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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e049045, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462957

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Prevalence estimates for specific chronic conditions and multimorbidity (MM) in eastern Europe are scarce. This national study estimates the prevalence of MM by age group and sex in Estonia. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study, using administrative data. SETTING: Data were collected on 55 chronic conditions from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund from 2015 to 2017. MM was defined as the coexistence of two or more conditions. PARTICIPANTS: The Estonian Health Insurance Fund includes data for approximately 95% of the Estonian population receiving public health insurance. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and 95% CIs for MM stratified by age group and sex. RESULTS: Nearly half (49.1%) of the individuals (95% CI 49.0 to 49.3) had at least 1 chronic condition, and 30.1% (95% CI 30.0 to 30.2) had MM (2 or more chronic conditions). The number of conditions and the prevalence of MM increased with age, ranging from an MM prevalence of 3.5% (3.5%-3.6%) in the youngest (0-24 years) to as high as 80.4% (79.4%-81.3%) in the oldest (≥85 years) age group. Half of all individuals had MM by 60 years of age, and 75% of the population had MM by 75 years of age. Women had a higher prevalence of MM (34.9%, 95% CI 34.7 to 35.0) than men (24.4%, 95% CI 24.3 to 24.5). Hypertension was the most frequent chronic condition (24.5%), followed by chronic pain (12.4%) and arthritis (7.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension is an important chronic condition amenable to treatment with lifestyle and therapeutic interventions. Given the established correlation between uncontrolled hypertension and exacerbation of other cardiovascular conditions as well as acute illnesses, this most common condition within the context of MM may be suitable for targeted public health interventions.


Subject(s)
Multimorbidity , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Estonia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prevalence , Young Adult
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 908, 2021 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-existing comorbidities have been linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection but evidence is sparse on the importance and pattern of multimorbidity (2 or more conditions) and severity of infection indicated by hospitalisation or mortality. We aimed to use a multimorbidity index developed specifically for COVID-19 to investigate the association between multimorbidity and risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We used data from the UK Biobank linked to laboratory confirmed test results for SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality data from Public Health England between March 16 and July 26, 2020. By reviewing the current literature on COVID-19 we derived a multimorbidity index including: (1) angina; (2) asthma; (3) atrial fibrillation; (4) cancer; (5) chronic kidney disease; (6) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; (7) diabetes mellitus; (8) heart failure; (9) hypertension; (10) myocardial infarction; (11) peripheral vascular disease; (12) stroke. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between multimorbidity and risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection (hospitalisation/death). Potential effect modifiers of the association were assessed: age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, smoking status, body mass index, air pollution, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, cardiorespiratory fitness, high sensitivity C-reactive protein. RESULTS: Among 360,283 participants, the median age was 68 [range 48-85] years, most were White (94.5%), and 1706 had severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence of multimorbidity was more than double in those with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection (25%) compared to those without (11%), and clusters of several multimorbidities were more common in those with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most common clusters with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection were stroke with hypertension (79% of those with stroke had hypertension); diabetes and hypertension (72%); and chronic kidney disease and hypertension (68%). Multimorbidity was independently associated with a greater risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted odds ratio 1.91 [95% confidence interval 1.70, 2.15] compared to no multimorbidity). The risk remained consistent across potential effect modifiers, except for greater risk among older age. The highest risk of severe infection was strongly evidenced in those with CKD and diabetes (4.93 [95% CI 3.36, 7.22]). CONCLUSION: The multimorbidity index may help identify individuals at higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes and provide guidance for tailoring effective treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Risk Factors
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051107, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403077

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Multimorbidity refers to the presence of two or more chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in a given individual. It is associated with premature mortality, lower quality of life (QoL) and greater use of healthcare resources. The burden of multimorbidity could be huge in the low and middle-income countries (LMICs), including Ethiopia. However, there is limited evidence on the magnitude of multimorbidity, associated risk factors and its effect on QoL and functionality. In addition, the evidence base on the way health systems are organised to manage patients with multimorbidity is sparse. The knowledge gleaned from this study could have a timely and significant impact on the prevention, management and survival of patients with NCD multimorbidity in Ethiopia and in LMICs at large. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study has three phases: (1) a cross-sectional quantitative study to determine the magnitude of NCD multimorbidity and its effect on QoL and functionality, (2) a qualitative study to explore organisation of care for patients with multimorbidity, and (3) a longitudinal quantitative study to investigate disease progression and patient outcomes over time. A total of 1440 patients (≥40 years) on chronic care follow-up will be enrolled from different facilities for the quantitative studies. The quantitative data will be collected from multiple sources using the KoBo Toolbox software and analysed by STATA V.16. Multiple case study designs will be employed to collect the qualitative data. The qualitative data will be coded and analysed by Open Code software thematically. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical clearance has been obtained from the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University (protocol number 003/2021). Subjects who provide written consent will be recruited in the study. Confidentiality of data will be strictly maintained. Findings will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Ambulatory Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Multimorbidity , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Outpatients , Quality of Life
5.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ethnic minorities account for 34% of critically ill patients with COVID-19 despite constituting 14% of the UK population. Internationally, researchers have called for studies to understand deterioration risk factors to inform clinical risk tool development. METHODS: Multicentre cohort study of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 (n=3671) exploring determinants of health, including Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) subdomains, as risk factors for presentation, deterioration and mortality by ethnicity. Receiver operator characteristics were plotted for CURB65 and ISARIC4C by ethnicity and area under the curve (AUC) calculated. RESULTS: Ethnic minorities were hospitalised with higher Charlson Comorbidity Scores than age, sex and deprivation matched controls and from the most deprived quintile of at least one IMD subdomain: indoor living environment (LE), outdoor LE, adult skills, wider barriers to housing and services. Admission from the most deprived quintile of these deprivation forms was associated with multilobar pneumonia on presentation and ICU admission. AUC did not exceed 0.7 for CURB65 or ISARIC4C among any ethnicity except ISARIC4C among Indian patients (0.83, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.93). Ethnic minorities presenting with pneumonia and low CURB65 (0-1) had higher mortality than White patients (22.6% vs 9.4%; p<0.001); Africans were at highest risk (38.5%; p=0.006), followed by Caribbean (26.7%; p=0.008), Indian (23.1%; p=0.007) and Pakistani (21.2%; p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic minorities exhibit higher multimorbidity despite younger age structures and disproportionate exposure to unscored risk factors including obesity and deprivation. Household overcrowding, air pollution, housing quality and adult skills deprivation are associated with multilobar pneumonia on presentation and ICU admission which are mortality risk factors. Risk tools need to reflect risks predominantly affecting ethnic minorities.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/analysis , Benchmarking/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Ethnic Groups , Housing/standards , Patient Admission , Risk Assessment/methods , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , Comorbidity , Crowding , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335082

ABSTRACT

The severity of COVID-19 infections could be exacerbated by the epidemic of chronic diseases and underlying inequalities in social determinants of health. Nonetheless, there is scanty evidence in regions with a relatively well-controlled outbreak. This study examined the socioeconomic patterning of COVID-19 severity and its effect modification with multimorbidity in Hong Kong. 3074 local COVID-19 cases diagnosed from 5 July to 31 October 2020 were analyzed and followed up until 30 November 2020. Data on residential addresses, socio-demographic background, COVID-19 clinical conditions, and pre-existing chronic diseases of confirmed cases were retrieved from the Centre for Health Protection and the Hospital Authority. Results showed that, despite an independent adverse impact of multimorbidity on COVID-19 severity (aOR = 2.35 [95% CI = 1.72-3.19]), it varied across the socioeconomic ladder, with no significant risk among those living in the wealthiest areas (aOR = 0.80 [0.32-2.02]). Also, no significant association of the area-level income-poverty rate with severe COVID-19 was observed. In conclusion, the socioeconomic patterning of severe COVID-19 was mild in Hong Kong. Nonetheless, socioeconomic position interacted with multimorbidity to determine COVID-19 severity with a mitigated risk among the socioeconomically advantaged. Plausible explanations include the underlying socioeconomic inequalities in chronic disease management and the equity impact of the public-private dual-track healthcare system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multimorbidity , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Syndemic
7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255534, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Burgeoning burden of non-communicable disease among older adults is one of the emerging public health problems. In the COVID-19 pandemic, health services in low- and middle-income countries, including Bangladesh, have been disrupted. This may have posed challenges for older adults with non-communicable chronic conditions in accessing essential health care services in the current pandemic. The present study aimed at exploring the challenges experienced by older Bangladeshi adults with non-communicable chronic conditions in receiving regular health care services during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study followed a cross-sectional design and was conducted among 1032 Bangladeshi older adults aged 60 years and above during October 2020 through telephone interviews. Self-reported information on nine non-communicable chronic conditions (osteoarthritis, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, chronic kidney disease, cancer) was collected. Participants were asked if they faced any difficulties in accessing medicine and receiving routine medical care for their medical conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The association between non-communicable chronic conditions and accessing medication and health care was analysed using binary logic regression model. RESULTS: Most of the participants aged 60-69 years (77.8%), male (65.5%), married (81.4%), had no formal schooling (58.3%) and resided in rural areas (73.9%). Although more than half of the participants (58.9%) reported having a single condition, nearly one-quarter (22.9%) had multimorbidity. About a quarter of the participants reported difficulties accessing medicine (23%) and receiving routine medical care (27%) during the pandemic, and this was significantly higher among those suffering from multimorbidity. In the adjusted analyses, participants with at least one condition (AOR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.33-2.85) and with multimorbidity (AOR: 4.75, 95% CI: 3.17-7.10) had a higher likelihood of experiencing difficulties accessing medicine. Similarly, participants with at least one condition (AOR: 3.08, 95% CI: 2.11-4.89) and with multimorbidity (AOR: 6.34, 95% CI: 4.03-9.05) were significantly more likely to face difficulties receiving routine medical care during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that a sizeable proportion of the older adults had difficulties in accessing medicine and receiving routine medical care during the pandemic. The study findings highlight the need to develop an appropriate health care delivery pathway and strategies to maintain essential health services during any emergencies and beyond. We also argue the need to prioritise the health of older adults with non-communicable chronic conditions in the centre of any emergency response plan and policies of Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Income , Male , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity
9.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323410

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Multimorbidity , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity , Phobic Disorders , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
10.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1278-1286, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bamlanivimab and casirivimab-imdevimab are authorized for treatment of mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in high-risk patients. We compared the outcomes of patients who received these therapies to identify factors associated with hospitalization and other clinical outcomes. METHODS: Adult patients who received monoclonal antibody from 19 November 2020 to 11 February 2021 were selected and divided into those who received bamlanivimab (n = 2747) and casirivimab-imdevimab (n = 849). The 28-day all-cause and COVID-19-related hospitalizations were compared between the groups. RESULTS: The population included 3596 patients; the median age was 62 years, and 50% were female. All had ≥1 medical comorbidity; 55% had multiple comorbidities. All-cause and COVID-19-related hospitalization rates at 28 days were 3.98% and 2.56%, respectively. After adjusting for medical comorbidities, there was no significant difference in all-cause and COVID-19-related hospitalization rates between bamlanivimab and casirivimab-imdevimab (adjusted hazard ratios [95% confidence interval], 1.4 [.9-2.2] and 1.6 [.8-2.7], respectively). Chronic kidney, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and immunocompromised status were associated with higher likelihood of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study on the use of bamlanivimab and casirivimab-imdevimab in high-risk patients showed similarly low rates of hospitalization. The number and type of medical comorbidities are associated with hospitalizations after monoclonal antibody treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(7): e967-e976, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been remarkable progress in the treatment of HIV throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but there are few data on the prevalence and overlap of other significant causes of disease in HIV endemic populations. Our aim was to identify the prevalence and overlap of infectious and non-communicable diseases in such a population in rural South Africa. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional study of eligible adolescents and adults from the Africa Health Research Institute demographic surveillance area in the uMkhanyakude district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The participants, who were 15 years or older, were invited to participate at a mobile health camp. Medical history for HIV, tuberculosis, hypertension, and diabetes was established through a questionnaire. Blood pressure measurements, chest x-rays, and tests of blood and sputum were taken to estimate the population prevalence and geospatial distribution of HIV, active and lifetime tuberculosis, elevated blood glucose, elevated blood pressure, and combinations of these. FINDINGS: 17 118 adolescents and adults were recruited from May 25, 2018, to Nov 28, 2019, and assessed. Overall, 52·1% (95% CI 51·3-52·9) had at least one active disease. 34·2% (33·5-34·9) had HIV, 1·4% (1·2-1·6) had active tuberculosis, 21·8% (21·2-22·4) had lifetime tuberculosis, 8·5% (8·1-8·9) had elevated blood glucose, and 23·0% (22·4-23·6) had elevated blood pressure. Appropriate treatment and optimal disease control was highest for HIV (78·1%), and lower for elevated blood pressure (42·5%), active tuberculosis (29·6%), and elevated blood glucose (7·1%). Disease prevalence differed notably by sex, across age groups, and geospatially: men had a higher prevalence of active and lifetime tuberculosis, whereas women had a substantially high prevalence of HIV at 30-49 years and an increasing prevalence of multiple and poorly controlled non-communicable diseases when older than 50 years. INTERPRETATION: We found a convergence of infectious and non-communicable disease epidemics in a rural South African population, with HIV well treated relative to all other diseases, but tuberculosis, elevated blood glucose, and elevated blood pressure poorly diagnosed and treated. A public health response that expands the successes of the HIV testing and treatment programme to provide multidisease care targeted to specific populations is required to optimise health in such settings in sub-Saharan Africa. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the South African Department of Science and Innovation, South African Medical Research Council, and South African Population Research Infrastructure Network. TRANSLATION: For the isiZulu translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Epidemics , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Prevalence , South Africa/epidemiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the poor health of people experiencing homelessness is increasingly recognised in health discourse, there is a dearth of research that has quantified the nature and magnitude of chronic health issues and morbidity among people experiencing homelessness, particularly in the Australian context. METHODS: Analysis of the medical records of 2068 "active" patients registered with a specialist homeless health service in Perth, Western Australia as of 31 December 2019. RESULTS: Overall, 67.8% of patients had at least one chronic physical health condition, 67.5% had at least one mental health condition, and 61.6% had at least one alcohol or other drug (AOD) use disorder. Nearly half (47.8%) had a dual diagnosis of mental health and AOD use issues, and over a third (38.1%) were tri-morbid (mental health, AOD and physical health condition). Three-quarters (74.9%) were multimorbid or had at least two long-term conditions (LTCs), and on average, each patient had 3.3 LTCs. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings have substantial implications from both a health risk and healthcare treatment perspective for people experiencing homeless. The pervasiveness of preventable health conditions among people experiencing homelessness also highlights the imperative to improve the accessibility of public health programs and screening to reduce their morbidity and premature mortality.


Subject(s)
Homeless Persons , Multimorbidity , Australia/epidemiology , Humans , Primary Health Care , Western Australia/epidemiology
13.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(6): 256-260, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281053

ABSTRACT

Individuals with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) represent a growing proportion of the adult population in the United States, particularly among lower-income individuals and people of color. Despite ongoing efforts to characterize this population and develop approaches for effective management, individuals with MCCs continue to contribute substantially to health care expenditures. Based on a review of recent literature, several identified barriers limit the effectiveness of care for patients with MCCs. Health care delivery system structural limitations, evidence-based care concerns, patient-clinician relationship constraints, and barriers to inclusion of patient-centered priorities may singly or in combination negatively affect outcomes for individuals with MCCs. The COVID-19 pandemic has shed further light on inequities contributing to suboptimal MCC patient management. Awareness of the prevalence and demographic attributes of patients with MCCs and the identified barriers to care may help improve patient engagement and treatment outcomes for this high-cost population. This paper provides recommendations for enhancing MCC patient care outcomes in the current and post-COVID-19 health care delivery settings.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Multimorbidity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 131(5): 439-446, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267006

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Long-term care facility (LTCF) residents are typically excluded from clinical trials due to multimorbidity, dementia, and frailty, so there are no clear evidence-based rules for treating arterial hypertension in this population. Moreover, the role of hypertension as mortality risk factor in LTCFs has not yet been clearly established. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate whether treated hypertension is associated with lower mortality among older LTCF residents with multimorbidity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was performed in a group of 168 residents aged ≥ 65 years in three LTCFs. Initial assessment included blood pressure (BP) measurements and selected geriatric scales: MNA-SF, AMTS and ADL. Hypertension, comorbidities, pharmacotherapy, antihypertensive drugs and mortality during one-year follow-up were extracted from the medical records. The data was compared in groups: Survivors and Deceased. RESULTS: Survivors and Deceased revealed similar age, DBP, number of diseases, medications, and antihypertensive drugs. However, Deceased had significantly lower SBP (P <0.05) and presented significantly worse functional, nutritional and cognitive status than Survivors (P <0.001). Hypertension (P <0.001) and antihypertensive therapy (P <0.05) were significantly more frequent among Survivors. Significantly more of the hypertensive-treated than other multimorbid residents survived the follow-up (P <0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that treated hypertension had a protective effect on mortality [OR = 0.11 (95% CI, 0.03-0.39); P <0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: One-year survival of LTCF residents with treated hypertension was significantly higher than the others. Appropriate antihypertensive therapy may be a protective factor against death in frail nursing home residents, even in short period of time.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Long-Term Care , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Multimorbidity , Risk Factors
15.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(6): 589-597, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265534

ABSTRACT

The burden of an epidemic is often characterized by death counts, but this can be misleading as it fails to acknowledge the age of the deceased patients. Years of life lost is therefore widely used as a more relevant metric, however, such calculations in the context of COVID-19 are all biased upwards: patients dying from COVID-19 are typically multimorbid, having far worse life expectation than the general population. These questions are quantitatively investigated using a unique Hungarian dataset that contains individual patient level data on comorbidities for all COVID-19 deaths in the country. To account for the comorbidities of the patients, a parametric survival model using 11 important long-term conditions was used to estimate a more realistic years of life lost. As of 12 May, 2021, Hungary reported a total of 27,837 deaths from COVID-19 in patients above 50 years of age. The usual calculation indicates 10.5 years of life lost for each death, which decreases to 9.2 years per death after adjusting for 11 comorbidities. The expected number of years lost implied by the life table, reflecting the mortality of a developed country just before the pandemic is 11.1 years. The years of life lost due to COVID-19 in Hungary is therefore 12% or 1.3 years per death lower when accounting for the comorbidities and is below its expected value, but how this should be interpreted is still a matter of debate. Further research is warranted on how to optimally integrate this information into epidemiologic risk assessments during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Life Expectancy , Life Tables , Multimorbidity , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Hungary , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 901-905, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247819

ABSTRACT

Care for patients with multimorbidity and long-term complex needs is costly and with demographic changes this group is growing. The research project Dignity Care addresses how to improve the care for this patient group by studying how a conceptual shared digital care plan for complex clinical pathways can guide and support cross-organisational care teams. This paper presents the user-centred design process for the digital care plan development. Panels of patients and health care professionals will participate in co-creation user workshops and simulation of complex patients' pathways. The main contribution from this work is recommendations for how to actively involve user groups in digital health development, applying a partly remote approach of user-centred design methodology during the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Health Personnel , Humans , Multimorbidity , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Lancet ; 397(10288): 1979-1991, 2021 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219658

ABSTRACT

The demographics of the UK population are changing and so is the need for health care. In this Health Policy, we explore the current health of the population, the changing health needs, and future threats to health. Relative to other high-income countries, the UK is lagging on many health outcomes, such as life expectancy and infant mortality, and there is a growing burden of mental illness. Successes exist, such as the striking improvements in oral health, but inequalities in health persist as well. The growth of the ageing population relative to the working-age population, the rise of multimorbidity, and persistent health inequalities, particularly for preventable illness, are all issues that the National Health Service (NHS) will face in the years to come. Meeting the challenges of the future will require an increased focus on health promotion and disease prevention, involving a more concerted effort to understand and tackle the multiple social, environmental, and economic factors that lie at the heart of health inequalities. The immediate priority of the NHS will be to mitigate the wider and long-term health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, but it must also strengthen its resilience to reduce the impact of other threats to health, such as the UK leaving the EU, climate change, and antimicrobial resistance.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/trends , Demography/trends , State Medicine/organization & administration , Aging , COVID-19 , Cost of Illness , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Humans , Life Expectancy , Maternal-Child Health Services , Mental Health , Multimorbidity/trends , Oral Health/trends , State Medicine/trends , United Kingdom/epidemiology
18.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(10): 671-676, 2021 05.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217717

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses new challenges for the healthcare systems world-wide which will go beyond prevention, acute and intensive care treatment of patients with severe illness. A large proportion of "COVID-survivors" - and not only elderly patients - suffers from "post-COVID-syndrome". Risk factors are preexisting somatic multimorbidity, cognitive and cerebral changes together with pneumonia and hypoxemia, intensive care treatment and confusional states during the acute phase of illness. Post-COVID cognitive deficits usually manifest as a frontal dysexecutive syndrome combined with fatigue and dysphoria and/or with attentional and memory deficits. Several pathogenetic mechanisms of COVID encephalopathy are understood, but no specific treatment strategies have been established so far. We assume that general practitioners, psychiatrists, neurologists and social workers will need to take care of the activation, reintegration and expert appraisals of patients with post-COVID fatigue and cognitive deficits during the years to come.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 51: 101895, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188871

ABSTRACT

Since 27th December 2020, a mRNA vaccine from BioNTech / Pfizer (Comirnaty®) has been used across Germany. As of 12th March 2021, 286 fatalities of vaccinated German individuals were registered at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute with time intervals after vaccination between one hour to 40 days. From our catchment area in northern Germany, we have so far become aware of 22 deaths in connection with vaccination in a 5 week period (range: 0-28 days after vaccination). Three death cases after vaccination with Comirnaty®, which were autopsied at the Institute of Legal Medicine Hamburg, are presented in more detail. All three deceased had severe cardiovascular diseases, among other comorbidities, and died in the context of these pre-existing conditions, while one case developed a COVID-19 pneumonia as cause of death. Taking into account the results of the postmortem examination a causal relation between the vaccination and the death was not established in any case. If there are indications of an allergic reaction, histological and postmortem laboratory examinations should be performed subsequent to the autopsy (tryptase, total IgE, CRP, interleukin-6, complement activity C3/C5).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Frail Elderly , Multimorbidity , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Cause of Death , Fatal Outcome , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Vaccines, Synthetic
20.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211010991, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186538

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the process and outcome of creating a patient cohort in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in order to better understand the process of and predict the outcomes of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1169 adults aged 18 years of age or older who tested positive in Mayo Clinic Rochester or the Mayo Clinic Midwest Health System between January 1 and May 23 of 2020. RESULTS: Patients were on average 43.9 years of age and 50.7% were female. Most patients were white (69.0%), and Blacks (23.4%) and Asians (5.8%) were also represented in larger numbers. Hispanics represented 16.3% of the sample. Just under half of patients were married (48.4%). Common comorbid conditions included: cardiovascular diseases (25.1%), dyslipidemia (16.0%), diabetes mellitus (11.2%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (6.6%), asthma (7.5%), and cancer (5.1%). All other comorbid conditions were less the 5% in prevalence. Data on 3 comorbidity indices are also available including the: DHHS multi-morbidity score, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and Mayo Clinic COVID-19 Risk Factor Score. CONCLUSION: In addition to managing the ever raging pandemic and growing death rates, it is equally important that we develop adequate resources for the investigation and understanding of COVID-19-related predictors and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Midwestern United States/epidemiology , Multimorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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