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Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686811


Antibody-enzyme complexes (AECs) are ideal molecular recognition elements for immunosensing applications. One molecule possesses both a binding ability to specific targets and catalytic activity to gain signals, particularly oxidoreductases, which can be integrated into rapid and sensitive electrochemical measurements. The development of AECs using fragment antibodies rather than intact antibodies, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), has attracted attention for overcoming the ethical and cost issues associated with the production of intact antibodies. Conventionally, chemical conjugation has been used to fabricate AECs; however, controlling stoichiometric conjugation using this method is difficult. To prepare homogeneous AECs, methods based on direct fusion and enzymatic conjugation have been developed, and more convenient methods using Catcher/Tag systems as coupling modules have been reported. In this review, we summarize the methods for fabricating AECs using fragment antibodies developed for sensing applications and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Antibodies/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Multienzyme Complexes/immunology , Animals , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology
Nature ; 601(7891): 110-117, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510600


Individuals with potential exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) do not necessarily develop PCR or antibody positivity, suggesting that some individuals may clear subclinical infection before seroconversion. T cells can contribute to the rapid clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronavirus infections1-3. Here we hypothesize that pre-existing memory T cell responses, with cross-protective potential against SARS-CoV-2 (refs. 4-11), would expand in vivo to support rapid viral control, aborting infection. We measured SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells, including those against the early transcribed replication-transcription complex (RTC)12,13, in intensively monitored healthcare workers (HCWs) who tested repeatedly negative according to PCR, antibody binding and neutralization assays (seronegative HCWs (SN-HCWs)). SN-HCWs had stronger, more multispecific memory T cells compared with a cohort of unexposed individuals from before the pandemic (prepandemic cohort), and these cells were more frequently directed against the RTC than the structural-protein-dominated responses observed after detectable infection (matched concurrent cohort). SN-HCWs with the strongest RTC-specific T cells had an increase in IFI27, a robust early innate signature of SARS-CoV-2 (ref. 14), suggesting abortive infection. RNA polymerase within RTC was the largest region of high sequence conservation across human seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV) and SARS-CoV-2 clades. RNA polymerase was preferentially targeted (among the regions tested) by T cells from prepandemic cohorts and SN-HCWs. RTC-epitope-specific T cells that cross-recognized HCoV variants were identified in SN-HCWs. Enriched pre-existing RNA-polymerase-specific T cells expanded in vivo to preferentially accumulate in the memory response after putative abortive compared to overt SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data highlight RTC-specific T cells as targets for vaccines against endemic and emerging Coronaviridae.

Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Cell Proliferation , Cohort Studies , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Multienzyme Complexes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Transcription, Genetic/immunology