe to critical COVID-19 patients, its indiscriminate use has come with its price of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis epidemic, especially in India especially in patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus with higher mortality. Corticosteroid use should be monitored and all COVID-19 patients should be closely evaluated/monitored for sequelae of immunosuppression following treatment.

COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Meningitis, Fungal/microbiology , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Meningitis, Fungal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Fungal/immunology , Meningitis, Fungal/mortality , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/immunology , Mucormycosis/mortality , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/immunology , Nose Diseases/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/immunology , Orbital Diseases/mortality , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology