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1.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 54: e322, Dec. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2325889

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Datos de varios países del mundo sugieren que los niños con COVID-19 podrían presentar síntomas diferentes y menos graves que los adultos. Sin embargo, los patrones epidemiológicos y clínicos en este grupo poblacional son poco claros. Métodos: El presente es un estudio observacional, con una caracterización inicial transversal-analítica, y con un componente longitudinal o de seguimiento a un grupo de menores con sospecha y/o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19, que presentaron desenlaces como mejoría, traslado a un nivel superior de atención o defunción por sintomatología respiratoria. Los niños recibieron atención médica en el Hospital General Regional con Medicina Familiar N.° 1 (HGR C/MF N.° 1), y se les realizó prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (RT-PCR). Resultados: Se estudiaron 98 niños como casos sospechosos para COVID-19, a quienes se les realizó RT-PCR. Del total, 24 resultaron positivos y 74 fueron negativos. La mediana de edad de los participantes fue 64,4 meses (0 a 203 meses), 55 menores eran de sexo masculino, 59 niños tuvieron manejo ambulatorio, y de estos, 14 presentaron resultado positivo. Entre los que requirieron manejo hospitalario (39), 10 niños dieron positivo para SARS-CoV-2, 84,7% alcanzaron mejoría y fueron dados de alta, 4 fueron trasladados a hospitales de nivel superior de atención. De los 98 niños en estudio, 11 fallecieron, 7 con resultado negativo y 4 con resultado positivo para SARS-CoV-2. Conclusiones: Los principales síntomas de la población pediátrica en este estudio fueron fiebre, tos y malestar general. De los niños que fallecieron, 4 presentaron resultado positivo para SARS-CoV-2, no obstante, estos presentaban otras comorbilidades.


Abstract Introduction: Data from several countries around the world suggest that children with COVID-19 may present different and less severe symptoms than adults. However, the epidemiological and clinical patterns in this population group have been unclear. Methods: This is an observational study, with an initial cross-analytical characterization, and with a longitudinal or follow-up component in a group of minors with suspected and or confirmed case of COVID-19, which have outcomes such as improvement, transfer to a higher level of care or death due to respiratory symptoms. The children received medical attention at the Regional General Hospital with Family Medicine No 1 (HGR C / MF No 1), and underwent a Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction test (RT-PCR). Results: 98 children were studied as suspected cases for COVID-19, who underwent RT-PCR. Of the total 24 were positive and 74 were negatives. The median age was 64.4 months (0 to 203 months), 55 minors were male, 59 children had outpatient management, and of these, 14 had a positive result. Among those who required hospital management (39), 10 children were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 84.7% achieved improvement and were discharged, and four were transferred to a higher level of care hospital. Of the 98 children in the study, 11 died, seven had a negative result and four a positive result for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: The main symptoms of the pediatric population in this study were fever, cough and general discomfort. Four of those who died had a positive result for SARS-CoV-2, however, they had other comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Child , Mortality , Multimorbidity , COVID-19 , Mexico
2.
PLoS Med ; 20(4): e1004229, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326654
3.
JAMA Intern Med ; 183(5): 415-416, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323114
4.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 887, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317418

ABSTRACT

Multimorbidity increases the risk of all-cause mortality, and along with age, is an independent risk factor for severe disease and mortality from COVID-19. Inequities in the social determinants of health contributed to increased mortality from COVID-19 among disadvantaged populations. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of multimorbid conditions and associations with the social determinants of health in the US prior to the pandemic.Methods Data from the 2017-18 cycle of NHANES were used to determine the prevalence of 13 chronic conditions, and the prevalence of having 0, 1, or 2 or more of those conditions, among the US adult population aged ≥ 20 years. Multimorbidity was defined as having 2 or more of these conditions. Data were stratified according to demographic, socioeconomic and indicators of health access, and analyses including logistic regression, performed to determine the factors associated with multimorbidity.Results The prevalence of multimorbidity was 58.4% (95% CI 55.2 to 61.7). Multimorbidity was strongly associated with age and was highly prevalent among those aged 20-29 years at 22.2% (95% CI 16.9 to 27.6) and continued to increase with older age. The prevalence of multimorbidity was highest in those defined as Other or multiple races (66.9%), followed in decreasing frequency by rates among non-Hispanic Whites (61.2%), non-Hispanic Blacks (57.4%), Hispanic (52.0%) and Asian (41.3%) groups.Logistic regression showed a statistically significant relationship between multimorbidity and age, as expected. Asian race was associated with a reduced likelihood of 2 or more chronic conditions (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.57; P < 0.0001). Socioeconomic factors were related to multimorbidity. Being above the poverty level (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.91, p = 0.013); and a lack of regular access to health care (OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.88, p = 0.008) were both associated with a reduced likelihood of multimorbidity. Furthermore, there was a borderline association between not having health insurance and reduced likelihood of multimorbidity (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40 to 1.0; p = 0.053).Conclusions There are high levels of multimorbidity in the US adult population, evident from young adulthood and increasing with age. Cardiometabolic causes of multimorbidity were highly prevalent, especially obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes; conditions subsequently found to be associated with severe disease and death from COVID-19. A lack of access to care was paradoxically associated with reduced likelihood of comorbidity, likely linked to underdiagnosis of chronic conditions. Obesity, poverty, and lack of access to healthcare are factors related to multimorbidity and were also relevant to the health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, that must be addressed through comprehensive social and public policy measures. More research is needed on the etiology and determinants of multimorbidity, on those affected, patterns of co-morbidity, and implications for individual health and impact on health systems and society to promote optimal outcomes. Comprehensive public health policies are needed to tackle multimorbidity and reduce disparities in the social determinants of health, as well as to provide universal access to healthcare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multimorbidity , Adult , Humans , Young Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Nutrition Surveys , Social Determinants of Health , Obesity/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Prevalence
5.
Nat Med ; 29(2): 334-343, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279041

ABSTRACT

The influence of comorbidities on COVID-19 outcomes has been recognized since the earliest days of the pandemic. But establishing causality and determining underlying mechanisms and clinical implications has been challenging-owing to the multitude of confounding factors and patient variability. Several distinct pathological mechanisms, not active in every patient, determine health outcomes in the three different phases of COVID-19-from the initial viral replication phase to inflammatory lung injury and post-acute sequelae. Specific comorbidities (and overall multimorbidity) can either exacerbate these pathological mechanisms or reduce the patient's tolerance to organ injury. In this Review, we consider the impact of specific comorbidities, and overall multimorbidity, on the three mechanistically distinct phases of COVID-19, and we discuss the utility of host genetics as a route to causal inference by eliminating many sources of confounding. Continued research into the mechanisms of disease-state interactions will be crucial to inform stratification of therapeutic approaches and improve outcomes for patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Multimorbidity , Comorbidity
6.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e43762, 2023 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating research provides evidence that the psychological health of older people deteriorated from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic. Unlike robust individuals, coexisting frailty and multimorbidity expose older adults to more complicated and wide-ranging stressors. Community-level social support (CSS) is also an important impetus for age-friendly interventions, and it is 1 of the components of social capital that is seen as an ecological-level property. To date, we have not found research that examines whether CSS buffered the adverse impacts of combined frailty and multimorbidity on psychological distress in a rural setting during COVID-19 in China. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the combined effect of frailty and multimorbidity on psychological distress in rural Chinese older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and examines whether CSS would buffer the aforementioned association. METHODS: Data used in this study were extracted from 2 waves of the Shandong Rural Elderly Health Cohort (SREHC), and the final analytic sample included 2785 respondents who participated in both baseline and follow-up surveys. Multilevel linear mixed effects models were used to quantify the strength of the longitudinal association between frailty and multimorbidity combinations and psychological distress using 2 waves of data for each participant, and then, cross-level interactions between CSS and combined frailty and multimorbidity were included to test whether CSS would buffer the adverse impact of coexisting frailty and multimorbidity on psychological distress. RESULTS: Frail older adults with multimorbidity reported the most psychological distress compared to individuals with only 1 or none of the conditions (ß=.68, 95% CI 0.60-0.77, P<.001), and baseline coexisting frailty and multimorbidity predicted the most psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic (ß=.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.43, P<.001). Further, CSS moderated the aforementioned association (ß=-.16, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.09, P<.001), and increased CSS buffered the adverse effect of coexisting frailty and multimorbidity on psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic (ß=-.11, 95% CI -0.22 to -0.01, P=.035). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that more public health and clinical attention should be paid to psychological distress among multimorbid older adults with frailty when facing public health emergencies. This research also suggests that community-level interventions prioritizing social support mechanisms, specifically improving the average levels of social support within communities, may be an effective approach to alleviate psychological distress for rural older adults who concurrently manifest frailty and multimorbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Psychological Distress , Humans , Aged , Frailty/epidemiology , Multimorbidity , East Asian People , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Support
7.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 123(3): 70-74, 2023.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of psychosomatic and anxiety symptoms of depression on the formation of postmorbid adaptation in patients who have undergone SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data of 54 patients, aged 18-55 years, with a current depressive episode who had outpatient SARS-CoV-2 infection were analyzed. The Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) was used and somatic condition was assessed using a general assessment of the patient's function limitation at the stage of reconvalescence. A linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association of psychosomatic and anxiety symptoms with somatic condition in SARS-CoV-2 infection, regardless of other factors. RESULTS: The multimorbidity model took into account, in addition to SARS-CoV-2 caused by organic somatic disorders, psychosomatic manifestations (B=-1.9, p=0.004) and anxiety (B=-3.7, p=0.04) symptoms of depression. Somatic anxiety was significantly correlated with a pronounced impairment of postmorbid readaptation (p<0.05), while mental anxiety did not demonstrate such a relationship (p=0.46). The observed trend seems to be due to the overlap of manifestations of somatic anxiety with the construct of residual somatic symptoms, even though there is no multicollinearity between them. CONCLUSION: Identification of clusters of symptoms associated with reduced opportunities for full recovery in the SARS-CoV-2-postmorbid period can significantly help in providing a high-quality and targeted psychopharmacological care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Humans , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Multimorbidity , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Psychophysiologic Disorders/psychology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245581

ABSTRACT

National Test for Poles' Health is an online study conducted on a large group of Polish Internet users. For the purpose of this study, 64,732 subjects (48.8% female) over 65 years old were included. Subjects provided answers on the level of physical activity (PA) they engage in, prevalence of non-communicable diseases (obesity, hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), depression, cancer) and subjective physical and psychological health. Additionally, their Body Mass Index (BMI) and prevalence of multimorbidity was assessed. We found that older people who engage in at least 2 h of physical activity/week had significantly lower prevalence of hypertension, obesity and heart diseases than those who engaged in 1-1.5 h/week or less than 1 h/week. Multimorbidity was present in 33.2% of subjects from the most active group and 52.6% of the least active ones. Subjective physical and psychological health was rated as "very good" by 26.6% and 41.2%, respectively, by subjects from the most active group. Only 9.1% of the least active subjects rated their physical health as "very good" and only 27.4% rated their psychological health as such. Regular physical activity may be a helpful tool in combating the reduced well-being of older people affected by the isolation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Unfortunately, over 65% of respondents claimed to engage in less than 1 h of PA a week or less.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Hypertension , Humans , Female , Aged , Male , Multimorbidity , Poland/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Exercise/psychology , Obesity
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1082164, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235129

ABSTRACT

Although countries in central and eastern Europe (CEE) have relatively younger populations compared to the West, their populations are often affected by higher prevalence of chronic conditions and multi-morbidity and this burden will likely increase as their populations age. Relatively little is known about how these countries cater to the needs of complex patients. This Perspective piece identifies key initiatives to improve coordination of care in Czechia, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia, including some pioneering and far-reaching approaches. Unfortunately, some of them have failed to be implemented, but a recent strategic commitment to care coordination in some of these countries and the dedication to rebuilding stronger health systems after the COVID-19 pandemic offer an opportunity to take stock of these past and ongoing experiences and push for more progress in this area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multimorbidity , Humans , Poland/epidemiology , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Hungary/epidemiology , Slovakia/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease
10.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 18(2): 111-115, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230567

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This perspective paper offers some reflections on an hypothesized changing scenario of HIV comorbidities in the years to come and provides some insights on how to improve screening and management of people with HIV (PWH) in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era. RECENT FINDINGS: PWH may experience a higher burden of excess disease and mortality associated with noninfectious comorbidities in the COVID-19 era. HIV care must move beyond viral-immunological success to incorporate patient-centered outcomes based on the intrinsic characteristics of the individual and its environment, assessment and screening for comorbidities, evaluation of aging and geriatric syndromes and last but not least fight stigma, ageism and inequality to access to care. SUMMARY: COVID-19 is widening the gap between unmet needs of PWH and healthcare systems. An increasing burden of comorbidities, multimorbidity and frailty is affecting PWH which requires redesign of care delivery oriented around the diverse needs of individuals, rather than the prerequisites of providers, and must ensure health equity. In particular, any changes to care delivery must address existing disparities in access and care among PWH and fight stigma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Multimorbidity , Morbidity
11.
CMAJ ; 195(4): E143-E152, 2023 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is a prevalent risk factor for COVID-19-related complications and death. We sought to evaluate the association of homologous booster vaccination using BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or CoronaVac (Sinovac) with COVID-19-related deaths among people with multimorbidity during the initial Omicron wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using routine clinical records from public health care facilities in Hong Kong, we conducted a territory-wide retrospective cohort study comparing people aged 18 years or older with 2 or more chronic conditions who received a homologous booster (third) dose with those who received only 2 doses, between Nov. 11, 2021, and Mar. 31, 2022. The primary outcome was death related to COVID-19. RESULTS: We included 120 724 BNT162b2 recipients (including 87 289 who received a booster), followed for a median of 34 (interquartile range [IQR] 20-63) days and 127 318 CoronaVac recipients (including 94 977 who received a booster), followed for a median of 38 (IQR 22-77) days. Among BNT162b2 recipients, booster-vaccinated people had fewer COVID-19-related deaths than those who received 2 doses (5 v. 34, incidence rate 1.3 v. 23.4 per million person-days, weighted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.16). We observed similar results among recipients of CoronaVac booster vaccination compared with those who received only 2 doses (26 v. 88, incidence rate 5.3 v. 53.1 per million person-days, weighted IRR 0.08, 95% CI 0.05-0.12). INTERPRETATION: Among people with multimorbidity, booster vaccination with BNT162b2 or CoronaVac was associated with reductions of more than 90% in COVID-19-related mortality rates compared with only 2 doses. These results highlight the crucial role of booster vaccination for protecting vulnerable populations as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , mRNA Vaccines , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , Cohort Studies , Multimorbidity , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
12.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 24(4): 419-425.e10, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180058

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether older people living with multimorbidity would suffer an accelerated decline in cognition during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared with prepandemic data. DESIGN: A 5-year cohort conducting surveys from year 2016 to 2021, with 2016 to 2019 as the control period and 2019 to 2021 the pandemic period. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: In total, 9304 cognitively healthy older participants age ≥50 years were included from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). METHODS: Multimorbidity was defined as the concurrent presence of 2 or more chronic diseases. A global cognition z score was calculated using memory (immediate and delayed word recall tests) and executive function (counting backwards and the serial sevens tests). Incident dementia was defined using either the reported physician diagnosis or an alternative approach based on cognition summary score. Linear mixed models were used to assess longitudinal changes, while modified Poisson regression models were used to analyze the risk of incident dementia. RESULTS: Of the 9304 participants included, 3649 (39.2%) were men, with a mean age of 65.8 ± 10.8 years. Participants with multimorbidity (n = 4375) suffered accelerated declines of 0.08 standard deviation (95% confidence interval 0.03, 0.13, P = .003) in global cognition and an elevated dementia risk (risk ratio 1.66, 95% confidence 1.05 to 2.61, P = .029), compared with individuals without morbidity (n = 1818) during the pandemic period. After further adjusting sociodemographic characteristics and prepandemic cognitive measurements, these differences remained evident. In contrast, no significant differences in cognitive declines were observed during the control period. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, older people with multimorbidity suffered an accelerated decline in cognition and elevated incident dementia risk, while no evident differences in cognitive decline rates were observed before the pandemic. Measures targeting vulnerable older people with multimorbidity could be significant for assisting these individuals to tackle neurocognitive challenges during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Male , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Female , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Multimorbidity , Dementia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognition
13.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 26, 2023 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused rapid changes in primary care delivery in the UK, with concerns that certain groups of the population may have faced increased barriers to access. This study assesses the impact of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic on primary care consultations for individuals with multimorbidity and identifies ethnic inequalities. METHODS: A longitudinal study based on monthly data from primary care health records of 460,084 patients aged ≥18 years from 41 GP practices in South London, from February 2018 to March 2021. Descriptive analysis and interrupted time series (ITS) models were used to analyse the effect of the pandemic on primary care consultations for people with multimorbidity and to identify if the effect varied by ethnic groups and consultation type. RESULTS: Individuals with multimorbidity experienced a smaller initial fall in trend at the start of the pandemic. Their primary care consultation rates remained stable (879 (95% CI 869-890) per 1000 patients in February to 882 (870-894) March 2020), compared with a 7% decline among people without multimorbidity (223 consultations (95% CI 221-226) to 208 (205-210)). The gap in consultations between the two groups reduced after July 2020. The effect among individuals with multimorbidity varied by ethnic group. Ethnic minority groups experienced a slightly larger fall at the start of the pandemic. Individuals of Black, Asian, and Other ethnic backgrounds also switched from face-to-face to telephone at a higher rate than other ethnic groups. The largest fall in face-to-face consultations was observed among people from Asian backgrounds (their consultation rates declined from 676 (659-693) in February to 348 (338-359) in April 2020), which may have disproportionately affected their quality of care. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected primary care utilisation in patients with multimorbidity. While there is evidence of a successful needs-based prioritisation of multimorbidity patients within primary care at the start of the pandemic, inequalities among ethnic minority groups were found. Strengthening disease management for these groups may be necessary to control widening inequalities in future health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , London/epidemiology , Multimorbidity , Longitudinal Studies , Time Factors , Pandemics , Minority Groups , Referral and Consultation , Primary Health Care
14.
Public Health Nurs ; 40(3): 417-427, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193178

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: People experiencing homelessness (PEH) have been especially impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, likely due to increased vulnerabilities stemming from chronic diseases, substance use, and mental health conditions. DESIGN: A case-control study to assess the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among PEH and associations with key variables. SAMPLE: A convenience sample of 97 PEH in Skid Row, Los Angeles. MEASUREMENTS: A structured questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, mental health, drug and alcohol use, health care access, pandemic stress, and other COVID-19-specific questions. RESULTS: We found high anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG titers among five of 15 PEH who reported no prior COVID-19 diagnosis or being vaccinated, suggesting undiagnosed and/or asymptomatic COVID-19. While anti-RBD IgG titers across vaccination categories were not statistically significant (p = .069), participants vaccinated with Janssen had the lowest mean anti-RBD IgG titers. In multivariable analysis, we found negative associations between level of SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers with the Janssen vaccine and depression; thus, a need for integrated care for PEH with depression and COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is warranted to confirm the immune response, initial and over time, to SARS-CoV-2 infection and to COVID-19 vaccinations, particularly among PEH whose immune systems may be impacted by multiple health conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ill-Housed Persons , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Pandemics , Multimorbidity , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
15.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 55(4): 792-804, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The restrictions imposed during the management of the pandemic led to lack of care of other health problems. PURPOSE: To assess changes in the health status of complex multimorbidity elderly, functional and cognitive capacities, perception of the social surroundings, care provided by the nurses, including nursing diagnosis and interventions, use of health services, adverse events, and use of devices and technical help during the first 6 months of the Covid-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A 1-year longitudinal cohort study was conducted. METHODS: Ninety-seven complex multimorbid elderly attended in primary care were evaluated every 3 months in a health area of the Spanish National Health System (SNHS). The research was called "SAMAC3 study". RESULTS: Significant negative changes were observed in the functional and cognitive capacity of the elderly, and in several nursing diagnoses. A decrease was observed in the frequency of visit to the nurses, hospital admittance, length of hospital stays, and falls. CONCLUSIONS: The functional and cognitive capacities of the cohort became worse. However, a significant decrease in the frequency of use of health services was observed. The nurses detected significant changes in activity-exercise, cognitive-perception, and roles-relationships, but their interventions were mostly centered on resolving clinical matters that required immediate attention. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The present study allowed us to observe that a situation of social and health stress has worsened the health indicators of multimorbid elderly, and the clinical care of community nurses was insufficient to providing care for the deterioration of the physical and cognitive domains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Multimorbidity , Longitudinal Studies , Follow-Up Studies
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e41404, 2023 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, identifying the main risk factors has been imperative to properly manage the public health challenges that the pandemic exposes, such as organizing effective vaccination campaigns. In addition to gender and age, multimorbidity seems to be 1 of the predisposing factors coming out of many studies investigating the possible causes of increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and adverse outcomes. However, only a few studies conducted have used large samples. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the association between multimorbidity, the probability to be tested, susceptibility, and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Piedmont population (Northern Italy, about 4 million inhabitants). For this purpose, we considered 5 main outcomes: access to the swab, positivity to SARS-CoV-2, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death within 30 days from the first positive swab. METHODS: Data were obtained from different Piedmont health administrative databases. Subjects aged from 45 to 74 years and infections diagnosed from February to May 2020 were considered. Multimorbidity was defined both with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and by identifying patients with previous comorbidities, such as diabetes and oncological, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. Multivariable logistic regression models (adjusted for age and month of infection and stratified by gender) were performed for each outcome. Analyses were also conducted by separating 2 age groups (45-59 and 60-74 years). RESULTS: Of 1,918,549 subjects, 85,348 (4.4%) performed at least 1 swab, of whom 12,793 (14.9%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of these 12,793 subjects, 4644 (36.3%) were hospitalized, 1508 (11.8%) were admitted to the ICU, and 749 (5.9%) died within 30 days from the first positive swab. Individuals with a higher CCI had a higher probability of being swabbed but a lower probability of testing positive. We observed the same results when analyzing subjects with previous oncological and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, especially in the youngest group, we identified a greater risk of being hospitalized and dying. Among comorbidities considered in the study, respiratory diseases seemed to be the most likely to increase the risk of having a positive swab and worse disease outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that patients with multimorbidity, although swabbed more frequently, are less likely to get infected with SARS-CoV-2, probably due to greater attention on protective methods. Moreover, a history of respiratory diseases is a risk factor for a worse prognosis of COVID-19. Nonetheless, whatever comorbidities affect the patients, a strong dose-response effect was observed between an increased CCI score and COVID-19 hospitalization, ICU admission, and death. These results are important in terms of public health because they help in identifying a group of subjects who are more prone to worse SARS-CoV-2 outcomes. This information is important for promoting targeted prevention and developing policies for the prioritization of public health interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Multimorbidity , Pandemics , Comorbidity
17.
Age Ageing ; 51(5)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151828

ABSTRACT

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) usually provide the best evidence for treatments and management. Historically, older people have often been excluded from clinical medication trials due to age, multimorbidity and disabilities. The situation is improving, but still the external validity of many trials may be questioned. Individuals participating in trials are generally less complex than many patients seen in geriatric clinics. Recruitment and retention of older participants are particular challenges in clinical trials. Multiple channels are needed for successful recruitment, and especially individuals experiencing frailty, multimorbidity and disabilities require support to participate. Cognitive decline is common, and often proxies are needed to sign informed consent forms. Older people may fall ill or become tired during the trial, and therefore, special support and empathic study personnel are necessary for the successful retention of participants. Besides the risk of participants dropping out, several other pitfalls may result in underestimating or overestimating the intervention effects. In nonpharmacological trials, imperfect blinding is often unavoidable. Interventions must be designed intensively and be long enough to reveal differences between the intervention and control groups, as control participants must still receive the best normal care available. Outcome measures should be relevant to older people, sensitive to change and targeted to the specific population in the trial. Missing values in measurements are common and should be accounted for when designing the trial. Despite the obstacles, RCTs in geriatrics must be promoted. Reliable evidence is needed for the successful treatment, management and care of older people.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Multimorbidity , Aged , Humans
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(24)2022 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The challenge posed by multimorbidity makes it necessary to look at new forms of prevention, a fact that has become heightened in the context of the pandemic. We designed a questionnaire to detect multimorbidity patterns in people over 50 and to associate these patterns with mental and physical health, COVID-19, and possible social inequalities. METHODS: This was an observational study conducted through a telephone interview. The sample size was 1592 individuals with multimorbidity. We use Latent Class Analysis to detect patterns and SF-12 scale to measure mental and physical quality-of-life health. We introduced the two dimensions of health and other social determinants in a multinomial regression model. RESULTS: We obtained a model with five patterns (entropy = 0.727): 'Relative Healthy', 'Cardiometabolic', 'Musculoskeletal', 'Musculoskeletal and Mental', and 'Complex Multimorbidity'. We found some differences in mental and physical health among patterns and COVID-19 diagnoses, and some social determinants were significant in the multinomial regression. CONCLUSIONS: We identified that prevention requires the location of certain inequalities associated with the multimorbidity patterns and how physical and mental health have been affected not only by the patterns but also by COVID-19. These findings may be critical in future interventions by health services and governments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multimorbidity , Humans , Pandemics , Social Determinants of Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063573, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137753

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is growing evidence that the impact of COVID-19 crisis may be stronger for individuals with multimorbidity, frailty and lower socioeconomic status. Existing reviews focus on few, mainly short-term effects of COVID-19 illness and patients with single chronic disease. Information is also largely missing for population representative samples.Applying population-based approach, the systematic reviews will have two objectives: (1) to evaluate the aetiological roles of frailty, multimorbidity and socioeconomic status on SARS-CoV-2 infection probability, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation and COVID-19 related mortality among general population and (2) to investigate the prognostic roles of frailty, multimorbidity and socioeconomic characteristics on the risk of hospitalisation, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, COVID-19 mortality, functioning, quality of life, disability, mental health and work absence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: For this ongoing work, four databases were searched: PubMed, Embase, WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease and PsycINFO, for the period between January 2020 and April 7 2021. Peer-reviewed published literature in English and all types of population-based studies will be considered. Studies using standard tools to assess multimorbidity such as disease count, comorbidity indices or disease combinations will be retained, as well as studies with standard scales and scores for frailty or measurement of a socioeconomic gradient. Initial search included 10 139 articles, 411 for full-text reading. Results will be summarised by risk factor, objective and outcome. The feasibility of meta-analysis will be determined by the findings and will aim to better understand uncertainties of the results. Quality of studies will be assessed using standardised scales. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study will be based on published evidence, and it is exempt from the ethical approval. This work is part of the Population Health Information Research Infrastructure (PHIRI) project. Dissemination of the results will imply conference presentation, submission for scientific publication and PHIRI project report. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021249444.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Humans , Frailty/epidemiology , Multimorbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Prognosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Socioeconomic Factors , Meta-Analysis as Topic
20.
Medicina (Ribeirao Preto, Online) ; 55(3)set. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2145216

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever o perfil de óbitos por COVID-19 no município de Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, descritivo, com dados oriundos do banco de óbitos da Vigilância Epidemiológica, registrados no período de março a dezembro de 2020. Resultados: Dos 194 óbitos, a maioria era do sexo masculino (63,4%), com 60 anos ou mais (82,5%), de cor da pele branca (82,5%), residentes na região central histórica do município (11,3%). Quanto à ocupação, a maior ocorrência de óbitos foi entre os aposentados (69,5%), seguido por comerciante ou autônomo (17,7%). Com relação às morbidades, 38,7% tinha cardiopatias, 29,4% hipertensão arterial sistêmica, 28,0% diabetes mellitus e praticamente a metade dos indivíduos tinha multimorbidade (49,0%). Conclusões: Com a identificação do perfil de óbitos por COVID-19 no município de Rio Grande no período de março a dezembro de 2020, esses dados podem contribuir para auxiliar os gestores no planejamento de ações estratégicas e educativas de prevenção e combate à COVID-19, principalmente no direcionamento de grupos prioritários nas campanhas de vacinação (AU)


Objective: Describe the COVID-19 death profile in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study using data from the Epidemiological Surveillance service deaths database of deaths notified from March to December 2020. Results: Of the 194 deaths, most were male (63.4%), aged 60 years or more (82.5%), of white skin color (82.5%), and living in the central historic district of the city (11.3%). With regard to occupation, the highest occurrence of deaths was among retirees (69.5%), followed by tradesmen or the self-employed (17.7%). Regarding morbidities, 38.7% had heart disease, 29.4% hypertension, 28.0% diabetes mellitus, and practically half of the individuals had multiple morbidities (49.0%). Conclusions: We identified the profile of COVID-19 deaths in the city of Rio Grande in the period from March to December 2020. These data can help health service managers to plan strategic and educational actions to prevent and combat COVID-19, mainly by targeting priority groups in vaccination campaigns


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunization Programs , Epidemiological Monitoring , Multimorbidity , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology
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