With the appearance of SARS-CoV-2, the range of infections, considered the most common cause of death for people with multiple myeloma, has expanded. Although the omicron variant (PANGO B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2, that dominates the world at the time of manuscript writing, is less likely to cause fatal infection in immunocompetent patients compared to the delta variant (PANGO B.1.617.2), its transmissibility did not decrease. The likelihood of a severe or critical course of COVID-19 in patients with multiple myeloma is increased by the humoral and cellular immunosuppression caused by the malignancy itself, its targeted hematological treatment, and other comorbidities associated with the disease (e.g., chronic kidney failure). Antiviral therapies, monoclonal antibody preparations used as pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis, and possibly convalescent plasma therapy, started as early as possible might prevent the clinical progression of COVID-19. While the incidence of community-acquired co-infections accompanying COVID-19 in the average population is not exceptionally high, in people with multiple myeloma, Streptococcus pneumoniae infection that follows respiratory viral diseases is approximately 150 times more likely to cause invasive disease. As a result of modern oncohematological treatment, multiple myeloma has now become a chronic disease accompanied by relapses, and those affected should be immunized against the above two pathogens. In our manuscript, we describe the case of an adult patient with severe COVID-19 complicated by cytokine storm and invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection who was diagnosed with de novo multiple myeloma during hospital care, and, finally, we briefly review the related literature data. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(20): 763-769.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Multiple Myeloma , Pneumococcal Infections , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Rain
PURPOSE: The use of virtual care rapidly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic and has persisted as a routine method of care delivery. Much of the literature on virtual care in oncology has focused on solid tumors, and little is known about its application in malignant hematology. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with hematologic malignancies at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre from October 2019 to March 2021 to determine the use of virtual care during this period, cost-savings associated with virtual visits, and patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction was assessed using the Your Voice Matters survey, a provincially administered survey to evaluate patient experience. RESULTS: Overall, 12.1% (1,122/9,295) of patients had a virtual visit during the study period (0% from October 2019 to February 2020, 36% from March to August 2020, and 30% from September 2020 to March 2021), of which 36% were in the lymphoma clinic and 46% were in the myeloma clinic. The mean two-way opportunity cost for an in-person visit was $168.00 CAD per person with public transit, and $120.40 CAD per person driving. Responses to the Your Voice Matters survey indicated that patients with a virtual visit reported that physical symptoms were discussed appropriately (mean 4.73/5), and were more likely to ask for a follow-up virtual visit compared with patients with in-person visits (mean 4.50/5 v 3.02/5, respectively; P < .01). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that virtual care may be a feasible and well-received tool for delivering care to a substantial proportion of patients with hematologic malignancies, while enabling substantial cost-savings to patients.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Multiple Myeloma , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Multiple Myeloma/therapy
INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has profound effects on patients with multiple myeloma (MM) mainly due to underlying immune dysfunction and associated therapies leading to increased susceptibility to infections. The overall risk of morbidity and mortality (M&M) in MM patients due to COVID-19 infection is unclear with various studies suggesting case fatality rate of 22% to 29%. Additionally, most of these studies did not stratify patients by their molecular risk profile. METHODS: Here, we aim to investigate the effects of COVID-19 infection with associated risk factors in MM patients and the effectiveness of newly implemented screening and treatment protocols on outcomes. After obtaining institutional review board approvals from each participating institution, we collected data from MM patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection from March 1, 2020, to October 30, 2020, at 2 myeloma centers (Levine Cancer Institute & University of Kansas medical center). RESULTS: We identified a total of 162 MM patients who had COVID-19 infection. The majority of patients were males (57%) with a median age of 64 years. Most patients had an associated comorbid condition. Their myeloma disease status and prior autologous stem cell transplant at the time of infection had no impact on hospitalization or mortality. In univariate analysis, chronic kidney disease, hepatic dysfunction, diabetes, and hypertension were associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. In multivariate analysis regarding survival, increased age and lymphopenia were associated with increased COVID-19-related mortality. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the use of infection mitigation measures in all MM patients, and adjustment of treatment pathways in MM patients diagnosed with COVID-19.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Multiple Myeloma , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Risk Factors
RATIONALE: Light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a rare condition characterized by the abnormal deposition of monoclonal light chains (LCs) in multiple organs, leading to progressive organ dysfunction. Herein, we report a case of plasma cell myeloma initially diagnosed as LCDD on liver biopsy performed for prominent cholestatic hepatitis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 55-year-old Korean man complained of dyspepsia as the main symptom. On abdominal computed tomography performed at another hospital, the liver showed mildly decreased and heterogeneous attenuation with mild periportal edema. Preliminary liver function tests revealed abnormal results. The patient was treated for an unspecified liver disease; however, his jaundice gradually worsened, prompting him to visit our outpatient hepatology clinic for further evaluation. Magnetic resonance cholangiography revealed liver cirrhosis with severe hepatomegaly of unknown cause. A liver biopsy was performed for the diagnosis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed diffuse extracellular amorphous deposits in perisinusoidal spaces with compressed hepatocytes. The deposits, which morphologically resembled amyloids, were not stained by Congo red but stained strongly positive for kappa LCs and weakly positive for lambda LCs. DIAGNOSES: Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with LCDD. Further systemic examination revealed a plasma cell myeloma. INTERVENTIONS: Fluorescence in situ hybridization, cytogenetics, and next-generation sequencing tested in bone marrow showed no abnormalities. The patient initially received bortezomib/lenalidomide/dexamethasone as the treatment regimen for plasma cell myeloma. OUTCOMES: However, he died shortly thereafter because of coronavirus disease 2019 complications. LESSONS: This case demonstrates that LCDD may present with sudden cholestatic hepatitis and hepatomegaly, and may be fatal if patients do not receive appropriate and timely treatment because of delayed diagnosis. Liver biopsy is useful for the diagnosis of patients with liver disease of unknown etiology.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Multiple Myeloma , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Hepatomegaly , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/complications , Lenalidomide , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone , Biopsy
OBJECTIVE: Multiple myeloma is a clonal plasma cell proliferation often causing bone lytic lesions. It is sometimes challenging to differentiate these lytic lesions associated with multiple myeloma from bone destruction due to a metastasis. Although coexistence of solid tumors and plasma cell myeloma in one patient has been described, synchronous skeletal metastases from both neoplasms occurring in the same bone lesion is exceptional. Indeed, only one case has been reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report a case involving a 68-year-old Caucasian male patient admitted to our department for coronavirus disease 2019 infection with incidental finding of multiple lytic bone lesions during hospitalization. Laboratory tests revealed an increased immunoglobulin G kappa M protein and high levels of carbohydrate antigen 19-9. Bone marrow aspiration showed increased atypical plasma cells consistent with multiple myeloma. Percutaneous image-guided biopsy of one of the osteolytic lesions was performed. Pathological examination identified both plasma cell neoplasm and poorly differentiated metastatic carcinoma within the same bone lytic lesions. CONCLUSION: The present case raises awareness among clinicians and pathologists that clinical and radiologic suspicion of multiple myeloma may be within the spectrum of second primary malignancies.
Subject(s)Bone Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Carcinoma , Multiple Myeloma , Humans , Male , Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , Bone and Bones/pathology
BACKGROUND: Covid-19 is considered a primary respiratory disease-causing viral pneumonia and, in severe cases, leads to acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In addition, though, extra-pulmonary manifestations of Covid-19 have been shown. Furthermore, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may coexist with several malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). METHODS: This critical literature review aimed to find the potential association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and MM in Covid-19 patients with underlying MM. Narrative literature and databases search revealed that ARDS is developed in both MM and Covid-19 due to hypercalcemia and proteasome dysfunction. RESULTS: Notably, the expression of angiogenic factors and glutamine deficiency could link Covid-19 severity and MM in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications. MM and Covid-19 share thrombosis as a typical complication; unlike thrombosis in Covid-19, which reflects disease severity, thrombosis does not reflect disease severity in MM. In both conditions, thromboprophylaxis is essential to prevent pulmonary thrombosis and other thromboembolic disorders. Moreover, Covid-19 may exacerbate the development of acute kidney injury and neurological complications in MM patients. CONCLUSION: These findings highlighted that MM patients might be a risk group for Covid-19 severity due to underlying immunosuppression and most of those patients need specific management in the Covid-19 era.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Multiple Myeloma , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Anticoagulants
INTRODUCTION: Bortezomib is proteasome inhibitor used in multiple myeloma treatment. The reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) during bortezomib-based therapy is a well-known adverse event. Antiviral prophylaxis is mandatory. Nevertheless, reports of herpesviral encephalitis are scarce. CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old multiple myeloma patient who during CyBorD protocol (Bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone), after a transient suspension of antiviral prophylaxis presented progressive headaches unresponsive to conventional analgesics, asthenia, fever, episodic visual hallucinations, and vesicular lesions in the right supraorbital and frontal region. Herpetic encephalitis was diagnosed after detecting herpes zoster in cerebrospinal fluid. MANAGEMENT & OUTCOME: The patient was treated with acyclovir 500mg every 6 hours for 21 days, and subsequent valacyclovir prophylaxis achieving an excellent clinical evolution. Anti-myeloma treatment was changed to lenalidomide and dexamethasone achieving a durable complete response. Herpesviral encephalitis is a rare but severe complication associated with the use of Bortezomib, especially when patients did not receive acyclovir prophylaxis. However, a rapid detection based on the clinical suspicion, and the prompt start of treatment, may lead to overcome this adverse event.
Subject(s)Amyloidosis , Antineoplastic Agents , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex , Multiple Myeloma , Acyclovir/adverse effects , Amyloidosis/chemically induced , Amyloidosis/complications , Amyloidosis/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Boronic Acids/adverse effects , Bortezomib/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/chemically induced , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/complications , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 3, Human/physiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Pyrazines
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance , Multiple Myeloma , Paraproteinemias , Humans , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/complications , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/epidemiology , Paraproteinemias/complications , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Risk Factors
BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the result of intricate interactions between the novel coronavirus and the immune system. In patients with hematologic malignancies (HM), these interactions dramatically change the clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19. SUMMARY: Patients with HM and COVID-19 are at an increased risk for prolonged viral shedding, more protracted and severe presentation, and death, even when compared to other immunocompromised hosts. HM (e.g., multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and anticancer treatments (e.g., anti-CD20 agents) that impair humoral immunity markedly increase the risk of severe COVID-19 as well as protracted viral shedding and possibly longer infectivity. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is an important player in the pathophysiology of severe and fatal COVID-19. Treatments targeting specific cytokines involved in CRS such as interleukin-6 and Janus kinase have proven beneficial in COVID-19 patients but were not assessed specifically in HM patients. Although neutropenia (as well as neutrophilia) was associated with increased COVID-19 mortality, granulocyte colony-stimulating factors were not beneficial in patients with COVID-19 and may have been associated with worse outcomes. Decreased levels of T lymphocytes and especially decreased CD4+ counts, and depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes, are a hallmark of severe COVID-19, and even more so among patients with HM, underlying the important role of T-helper dysfunction in severe COVID-19. In HM patients with intact cellular immunity, robust T-cell responses may compensate for an impaired humoral immune system. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the mechanisms of severe COVID-19 among patients with HM and assess the efficacy of new immunomodulating COVID-19 treatments in this population. KEY MESSAGES: Understanding the immunopathology of COVID-19 has greatly benefited from the previous research in patients with HM. So far, no COVID-19 treatments were properly evaluated in patients with HM. Patients with HM should be included in future RCTs assessing treatments for COVID-19.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Multiple Myeloma , Neutropenia , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Immunity , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Neutropenia/complications
A 70-year-old woman, who started on hemodialysis 7 months before for end-stage renal disease due to diabetic nephropathy and was diagnosed with symptomatic multiple myeloma 1 month before, was admitted to our hospital with critical coronavirus disease 2019 and treated with long-term immunosuppressive therapy such as steroids and tocilizumab. During treatment, Bacillus subtilis was detected in the blood cultures. We could not exclude the association of natto (fermented soybeans) with B. subtilis var. natto, which the patient had been eating every day from 8 days after admission. She was prohibited from eating natto and treated with vancomycin. Later, B. subtilis detected in the blood culture was identified as B. subtilis var. natto, which was identical with those contained in the natto that the patient consumed daily using a next-generation sequencer. Gut dysbiosis due to old age, malignant tumor, diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease, and intestinal inflammation caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 increased intestinal permeability and the risk of bacterial translocation, causing B. subtilis var. natto bacteremia. Therefore, careful consideration might be given to the intake of fermented foods containing live bacteria in patients with severe immunocompromised conditions.
Subject(s)Bacteremia , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Multiple Myeloma , Soy Foods , Aged , Bacillus subtilis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Eating , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Renal Dialysis , Soy Foods/microbiology
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma (IgD-MM) is a rare but aggressive disease. The safety and effectiveness of anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody (daratumumab) have not been known in either IgD-MM or MM complicated with secondary neoplasm. METHODS: A fragile IgD-MM patient had an aggressively relapsed disease concurrent with lung cancer and severe thrombocytopenia, which led to a dilemma for management. After a failure of ixazomib-based chemotherapy, a salvage therapy with daratumumab unexpectedly induced complete remission and platelet recovery, and the patient successfully proceeded to lung cancer surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Our case indicates daratumumab is both safe and effective for refractory IgD-MM with severe complications.
Subject(s)Lung Neoplasms , Multiple Myeloma , Thrombocytopenia , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy
Daratumumab is approved for newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). The use of daratumumab has improved patient outcomes but has changed the frequency and epidemiology of infections. However, the optimal approach to prophylaxis and supportive therapy for daratumumab-emergent infections is unknown and represents an unmet clinical need in MM. Consequently, an expert panel convened to compose recommendations for optimal infection control in patient candidates to or under daratumumab treatment for MM. Scientific evidence on infections secondary to daratumumab was evaluated, and a consensus was developed by group discussion for key questions selected according to the clinical relevance. The following key issues were addressed: infectious risk assessment and risk stratification, infection mitigation strategies, and management of infectious complications in patients with MM treated with daratumumab.
Subject(s)Multiple Myeloma , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Consensus , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy
Subject(s)ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/pharmacology , BNT162 Vaccine/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , Prospective Studies
Subject(s)Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/diagnosis , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Skin Diseases/pathology , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Bone Marrow Cells/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Multiple Myeloma/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Necrobiotic Xanthogranuloma/diagnosis , Necrobiotic Xanthogranuloma/etiology , Paraproteinemias , Plasma Cells/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
A young man with smoldering multiple myeloma died of hypotensive shock 2.5 days after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination. Clinical findings suggested systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS); the patient had experienced a previous suspected flare episode. History of SCLS may indicate higher risk for SCLS after receiving this vaccine.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Capillary Leak Syndrome , Multiple Myeloma , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Capillary Leak Syndrome/chemically induced , Capillary Leak Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Multiple Myeloma/complications , SARS-CoV-2
Patients with haematological malignancies have a high risk of severe infection and death from SARS-CoV-2. In this prospective observational study, we investigated the impact of cancer type, disease activity, and treatment in 877 unvaccinated UK patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and active haematological cancer. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex and comorbidities, the highest mortality was in patients with acute leukaemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1·73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1-2·72, P = 0·017] and myeloma (OR 1·3, 95% CI 0·96-1·76, P = 0·08). Having uncontrolled cancer (newly diagnosed awaiting treatment as well as relapsed or progressive disease) was associated with increased mortality risk (OR = 2·45, 95% CI 1·09-5·5, P = 0·03), as was receiving second or beyond line of treatment (OR = 1·7, 95% CI 1·08-2·67, P = 0·023). We found no association between recent cytotoxic chemotherapy or anti-CD19/anti-CD20 treatment and increased risk of death within the limitations of the cohort size. Therefore, disease control is an important factor predicting mortality in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection alongside the possible risks of therapies such as cytotoxic treatment or anti-CD19/anti-CD20 treatments.
Subject(s)Antigens, CD20/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Leukemia/complications , Leukemia/drug therapy , Leukemia/immunology , Male , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
Patients with multiple myeloma frequently present with substantial immune impairment and an increased risk for infections and infection-related mortality. The risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus and resulting mortality is also increased, emphasising the importance of protecting patients by vaccination. Available data in patients with multiple myeloma suggest a suboptimal anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response, meaning a proportion of patients are unprotected. Factors associated with poor response are uncontrolled disease, immunosuppression, concomitant therapy, more lines of therapy, and CD38 antibody-directed and B-cell maturation antigen-directed therapy. These facts suggest that monitoring the immune response to vaccination in patients with multiple myeloma might provide guidance for clinical management, such as administration of additional doses of the same or another vaccine, or even temporary treatment discontinuation, if possible. In those who do not exhibit a good response, prophylactic treatment with neutralising monoclonal antibody cocktails might be considered. In patients deficient of a SARS-CoV-2 immune response, adherence to measures for infection risk reduction is particularly recommended. This consensus was generated by members of the European Multiple Myeloma Network and some external experts. The panel members convened in virtual meetings and conducted an extensive literature research and evaluated recently published data and work presented at meetings, as well as findings from their own studies. The outcome of the discussions on establishing consensus recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination in patients with multiple myeloma was condensed into this Review.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Consensus , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
Subject(s)BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis/complications , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis/immunology , Male , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , Prospective Studies
Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have a suboptimal antibody response following vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and lower seroconversion rates following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared with healthy individuals. In this context, we evaluated the development of neutralising antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in non-vaccinated patients with MM and COVID-19 compared with patients after vaccination with two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Serum was collected either four weeks post confirmed diagnosis or four weeks post a second dose of BNT162b2. NAbs were measured with a Food and Drug Administration-approved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology. Thirty-five patients with COVID-19 and MM along with 35 matched patients were included. The two groups did not differ in age, sex, body mass index, prior lines of therapy, disease status, lymphocyte count, immunoglobulin levels and comorbidities. Patients with MM and COVID-19 showed a superior humoral response compared with vaccinated patients with MM. The median (interquartile range) NAb titre was 87·6% (71·6-94%) and 58·7% (21·4-91·8%) for COVID-19-positive and vaccinated patients, respectively (P = 0·01).Importantly, there was no difference in NAb production between COVID-19-positive and vaccinated patients who did not receive any treatment (median NAb 85·1% vs 91·7%, P = 0·14). In conclusion, our data indicate that vaccinated patients with MM on treatment without prior COVID-19 should be considered for booster vaccine doses.