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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715771

ABSTRACT

The innate immunological response in mammals involves a diverse and complex network of many proteins. Over the last years, the tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5) and 22 (TRIM22) have shown promise as restriction factors of a plethora of viruses that infect primates. Although there have been studies describing the evolution of these proteins in a wide range of mammals, no prior studies of the TRIM6/34/5/22 gene cluster have been performed in the Chiroptera order. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of the evolution of this gene cluster in several bat genomes. Examination of different yangochiroptera and yinpterochiroptera bat species revealed a dynamic history of gene expansion occurring in TRIM5 and TRIM22 genes. Multiple copies of TRIM5 were found in the genomes of several bats, demonstrating a very low degree of conservation in the synteny of this gene among species of the Chiroptera order. Our findings also reveal that TRIM22 is often found duplicated in yangochiroptera bat species, an evolutionary phenomenon not yet observed in any other lineages of mammals. In total, we identified 31 TRIM5 and 19 TRIM22 amino acids to be evolving under positive selection, with most of the residues being placed in the PRYSPRY domain, known to be responsible for binding to the viral capsid during restriction in the primate orthologous TRIM proteins. Altogether, our results help to shed light on the distinctive role of bats in nature as reservoirs of viruses, many of which have become threatening zoonotic diseases through virus spillover in the last decades.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Duplication , Tripartite Motif Proteins/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Chiroptera/classification , Chiroptera/metabolism , Multigene Family , Phylogeny , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism
2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(3): 625-632, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Tigecycline is a last-resort antibiotic used to treat lethal infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales; however, plasmid-borne tigecycline resistance tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters can confer tigecycline resistance. The aim of the study was to identify novel subtypes and the spread of tmexCD-toprJ. METHODS: Five non-duplicate isolates of different species, carrying tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters or novel subtypes, were isolated from patients across China between November 2018 and June 2019. WGS was performed using Illumina and Nanopore platforms. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using a dataset of 77 sequences carrying the tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters, 72 of which were downloaded from NCBI with a blastn identity cut-off of 95%. RESULTS: We detected six different transfer units and two novel subtypes (tmexC1D1.2-toprJ1 and tmexC2D2.2-toprJ2) of the tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters. Among the six transfer units, three were mediated by IS26, while the rest were presumably mediated by Tn5393, hypothetical integrases (xerD-hp clusters-umuC-integrases-tnfxB2-tmexC2D2-toprJ2-umuC) and hypothetical units (hp-hp-hp-tnfxB2-tmexC2D2.2-toprJ2-ΔTn5393-Tn6292). Moreover, two tmexCD-toprJ-like gene clusters co-located on the same plasmid with blaNDM in five isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters may have originated in Pseudomonas spp., being mainly distributed in Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. (64/77). Most tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters in Enterobacterales were located on plasmids, indicating that the gene clusters have a high inter-species transfer risk after transfer to Enterobacterales. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters being isolated from Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella oxytoca, revealing that these multiple transfer units should be further studied because of their clinical significance.


Subject(s)
Enterobacter cloacae , Klebsiella oxytoca , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Enterobacter cloacae/genetics , Humans , Klebsiella oxytoca/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multigene Family , Phylogeny , beta-Lactamases/genetics
3.
Org Lett ; 24(3): 804-808, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632912

ABSTRACT

A chemical investigation of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus californicus led to the isolation of a polyketide-nonribosomal peptide hybrid, calipyridone A (1). A putative biosynthetic gene cluster cpd for production of 1 was next identified by genome mining. The role of the cpd cluster in the production of 1 was confirmed by multiple gene deletion experiments in the host strain as well as by heterologous expression of the hybrid gene cpdA inAspergillus oryzae. Moreover, chemical analyses of the mutant strains allowed the biosynthesis of 1 to be elucidated. The results indicate that the generation of the 2-pyridone moiety of 1 via nucleophilic attack of the iminol nitrogen to the carbonyl carbon is different from the biosynthesis of other fungal 2-pyridone products through P450-catalyzed tetramic acid ring expansions. In addition, two biogenetic intermediates, calipyridones B and C, showed modest inhibition effects on the plaque-forming ability of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/metabolism , Pyridones/metabolism , Aspergillus oryzae/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Gene Deletion , Humans , Multigene Family/genetics , Polyketides/metabolism , Polyketides/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , Pyrrolidinones/metabolism , Pyrrolidinones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
4.
Bioengineered ; 12(2): 12461-12469, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585255

ABSTRACT

Severe mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic resulted from the lack of effective treatment. Although COVID-19 vaccines are available, their side effects have become a challenge for clinical use in patients with chronic diseases, especially cancer patients. In the current report, we applied network pharmacology and systematic bioinformatics to explore the use of biochanin A in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and COVID-19 infection. Using the network pharmacology approach, we identified two clusters of genes involved in immune response (IL1A, IL2, and IL6R) and cell proliferation (CCND1, PPARG, and EGFR) mediated by biochanin A in CRC/COVID-19 condition. The functional analysis of these two gene clusters further illustrated the effects of biochanin A on interleukin-6 production and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction in CRC/COVID-19 pathology. In addition, pathway analysis demonstrated the control of PI3K-Akt and JAK-STAT signaling pathways by biochanin A in the treatment of CRC/COVID-19. The findings of this study provide a therapeutic option for combination therapy against COVID-19 infection in CRC patients.


Subject(s)
Anticarcinogenic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Genistein/therapeutic use , Phytoestrogens/therapeutic use , Atlases as Topic , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/immunology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Cyclin D1/genetics , Cyclin D1/immunology , ErbB Receptors/genetics , ErbB Receptors/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-1alpha/genetics , Interleukin-1alpha/immunology , Interleukin-2/genetics , Interleukin-2/immunology , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/immunology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Multigene Family , PPAR gamma/genetics , PPAR gamma/immunology , Pharmacogenetics/methods , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/immunology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/immunology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , STAT Transcription Factors/immunology , Signal Transduction
5.
Microb Biotechnol ; 14(6): 2356-2368, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522630

ABSTRACT

Salinomycin, an FDA-approved polyketide drug, was recently identified as a promising anti-tumour and anti-viral lead compound. It is produced by Streptomyces albus, and the biosynthetic gene cluster (sal) spans over 100 kb. The genetic manipulation of large polyketide gene clusters is challenging, and approaches delivering reliable efficiency and accuracy are desired. Herein, a delicate strategy to enhance salinomycin production was devised and evaluated. We reconstructed a minimized sal gene cluster (mini-cluster) on pSET152 including key genes responsible for tailoring modification, antibiotic resistance, positive regulation and precursor supply. These genes were overexpressed under the control of constitutive promoter PkasO* or Pneo . The pks operon was not included in the mini-cluster, but it was upregulated by SalJ activation. After the plasmid pSET152::mini-cluster was introduced into the wild-type strain and a chassis host strain obtained by ribosome engineering, salinomycin production was increased to 2.3-fold and 5.1-fold compared with that of the wild-type strain respectively. Intriguingly, mini-cluster introduction resulted in much higher production than overexpression of the whole sal gene cluster. The findings demonstrated that reconstitution of sal mini-cluster combined with ribosome engineering is an efficient novel approach and may be extended to other large polyketide biosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Streptomyces , Multigene Family , Pyrans , Ribosomes/genetics , Streptomyces/genetics
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11234, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246399

ABSTRACT

Understanding the molecular basis of fibrosis, the lethal complication of COVID-19, is urgent. By the analysis of RNA-sequencing data of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells combined with data mining we identified genes involved in COVID-19 progression. To characterize their implication in the fibrosis development we established a correlation matrix based on the transcriptomic data of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. With this method, we have identified a cluster of genes responsible for SARS-CoV-2-fibrosis including its entry receptor ACE2 and epidermal growth factor EGF. Then, we developed Vi-Fi scoring-a novel drug repurposing approach and simultaneously quantified antiviral and antifibrotic activities of the drugs based on their transcriptomic signatures. We revealed the strong dual antifibrotic and antiviral activity of EGFR/ErbB inhibitors. Before the in vitro validation, we have clustered 277 cell lines and revealed distinct COVID-19 transcriptomic signatures of the cells with similar phenotypes that defines their suitability for COVID-19 research. By ERK activity monitoring in living lung cells, we show that the drugs with predicted antifibrotic activity downregulate ERK in the host lung cells. Overall, our study provides novel insights on SARS-CoV-2 dependence on EGFR/ERK signaling and demonstrates the utility of EGFR/ErbB inhibitors for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines/genetics , Disease Progression , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Fibrosis/complications , Fibrosis/genetics , Fibrosis/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Multigene Family , RNA-Seq
7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(11)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225696

ABSTRACT

The widely prescribed pharmaceutical metformin and its main metabolite, guanylurea, are currently two of the most common contaminants in surface and wastewater. Guanylurea often accumulates and is poorly, if at all, biodegraded in wastewater treatment plants. This study describes Pseudomonas mendocina strain GU, isolated from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, using guanylurea as its sole nitrogen source. The genome was sequenced with 36-fold coverage and mined to identify guanylurea degradation genes. The gene encoding the enzyme initiating guanylurea metabolism was expressed, and the enzyme was purified and characterized. Guanylurea hydrolase, a newly described enzyme, was shown to transform guanylurea to one equivalent (each) of ammonia and guanidine. Guanidine also supports growth as a sole nitrogen source. Cell yields from growth on limiting concentrations of guanylurea revealed that metabolism releases all four nitrogen atoms. Genes encoding complete metabolic transformation were identified bioinformatically, defining the pathway as follows: guanylurea to guanidine to carboxyguanidine to allophanate to ammonia and carbon dioxide. The first enzyme, guanylurea hydrolase, is a member of the isochorismatase-like hydrolase protein family, which includes biuret hydrolase and triuret hydrolase. Although homologs, the three enzymes show distinct substrate specificities. Pairwise sequence comparisons and the use of sequence similarity networks allowed fine structure discrimination between the three homologous enzymes and provided insights into the evolutionary origins of guanylurea hydrolase.IMPORTANCE Metformin is a pharmaceutical most prescribed for type 2 diabetes and is now being examined for potential benefits to COVID-19 patients. People taking the drug pass it largely unchanged, and it subsequently enters wastewater treatment plants. Metformin has been known to be metabolized to guanylurea. The levels of guanylurea often exceed that of metformin, leading to the former being considered a "dead-end" metabolite. Metformin and guanylurea are water pollutants of emerging concern, as they persist to reach nontarget aquatic life and humans, the latter if it remains in treated water. The present study has identified a Pseudomonas mendocina strain that completely degrades guanylurea. The genome was sequenced, and the genes involved in guanylurea metabolism were identified in three widely separated genomic regions. This knowledge advances the idea that guanylurea is not a dead-end product and will allow for bioinformatic identification of the relevant genes in wastewater treatment plant microbiomes and other environments subjected to metagenomic sequencing.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Guanidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydrolases/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Metformin/metabolism , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism , Ammonia/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , Biomineralization , Genome, Bacterial/genetics , Guanidine/metabolism , Hydrolases/genetics , Multigene Family , Pseudomonas mendocina/genetics , Pseudomonas mendocina/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas mendocina/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Urea/metabolism , Waste Water/microbiology
8.
Trends Microbiol ; 29(9): 776-778, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034111

ABSTRACT

The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) family contains 17 members in humans, sharing a PARP domain to transfer ADP-ribose groups to target proteins to trigger ADP-ribosylation. The roles of PARPs have evolved from DNA damage repair to diverse biological processes, such as gene transcription, cellular stress response, etc. Recently, seminal studies have demonstrated the critical roles of PAPRs in antiviral innate immunity. PARPs catalyze ADP-ribosylation, a fundamental post-translational modification, using NAD+ as a substrate. ADP-ribosylation can occur either as mono- or poly-(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which is initially linked to DNA damage repair, as exemplified by PARP1. Recent advances in host antiviral immunity demonstrated that several PARPs, such as PARP9, 11, 12, 13, 14, etc., have broad-spectrum antiviral activities that are independent of their ADP-ribosylation.


Subject(s)
Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/immunology , Virus Diseases/enzymology , Virus Diseases/immunology , ADP-Ribosylation , Animals , Humans , Multigene Family , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Viruses/genetics
9.
J Autoimmun ; 117: 102595, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation at a multigene cluster at chromosome 3p21.31 and the ABO blood group have been associated with the risk of developing severe COVID-19, but the mechanism remains unclear. Complement activation has been associated with COVID-19 severity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether chromosome 3p21.31 and the ABO variants are linked to the activation of the complement cascade in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We considered 72 unrelated European hospitalized patients with genetic data and evaluation of circulating C5a and soluble terminal complement complex C5b-9 (SC5b-9). Twenty-six (36.1%) patients carried the rs11385942 G>GA variant and 44 (66.1%) non-O blood group associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19. RESULTS: C5a and SC5-b9 plasma levels were higher in rs11385949 GA carriers than in non-carriers (P = 0.041 and P = 0.012, respectively), while C5a levels were higher in non-O group than in O group patients (P = 0.019). The association between rs11385949 and SC5b-9 remained significant after adjustment for ABO and disease severity (P = 0.004) and further correction for C5a (P = 0.018). There was a direct relationship between upper airways viral load and SC5b-9 in carriers of the rs11385949 risk allele (P = 0.032), which was not observed in non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: The rs11385949 G>GA variant, tagging the chromosome 3 gene cluster variation and predisposing to severe COVID-19, is associated with enhanced complement activation, both with C5a and terminal complement complex, while non-O blood group with C5a levels. These findings provide a link between genetic susceptibility to more severe COVID-19 and complement activation.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3/genetics , Complement Activation/genetics , Genotype , Multigene Family/genetics , Aged , Complement C5a/genetics , Disease Progression , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load
10.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(1): 130.e5-130.e8, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996792

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Investigation whether in depth characterization of virus variant patterns can be used for epidemiological analysis of the first severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection clusters in Hamburg, Germany. METHODS: Metagenomic RNA-sequencing and amplicon-sequencing and subsequent variant calling in 25 respiratory samples from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients involved in the earliest infection clusters in Hamburg. RESULTS: Amplikon sequencing and cluster analyses of these SARS-CoV-2 sequences allowed the identification of the first infection cluster and five non-related infection clusters occurring at the beginning of the viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 in the Hamburg metropolitan region. Viral genomics together with epidemiological analyses revealed that the index patient acquired the infection in northern Italy and transmitted it to two out of 134 contacts. Single nucleotide polymorphisms clearly distinguished the virus variants of the index and other clusters and allowed us to track in which sequences worldwide these mutations were first described. Minor variant analyses identified the transmission of intra-host variants in the index cluster and household clusters. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 variant tracing allows the identification of infection clusters and the follow up of infection chains occurring in the population. Furthermore, the follow up of minor viral variants in infection clusters can provide further resolution on transmission events indistinguishable at a consensus sequence level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Genome, Viral , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Germany/epidemiology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Multigene Family , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Travel
11.
Nature ; 591(7848): 92-98, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971937

ABSTRACT

Host-mediated lung inflammation is present1, and drives mortality2, in the critical illness caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Host genetic variants associated with critical illness may identify mechanistic targets for therapeutic development3. Here we report the results of the GenOMICC (Genetics Of Mortality In Critical Care) genome-wide association study in 2,244 critically ill patients with COVID-19 from 208 UK intensive care units. We have identified and replicated the following new genome-wide significant associations: on chromosome 12q24.13 (rs10735079, P = 1.65 × 10-8) in a gene cluster that encodes antiviral restriction enzyme activators (OAS1, OAS2 and OAS3); on chromosome 19p13.2 (rs74956615, P = 2.3 × 10-8) near the gene that encodes tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2); on chromosome 19p13.3 (rs2109069, P = 3.98 ×  10-12) within the gene that encodes dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9); and on chromosome 21q22.1 (rs2236757, P = 4.99 × 10-8) in the interferon receptor gene IFNAR2. We identified potential targets for repurposing of licensed medications: using Mendelian randomization, we found evidence that low expression of IFNAR2, or high expression of TYK2, are associated with life-threatening disease; and transcriptome-wide association in lung tissue revealed that high expression of the monocyte-macrophage chemotactic receptor CCR2 is associated with severe COVID-19. Our results identify robust genetic signals relating to key host antiviral defence mechanisms and mediators of inflammatory organ damage in COVID-19. Both mechanisms may be amenable to targeted treatment with existing drugs. However, large-scale randomized clinical trials will be essential before any change to clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , 2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21/genetics , Critical Care , Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases/genetics , Drug Repositioning , Female , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Male , Multigene Family/genetics , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics , Receptors, CCR2/genetics , TYK2 Kinase/genetics , United Kingdom
12.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(2): 396-412, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949473

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To define key genetic elements, single or in clusters, underlying SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) evolutionary diversification across continents, and their impact on drug-binding affinity and viral antigenicity. METHODS: A total of 12 150 SARS-CoV-2 sequences (publicly available) from 69 countries were analysed. Mutational clusters were assessed by hierarchical clustering. Structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) was used to select the best inhibitors of 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL-Pr) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) among the FDA-approved drugs and to evaluate the impact of mutations on binding affinity of these drugs. The impact of mutations on epitope recognition was predicted following Grifoni et al. (Cell Host Microbe 2020. 27: 671-80.). RESULTS: Thirty-five key mutations were identified (prevalence: ≥0.5%), residing in different viral proteins. Sixteen out of 35 formed tight clusters involving multiple SARS-CoV-2 proteins, highlighting intergenic co-evolution. Some clusters (including D614GSpike + P323LRdRp + R203KN + G204RN) occurred in all continents, while others showed a geographically restricted circulation (T1198KPL-Pr + P13LN + A97VRdRp in Asia, L84SORF-8 + S197LN in Europe, Y541CHel + H504CHel + L84SORF-8 in America and Oceania). SBVS identified 20 best RdRp inhibitors and 21 best 3CL-Pr inhibitors belonging to different drug classes. Notably, mutations in RdRp or 3CL-Pr modulate, positively or negatively, the binding affinity of these drugs. Among them, P323LRdRp (prevalence: 61.9%) reduced the binding affinity of specific compounds including remdesivir while it increased the binding affinity of the purine analogues penciclovir and tenofovir, suggesting potential hypersusceptibility. Finally, specific mutations (including Y541CHel + H504CHel) strongly hampered recognition of Class I/II epitopes, while D614GSpike profoundly altered the structural stability of a recently identified B cell epitope target of neutralizing antibodies (amino acids 592-620). CONCLUSIONS: Key genetic elements reflect geographically dependent SARS-CoV-2 genetic adaptation, and may play a potential role in modulating drug susceptibility and hampering viral antigenicity. Thus, a close monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 mutational patterns is crucial to ensure the effectiveness of treatments and vaccines worldwide.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Biological/genetics , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Americas , Amino Acid Sequence , Antigens, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asia , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Europe , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Multigene Family , Mutation/genetics , Mutation Rate , Oceania , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Topography, Medical
13.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829158

ABSTRACT

The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of ubiquitous and exclusively eukaryotic proteins with an astoundingly significant number of binding partners. Their binding alters the activity, stability, localization, and phosphorylation state of a target protein. The association of 14-3-3 proteins with the regulation of a wide range of general and specific signaling pathways suggests their crucial role in health and disease. Recent studies have linked 14-3-3 to several RNA and DNA viruses that may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of infections. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge of host-virus interactions is vital for understanding the viral life cycle and developing effective therapeutic strategies. Moreover, pharmaceutical research is already moving towards targeting host proteins in the control of virus pathogenesis. As such, targeting the right host protein to interrupt host-virus interactions could be an effective therapeutic strategy. In this review, we generated a 14-3-3 protein interactions roadmap in viruses, using the freely available Virusmentha network, an online virus-virus or virus-host interaction tool. Furthermore, we summarize the role of the 14-3-3 family in RNA and DNA viruses. The participation of 14-3-3 in viral infections underlines its significance as a key regulator for the expression of host and viral proteins.


Subject(s)
14-3-3 Proteins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Virus Replication , 14-3-3 Proteins/genetics , Carrier Proteins , Humans , Multigene Family , Protein Binding , Signal Transduction , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology
14.
Nature ; 587(7835): 610-612, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808357

ABSTRACT

A recent genetic association study1 identified a gene cluster on chromosome 3 as a risk locus for respiratory failure after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A separate study (COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative)2 comprising 3,199 hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and control individuals showed that this cluster is the major genetic risk factor for severe symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization. Here we show that the risk is conferred by a genomic segment of around 50 kilobases in size that is inherited from Neanderthals and is carried by around 50% of people in south Asia and around 16% of people in Europe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Neanderthals/genetics , Animals , Asia/ethnology , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3/genetics , Europe/ethnology , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Haplotypes/genetics , Hospitalization , Humans , Linkage Disequilibrium/genetics , Multigene Family/genetics , Phylogeny , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology
15.
N Engl J Med ; 383(16): 1522-1534, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-606974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is considerable variation in disease behavior among patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Genomewide association analysis may allow for the identification of potential genetic factors involved in the development of Covid-19. METHODS: We conducted a genomewide association study involving 1980 patients with Covid-19 and severe disease (defined as respiratory failure) at seven hospitals in the Italian and Spanish epicenters of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe. After quality control and the exclusion of population outliers, 835 patients and 1255 control participants from Italy and 775 patients and 950 control participants from Spain were included in the final analysis. In total, we analyzed 8,582,968 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and conducted a meta-analysis of the two case-control panels. RESULTS: We detected cross-replicating associations with rs11385942 at locus 3p21.31 and with rs657152 at locus 9q34.2, which were significant at the genomewide level (P<5×10-8) in the meta-analysis of the two case-control panels (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 2.11; P = 1.15×10-10; and odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.47; P = 4.95×10-8, respectively). At locus 3p21.31, the association signal spanned the genes SLC6A20, LZTFL1, CCR9, FYCO1, CXCR6 and XCR1. The association signal at locus 9q34.2 coincided with the ABO blood group locus; in this cohort, a blood-group-specific analysis showed a higher risk in blood group A than in other blood groups (odds ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.75; P = 1.48×10-4) and a protective effect in blood group O as compared with other blood groups (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.79; P = 1.06×10-5). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a 3p21.31 gene cluster as a genetic susceptibility locus in patients with Covid-19 with respiratory failure and confirmed a potential involvement of the ABO blood-group system. (Funded by Stein Erik Hagen and others.).


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Betacoronavirus , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Respiratory Insufficiency/genetics , Aged , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Genetic Loci , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Multigene Family , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
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