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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 676828, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320577

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ulcerative lesions have been episodically reported in various segments of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including the oral cavity, oropharynx, esophagus, stomach and bowel. In this report, we describe an autopsy case of a COVID-19 patient who showed two undiagnosed ulcers at the level of the anterior and posterior walls of the hypopharynx. Molecular testing of viruses involved in pharyngeal ulcers demonstrated the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome - coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA, together with herpes simplex virus 1 DNA. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated full-thickness lympho-monocytic infiltration (mainly composed of CD68-positive cells), with hemorrhagic foci and necrosis of both the mucosal layer and deep skeletal muscle fibers. Fibrin and platelet microthrombi were also found. Cytological signs of HSV-1 induced damage were not found. Cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike subunit 1 were immunohistochemically identified in the inflammatory infiltrations. Immunohistochemistry for HSV1 showed general negativity for inflammatory infiltration, although in the presence of some positive cells. Thus, histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings supported a direct role by SARS-CoV-2 in producing local ulcerative damage, although a possible contributory role by HSV-1 reactivation cannot be excluded. From a clinical perspective, this autopsy report of two undiagnosed lesions put the question if ulcers along the GI tract could be more common (but frequently neglected) in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypopharynx/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ulcer/pathology , Aged , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism , Autopsy , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Hypopharynx/virology , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Necrosis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thrombosis/pathology , Ulcer/virology
2.
Exp Dermatol ; 30(9): 1233-1253, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225667

ABSTRACT

The mucocutaneous manifestations of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) logically may reflect systemic visceral involvements. These findings are visible and easy to approach like biopsies for exact histopathologic evaluations. This systematic review was conducted to collect the mucocutaneous histopathologic data of COVID-19 patients for future investigations and interpretations. The COVID-19 dermatology resource of the Centre of Evidence-Based Dermatology (CEBD) at the University of Nottingham, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Medscape was searched for relevant English articles published by June 3, 2020. This review included 31 articles, involving 459 patients. The common primary virus-related mucocutaneous manifestations are easy to approach in the course of COVID-19. The authors of this study supposed dermatopathological findings as the predictors of the nature of potential systemic involvements and outcomes of COVID-19. Scrutinizing these findings can help with adopting more effective therapeutic and management strategies; nevertheless, this review found the severity and time of onset of symptoms not to be associated with the laboratory and histopathological findings. Deterioration of clinical conditions and laboratory tests was also not related to the histopathological findings. It is recommended that meta-analyses be conducted in the future to detail on these data for having more comprehensive and better conclusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Skin Diseases/pathology , Skin Diseases/virology , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Drug Eruptions/pathology , Humans , Mucous Membrane/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Laryngoscope ; 131(6): E2013-E2017, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969763

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Intracellular entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) depends on the interaction between its spike protein with the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and depends on Furin-mediated spike protein cleavage and spike protein priming by host cell proteases, including transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). As the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin in the middle and inner ear remain unclear, we analyzed the expression of these proteins in mouse ear tissues. STUDY DESIGN: Animal Research. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine the distribution of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin in the Eustachian tube, middle ear spaces, and cochlea of mice. RESULTS: ACE2 was present in the nucleus of the epithelium of the middle ear and Eustachian tube, as well as in some nuclei of the hair cells in the organ of Corti, in the stria vascularis, and the spiral ganglion cells. ACE2 was also expressed in the cytoplasm of the stria vascularis. TMPRSS2 was expressed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in the middle spaces, with the expression being stronger in the nucleus in the mucosal epithelium of the middle ear spaces and Eustachian tube. TMPRSS2 was present in the cytoplasm in the organ of Corti and stria vascularis and in the nucleus and cytoplasm in the spiral ganglion. Furin was expressed in the cytoplasm in the middle ear spaces, Eustachian tube, and cochlea. CONCLUSIONS: ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin are diffusely present in the Eustachian tube, middle ear spaces, and cochlea, suggesting that these tissues are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 131:E2013-E2017, 2021.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Ear, Inner/pathology , Ear, Middle/pathology , Eustachian Tube/pathology , Furin/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Animals , Cochlea/pathology , Epithelium/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Organ of Corti/pathology , Spiral Ganglion/pathology , Stria Vascularis/pathology , Temporal Bone/pathology
4.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(4): e13310, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767240

ABSTRACT

Health professions preventing and controlling Coronavirus Disease 2019 are prone to skin and mucous membrane injury, which may cause acute and chronic dermatitis, secondary infection and aggravation of underlying skin diseases. This is a consensus of Chinese experts on protective measures and advice on hand-cleaning- and medical-glove-related hand protection, mask- and goggles-related face protection, UV-related protection, eye protection, nasal and oral mucosa protection, outer ear, and hair protection. It is necessary to strictly follow standards of wearing protective equipment and specification of sterilizing and cleaning. Insufficient and excessive protection will have adverse effects on the skin and mucous membrane barrier. At the same time, using moisturizing products is highly recommended to achieve better protection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Skin/pathology , COVID-19 , China , Consensus , Emollients/administration & dosage , Gloves, Protective , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment
5.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(9): 3991-3993, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574716

ABSTRACT

Stringent measures have been taken to contain COVID-19 spread, limiting access only for urgent visits, surgery procedures, or hospitalizations and using teledermatology services for non-urgent cases. Management of oncological patients affected by chemo-, immune-, and radiotherapy-related cutaneous and mucosal adverse events is a challenge. Firstly because of the differential diagnosis of cutaneous rash (e.g., drug-related rash or paraviral exanthema). Secondly, oncological patients can suffer from xerosis, pruritus, and mucositis that contribute to cutaneous and mucosal barrier lesions, thus becoming vulnerable site for viral or bacterial colonization. These lesions can also be aggravated by the use of protective mask and gloves. Here, we report also our results of a teledermatological survey on 87 oncological patients, where the health status of oncological patients referred to our dedicated clinic was assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, it is fundamental that oncological patients are followed up by their dermatologists even if the clinics are closed. Teledermatology represents a crucial means of communication. Patients can contact the dermatological staff by emails and telephone, 24 h a day, 7 days a week, for video calls and dermatological consultations.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Skin/pathology , Administration, Cutaneous , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Eruptions/diagnosis , Exanthema/pathology , Exanthema/virology , Humans , Italy , Male , Physical Distancing , Pruritus/pathology , Pruritus/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods
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