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1.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023948

ABSTRACT

The advancements in nanotechnology and nanomedicine are projected to solve many glitches in medicine, especially in the fields of cancer and infectious diseases, which are ranked in the top five most dangerous deadly diseases worldwide by the WHO. There is great concern to eradicate these problems with accurate diagnosis and therapies. Among many developed therapeutic models, near infra-red mediated phototherapy is a non-invasive technique used to invade many persistent tumors and bacterial infections with less inflammation compared with traditional therapeutic models such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgeries. Herein, we firstly summarize the up-to-date research on graphene phototheranostics for a better understanding of this field of research. We discuss the preparation and functionalization of graphene nanomaterials with various biocompatible components, such as metals, metal oxides, polymers, photosensitizers, and drugs, through covalent and noncovalent approaches. The multifunctional nanographene is used to diagnose the disease with confocal laser scanning microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging computed tomography, positron emission tomography, photoacoustic imaging, Raman, and ToF-SMIS to visualize inside the biological system for imaging-guided therapy are discussed. Further, treatment of disease by photothermal and photodynamic therapies against different cancers and bacterial infections are carefully conferred herein along with challenges and future perspectives.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Graphite , Nanocomposites , Neoplasms , Bacterial Infections/diagnostic imaging , Bacterial Infections/therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Graphite/therapeutic use , Humans , Multimodal Imaging , Nanocomposites/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Phototherapy , Theranostic Nanomedicine/methods
2.
Radiographics ; 42(5): 1415-1432, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962441

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the clinical syndrome produced by infection with SARS-CoV-2, can result in multisystem organ dysfunction, including respiratory failure and hypercoagulability, which can lead to critical illness and death. Musculoskeletal (MSK) manifestations of COVID-19 are common but have been relatively underreported, possibly because of the severity of manifestations in other organ systems. Additionally, patients who have undergone sedation and who are critically ill are often unable to alert clinicians of their MSK symptoms. Furthermore, some therapeutic measures such as medications and vaccinations can worsen existing MSK symptoms or cause additional symptoms. Symptoms may persist or occur months after the initial infection, known as post-COVID condition or long COVID. As the global experience with COVID-19 and the vaccination effort increases, certain patterns of MSK disease involving the bones, muscles, peripheral nerves, blood vessels, and joints have emerged, many of which are likely related to a hyperinflammatory host response, prothrombotic state, or therapeutic efforts rather than direct viral toxicity. Imaging findings for various COVID-19-related MSK pathologic conditions across a variety of modalities are being recognized, which can be helpful for diagnosis, treatment guidance, and follow-up. The online slide presentation from the RSNA Annual Meeting is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal System , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Multimodal Imaging , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 53(6): 326-331, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The most common clinical features of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) include macular schisis in a spoke wheel pattern and peripheral schisis, though other findings such as vitreous veils, vascular attenuation, and subretinal fibrosis have been described. This is the first report to describe retinal folds as a characteristic feature in patients with XLRS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a case series of patients presenting to the retina service at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute with genetically confirmed XLRS. Patients included in this report underwent examination under anesthesia with multimodality imaging. RESULTS: Three patients with XLRS were found to have retinal folds, including a newly characterized "retinal scroll" seen on examination and multimodality imaging. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a retinal fold should yield a differential diagnosis that includes XLRS in the correct clinical context. Panel-based genetic testing and multimodal imaging are useful in guiding clinical management. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2022;53(6):326-331.].


Subject(s)
Retinoschisis , Eye Proteins/genetics , Humans , Multimodal Imaging , Retina , Retinoschisis/diagnosis , Retinoschisis/genetics , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Visual Acuity
5.
Circulation ; 144(6): e123-e135, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883361

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis remains a clinical challenge in pediatrics. Originally, it was recognized at autopsy before the application of endomyocardial biopsy, which led to a histopathology-based diagnosis such as in the Dallas criteria. Given the invasive and low-sensitivity nature of endomyocardial biopsy, its diagnostic focus shifted to a reliance on clinical suspicion. With the advances of cardiac magnetic resonance, an examination of the whole heart in vivo has gained acceptance in the pursuit of a diagnosis of myocarditis. The presentation may vary from minimal symptoms to heart failure, life-threatening arrhythmias, or cardiogenic shock. Outcomes span full resolution to chronic heart failure and the need for heart transplantation with inadequate clues to predict the disease trajectory. The American Heart Association commissioned this writing group to explore the current knowledge and management within the field of pediatric myocarditis. This statement highlights advances in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis, new and shifting dominant pathogeneses, modern laboratory testing, and use of mechanical circulatory support, with a special emphasis on innovations in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Despite these strides forward, we struggle without a universally accepted definition of myocarditis, which impedes progress in disease-targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/therapy , Animals , Biopsy , Child , Clinical Decision-Making , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease Management , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Humans , Multimodal Imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/mortality , Prognosis , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome
6.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 30(5): 1222-1227, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637290

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Corona virus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with a variety of ophthalmic manifestations including acute macular neuroretinopathy and paracentral middle maculopathy. Posterior segment manifestations after post COVID-19 vaccinations have been reported. CASE REPORT: A 25- year-old Asian Indian female developed sequential bilateral AMN following a single dose of COVISHIELD™ vaccine. On investigations she was found to have a ß thalassemia trait. Presentation started unilaterally and progressed to the other eye after a month. On clinical examination, the fundus was apparently normal in both eyes. Significant changes suggestive of AMN were seen on multimodal imaging of the posterior segment of the respective eye at the time of involvement which resolved spontaneously in due course. CONCLUSION: We report a temporal association of COVID-19 vaccination and AMN.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Macula Lutea , White Dot Syndromes , beta-Thalassemia , Adult , Female , Humans , Acute Disease , beta-Thalassemia/complications , beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Multimodal Imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Vaccination , White Dot Syndromes/chemically induced
8.
Clin Radiol ; 76(10): 784.e27-784.e33, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336359

ABSTRACT

AIM: To analyse combined computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of invasive rhino-orbital mucormycosis (IROM) in post-COVID-19 infection patients for accurate diagnosis and delineation of the extent of involvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of 50 patients who developed IROM post-COVID-19 infection who underwent combined CT/MRI evaluation. RESULTS: The age range of the 50 affected patients was 23-73 years. Out of these, 41 were diabetic. CT/MRI showed predominant involvement of the maxillary (n=26) and ethmoid (n=19) sinuses. Extension of disease to the orbit (n=35), cavernous sinus (n=18), hard palate (n=15), skull base (n=8), and intracranial involvement (n=3) was seen. Perineural spread of the disease was analysed along all divisions of the trigeminal nerve and its branches. MRI showed T2-hypointense soft-tissue thickening with heterogeneous contrast enhancement with corresponding hyperdensities on CT diagnosing the presence of fungal elements. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of IROM post-COVID-19 infection. Conjunctive use of CT, which depicts bone destruction and other reactive bony changes along with MRI, which reveals characteristic findings of soft-tissue thickening of the involved sinuses with extension of disease to the orbits, cavernous sinus, dura, hard palate, skull base, and intracranial structures. Accurate diagnosis and early recognition of the disease and its extension with appropriate use of these techniques helps to initiate appropriate and timely treatment, which is vital to prevent a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Multimodal Imaging , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(1): 76-84, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310591

ABSTRACT

Subpleural consolidations have been found in lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19, possibly deriving from pulmonary embolism (PE). The diagnostic utility of impact of lung ultrasound in critical-ill patients with COVID-19 for PE diagnostics however is unclear. We retrospectively evaluated all SARS-CoV2-associated ARDS patients admitted to our ICU between March 8th and May 31th 2020. They were enrolled in this study, when a lung ultrasound and a computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) were documented. In addition, wells score was calculated to estimate the probability of PE. The CTPA was used as the gold standard for the detection of PE. Twenty out of 25 patients met the inclusion criteria. In 12/20 patients (60%) (sub-) segmental PE were detected by CT-angiography. Lung ultrasound found subpleural consolidations in 90% of patients. PE-typical large supleural consolidations with a size ≥ 1 cm were detectable in 65% of patients and were significant more frequent in patients with PE compared to those without (p = 0.035). Large consolidations predicted PE with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 71%. The Wells score was significantly higher in patients with PE compared to those without (2.7 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 0.5, respectively, p = 0.042) and predicted PE with an AUC of 0.81. When combining the two modalities, comparing patients with considered/probable PE using LUS plus a Wells score ≥ 2 to patients with possible/unlikely PE in LUS plus a Wells score < 2, PE could be predicted with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 80%. Large consolidations detected in lung ultrasound were found frequently in COVID-19 ARDS patients with pulmonary embolism. In combination with a Wells score > 2, this might indicate a high-risk for PE in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Clinical Decision Rules , Computed Tomography Angiography , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multimodal Imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Registries , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
11.
Ann Nucl Med ; 35(10): 1117-1125, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism is a severe source of mortality and morbidity in patients with severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019. It is not yet clear whether the tendency to thrombosis is increased in the mild-to-moderate course of COVID-19. Our research aims to show the clinical benefit of Q-SPECT/CT in diagnosing PD in outpatients treated with mild-to-moderate course of COVID-19 and to determine the frequency of perfusion defects in these patients having relatively lower risk. METHODS: All patients who underwent Q-SPECT/CT with suspicion of embolism were examined retrospectively. Only patients with low clinical probability and mild-to-moderate course of COVID-19 for PE were included in the study. The patients were evaluated comparatively as those with and without perfusion defects. Patients were divided into laboratory suspicion, clinical suspicion, or clinical and laboratory suspicion. RESULTS: In outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 with low clinical probability for PE, PD without CT abnormality was detected with a rate of 36.6% with Q-SPECT/CT performed for complaints of high D-dimer and/or dyspnea. None of the patients had PD at more proximal level than the segment level. PD with no concomitant CT abnormality was observed with a rate of 56.5% in patients with both clinical and laboratory suspicion. For D-dimer = 0.5 mg/dL cut-off sensitivity is 85%, for D-dimer = 1.5 mg/dL cut-off specificity 81%. CONCLUSION: Thrombosis tendency is also present in outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, and these patients should also be offered anticoagulant prophylaxis during the COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Perfusion Imaging/methods , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dyspnea/metabolism , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , Multimodal Imaging , Probability , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
12.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 234, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 8-28% of patients infected with COVID-19 have evidence of cardiac injury, and this is associated with an adverse prognosis. The cardiovascular mechanisms of injury are poorly understood and speculative. We aim to use multimodality cardiac imaging including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) to identify the cardiac pathophysiological mechanisms related to COVID-19 infections. METHODS: This is a single-centre exploratory observational study aiming to recruit 50 patients with COVID-19 infection who will undergo cardiac biomarker sampling. Of these, 30 patients will undergo combined CTCA and 18F-FDG-PET/CT, followed by CMR. Prevalence of obstructive and non-obstructive atherosclerotic coronary disease will be assessed using CTCA. CMR will be used to identify and characterise myocardial disease including presence of cardiac dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, myocardial oedema and myocardial infarction. 18F-FDG-PET/CT will identify vascular and cardiac inflammation. Primary endpoint will be the presence of cardiovascular pathology and the association with troponin levels. DISCUSSION: The results of the study will identify the presence and modality of cardiac injury associated COVID-19 infection, and the utility of multi-modality imaging in diagnosing such injury. This will further inform clinical decision making during the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been retrospectively registered at the ISRCTN registry (ID ISRCTN12154994) on 14th August 2020. Accessible at https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN12154994.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Disease/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/virology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/virology , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multimodal Imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prospective Studies , Radiopharmaceuticals
13.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(5): 44, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130910

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A growing number of cardiovascular manifestations resulting from the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) have been described since the beginning of this global pandemic. Acute myocardial injury is common in this population and is associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality. The focus of this review centers on the recent applications of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19-related cardiovascular conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to standard cardiac imaging techniques such as transthoracic echocardiography, other modalities including computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have emerged as useful adjuncts in select patients with COVID-19 infection, particularly those with suspected ischemic and nonischemic myocardial injury. Data have also emerged suggesting lasting COVID-19 subclinical cardiac effects, which may have long-term prognostic implications. With the spectrum of COVID-19 cardiovascular manifestations observed thus far, it is important for clinicians to recognize the role, strengths, and limitations of multimodality imaging techniques in this patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart , Humans , Multimodal Imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115106

ABSTRACT

A 47-year-old man presented to our retina clinic with gradual onset diminution of vision in his right eye for the last 3 months. Anterior segment evaluation was normal in both eyes. Fundus evaluation showed the presence of leopard spot appearance in the right eye with inferior exudative retinal detachment. Multimodal imaging was done to evaluate retinal pigment epithelium function, choroidal thickness, choroidal vascularity and scleral thickness. Multimodal imaging showed increased choroidal thickness, choroidal congestion on indocyanine green angiography and peripheral choroidal detachment with normal sclera thickness in our patient, thus pointing towards a diagnosis of uveal effusion syndrome type 3.


Subject(s)
Retinal Detachment , Uveal Effusion Syndrome , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Fluorescein Angiography , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multimodal Imaging , Retinal Detachment/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence
16.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 15(4): 304-312, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082297

ABSTRACT

Increasing data have accumulated on the role of Cardiac Computed Tomography (CCT) in infective endocarditis (IE) with high accuracy for large vegetations, perivalvular complications and for exclusion of coronary artery disease to avoid invasive angiography. CCT can further help to clarify the etiology of infective prosthetic valve dysfunction (e.g. malposition, abscess, leak, vegetation or mass). Structural interventions have increased the relevance of CCT in valvular heart disease and have amplified its use. CCT may be ideally integrated into a multimodality approach that incorporates a central role of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) with 18-FDG PET and/or cardiac magnetic resonance in individually selected cases, guided by the Heart Team. The coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in renewed attention to CCT as a safe alternative or adjunct to TEE in selected patients. This review article provides a comprehensive, contemporary review on CCT in IE to include scan optimization, characteristics of common IE findings on CCT, published data on the diagnostic accuracy of CCT, multimodality imaging comparison, limitations and future technical advancements.


Subject(s)
Endocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multimodal Imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results
18.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 31(1): 8-16, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065613

ABSTRACT

The management of patients infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be difficult due to the need for dedicated in-hospital pathways, protective measures for healthcare professionals and isolated beds of intensive care, particularly in areas overwhelmed by wide viral spread. Although pneumonia is the most common clinical manifestation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a variety of cardiovascular complications have been reported. An integrated diagnostic algorithm in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with suspected cardiac involvement (laboratory findings of myocardial injury and electrocardiographic changes) may help to avoid unnecessary examinations and minimize the risk of operator infection. Due to its mobility and bedside feasibility, echocardiography is the first-line imaging technique in this clinical setting. It quickly provides information on ventricular functions, pulmonary hypertension, valve disease and pericardial effusion. In case of ST-segment elevation (STE), urgent coronary angiography should be performed. Cardiac ultrasound helps distinguish between ischemic and non-ischemic myocardial disease and may detect pericardial disease. Transmural ischemic electrocardiographic changes, with or without early elevated troponin levels or echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities, will determine the need for early invasive coronary angiography. Computed tomography (CT) through its multiple applications (chest CT; CT pulmonary angiography and coronary CT angiography; late iodine enhancement CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance might be helpful in reinforcing or redirecting diagnostic hypothesis emerged by other clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings. The current pandemic makes it challenging to perform serial invasive and non-invasive diagnostic testing in COVID-19 patients and high serum troponin level. Nevertheless, thoughtful and systematic use of an appropriate multimodality imaging strategy is clinically relevant to detect cardiac injury and distinguish myocardial infarction from, myocarditis, takotsubo syndrome and pulmonary embolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Multimodal Imaging , Cardiac Imaging Techniques , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(12): 2635-2652, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019240

ABSTRACT

As our understanding of the complications of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) evolve, subclinical cardiac pathology such as myocarditis, pericarditis, and right ventricular dysfunction in the absence of significant clinical symptoms represents a concern. The potential implications of these findings in athletes are significant given the concern that exercise, during the acute phase of viral myocarditis, may exacerbate myocardial injury and precipitate malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Such concerns have led to the development and publication of expert consensus documents aimed at providing guidance for the evaluation of athletes after contracting COVID-19 in order to permit safe return to play. Cardiac imaging is at the center of these evaluations. This review seeks to evaluate the current evidence regarding COVID-19-associated cardiovascular disease and how multimodality imaging may be useful in the screening and clinical evaluation of athletes with suspected cardiovascular complications of infection. Guidance is provided with diagnostic "red flags" that raise the suspicion of pathology. Specific emphasis is placed on the unique challenges posed in distinguishing athletic cardiac remodeling from subclinical cardiac disease. The strengths and limitations of different imaging modalities are discussed and an approach to return to play decision making for athletes post-COVID-19, as informed by multimodality imaging, is provided.


Subject(s)
Athletes , COVID-19/complications , Competitive Behavior , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Multimodal Imaging/standards , Return to Sport , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Computed Tomography Angiography/standards , Consensus , Coronary Angiography/standards , Echocardiography/standards , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/standards , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Tomography, Emission-Computed/standards
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