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1.
Clin Lab ; 67(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma (IgD-MM) is a rare but aggressive disease. The safety and effectiveness of anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody (daratumumab) have not been known in either IgD-MM or MM complicated with secondary neoplasm. METHODS: A fragile IgD-MM patient had an aggressively relapsed disease concurrent with lung cancer and severe thrombocytopenia, which led to a dilemma for management. After a failure of ixazomib-based chemotherapy, a salvage therapy with daratumumab unexpectedly induced complete remission and platelet recovery, and the patient successfully proceeded to lung cancer surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Our case indicates daratumumab is both safe and effective for refractory IgD-MM with severe complications.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Multiple Myeloma , Thrombocytopenia , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy
2.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 172: 103623, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748099

ABSTRACT

Daratumumab is approved for newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). The use of daratumumab has improved patient outcomes but has changed the frequency and epidemiology of infections. However, the optimal approach to prophylaxis and supportive therapy for daratumumab-emergent infections is unknown and represents an unmet clinical need in MM. Consequently, an expert panel convened to compose recommendations for optimal infection control in patient candidates to or under daratumumab treatment for MM. Scientific evidence on infections secondary to daratumumab was evaluated, and a consensus was developed by group discussion for key questions selected according to the clinical relevance. The following key issues were addressed: infectious risk assessment and risk stratification, infection mitigation strategies, and management of infectious complications in patients with MM treated with daratumumab.


Subject(s)
Multiple Myeloma , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Consensus , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy
3.
Lancet Haematol ; 9(2): e98-e110, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Melphalan flufenamide (melflufen), an alkylating peptide-drug conjugate, plus dexamethasone showed clinical activity and manageable safety in the phase 2 HORIZON study. We aimed to determine whether melflufen plus dexamethasone would provide a progression-free survival benefit compared with pomalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label, head-to-head, phase 3 study (OCEAN), adult patients (aged ≥18 years) were recruited from 108 university hospitals, specialist hospitals, and community-based centres in 21 countries across Europe, North America, and Asia. Eligible patients had an ECOG performance status of 0-2; must have had relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, refractory to lenalidomide (within 18 months of randomisation) and to the last line of therapy; and have received two to four previous lines of therapy (including lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1), stratified by age, number of previous lines of therapy, and International Staging System score, to either 28-day cycles of melflufen and dexamethasone (melflufen group) or pomalidomide and dexamethasone (pomalidomide group). All patients received dexamethasone 40 mg orally on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each cycle. In the melflufen group, patients received melflufen 40 mg intravenously over 30 min on day 1 of each cycle and in the pomalidomide group, patients received pomalidomide 4 mg orally daily on days 1 to 21 of each cycle. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival assessed by an independent review committee in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of study medication. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03151811, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 12, 2017, and Sept 3, 2020, 246 patients were randomly assigned to the melflufen group (median age 68 years [IQR 60-72]; 107 [43%] were female) and 249 to the pomalidomide group (median age 68 years [IQR 61-72]; 109 [44%] were female). 474 patients received at least one dose of study drug (melflufen group n=228; pomalidomide group n=246; safety population). Data cutoff was Feb 3, 2021. Median progression-free survival was 6·8 months (95% CI 5·0-8·5; 165 [67%] of 246 patients had an event) in the melflufen group and 4·9 months (4·2-5·7; 190 [76%] of 249 patients had an event) in the pomalidomide group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·79, [95% CI 0·64-0·98]; p=0·032), at a median follow-up of 15·5 months (IQR 9·4-22·8) in the melflufen group and 16·3 months (10·1-23·2) in the pomalidomide group. Median overall survival was 19·8 months (95% CI 15·1-25·6) at a median follow-up of 19·8 months (IQR 12·0-25·0) in the melflufen group and 25·0 months (95% CI 18·1-31·9) in the pomalidomide group at a median follow-up of 18·6 months (IQR 11·8-23·7; HR 1·10 [95% CI 0·85-1·44]; p=0·47). The most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent adverse events were thrombocytopenia (143 [63%] of 228 in the melflufen group vs 26 [11%] of 246 in the pomalidomide group), neutropenia (123 [54%] vs 102 [41%]), and anaemia (97 [43%] vs 44 [18%]). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 95 (42%) patients in the melflufen group and 113 (46%) in the pomalidomide group, the most common of which were pneumonia (13 [6%] vs 21 [9%]), COVID-19 pneumonia (11 [5%] vs nine [4%]), and thrombocytopenia (nine [4%] vs three [1%]). 27 [12%] patients in the melflufen group and 32 [13%] in the pomalidomide group had fatal treatment-emergent adverse events. Fatal treatment-emergent adverse events were considered possibly treatment related in two patients in the melflufen group (one with acute myeloid leukaemia, one with pancytopenia and acute cardiac failure) and four patients in the pomalidomide group (two patients with pneumonia, one with myelodysplastic syndromes, one with COVID-19 pneumonia). INTERPRETATION: Melflufen plus dexamethasone showed superior progression-free survival than pomalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. FUNDING: Oncopeptides AB.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Multiple Myeloma , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Lenalidomide/adverse effects , Male , Melphalan/adverse effects , Melphalan/analogs & derivatives , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Phenylalanine/adverse effects , Phenylalanine/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2 , Thalidomide/adverse effects , Thalidomide/analogs & derivatives
4.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 14(12): 1129-1135, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple Myeloma (MM) accounts for 1-2% of all malignancies but is the second most common hematological malignancy. It is characterized by a proliferation of malignant plasma cells. The treatment paradigm of MM in Australia is traditionally hospital-based, complex, and costly. While MM comprises 1-2% of cancer diagnoses, it appears in the top 10 cancer diagnoses requiring hospital admission. The cumulative time spent receiving treatment is a significant burden for patients. The ability to receive treatment at home and maximize time away from hospital-based settings is a key preference for patients receiving anticancer therapies over a prolonged period of time. METHODS: The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Hospital's combined Clinical Hematology Unit has collaborated with their Hospital in the Home departments to develop several innovative programs to address this. RESULTS: We describe our current active programs and potential developments in home-based MM therapy. CONCLUSION: We have enabled large numbers of patients to receive complex therapies in their own home and the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the pace of the roll out without any compromise in safety. We anticipate that the next raft of immunotherapies will be able to transition into the @Home treatment setting in the coming years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Myeloma , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Br J Haematol ; 196(4): 892-901, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511287

ABSTRACT

Patients with haematological malignancies have a high risk of severe infection and death from SARS-CoV-2. In this prospective observational study, we investigated the impact of cancer type, disease activity, and treatment in 877 unvaccinated UK patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and active haematological cancer. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex and comorbidities, the highest mortality was in patients with acute leukaemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1·73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1-2·72, P = 0·017] and myeloma (OR 1·3, 95% CI 0·96-1·76, P = 0·08). Having uncontrolled cancer (newly diagnosed awaiting treatment as well as relapsed or progressive disease) was associated with increased mortality risk (OR = 2·45, 95% CI 1·09-5·5, P = 0·03), as was receiving second or beyond line of treatment (OR = 1·7, 95% CI 1·08-2·67, P = 0·023). We found no association between recent cytotoxic chemotherapy or anti-CD19/anti-CD20 treatment and increased risk of death within the limitations of the cohort size. Therefore, disease control is an important factor predicting mortality in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection alongside the possible risks of therapies such as cytotoxic treatment or anti-CD19/anti-CD20 treatments.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD20/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Leukemia/complications , Leukemia/drug therapy , Leukemia/immunology , Male , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(12): e934-e946, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486371

ABSTRACT

Patients with multiple myeloma frequently present with substantial immune impairment and an increased risk for infections and infection-related mortality. The risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus and resulting mortality is also increased, emphasising the importance of protecting patients by vaccination. Available data in patients with multiple myeloma suggest a suboptimal anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response, meaning a proportion of patients are unprotected. Factors associated with poor response are uncontrolled disease, immunosuppression, concomitant therapy, more lines of therapy, and CD38 antibody-directed and B-cell maturation antigen-directed therapy. These facts suggest that monitoring the immune response to vaccination in patients with multiple myeloma might provide guidance for clinical management, such as administration of additional doses of the same or another vaccine, or even temporary treatment discontinuation, if possible. In those who do not exhibit a good response, prophylactic treatment with neutralising monoclonal antibody cocktails might be considered. In patients deficient of a SARS-CoV-2 immune response, adherence to measures for infection risk reduction is particularly recommended. This consensus was generated by members of the European Multiple Myeloma Network and some external experts. The panel members convened in virtual meetings and conducted an extensive literature research and evaluated recently published data and work presented at meetings, as well as findings from their own studies. The outcome of the discussions on establishing consensus recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination in patients with multiple myeloma was condensed into this Review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Consensus , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(6): 1459-1470, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Relatively little data are available on how the response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected treatment outcomes in patients receiving chemotherapy for lymphoma or multiple myeloma. We aimed to determine the effect of COVID-19 countermeasures on treatment outcomes in this patient population. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data on patients treated for lymphoma or multiple myeloma in two tertiary hospitals in Seoul. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 included patients who received chemotherapy between September and December 2019 (the control period), and group 2 included patients who received chemotherapy between September and December 2020 (the study period). Countermeasures to COVID-19 were applied to the patients in group 2. The countermeasures implemented included mask wearing and regular handwashing at home and in hospital; COVID-19 risk assessments on all hospital visitors; and pre-emptive COVID-19 screening for all newly hospitalized patients and their resident guardians. RESULTS: No differences in treatment outcomes, including treatment response, incidence and duration of neutropenia or neutropenic fever, delays in chemotherapy, or number of deaths during chemotherapy, were observed between the g roups. None of the patients in group 2 tested positive for COVID-19, and there were no COVID-19-related deaths during the study period. CONCLUSION: Countermeasures to COVID-19 did not affect treatment outcomes in patients receiving chemotherapy for lymphoma or multiple myeloma. Data on the effect of countermeasures to COVID-19 on treatment outcomes should continue to be analyzed to ensure that treatment outcomes are not adversely affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphoma , Multiple Myeloma , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 14(12): 1049-1058, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429102

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite the development of new therapeutic agents, relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) is associated with poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, many patients develop resistance to immunomodulatory drugs (IMiD), creating a need for IMiD-free regimens. Areas covered: This review focuses on the combination of carfilzomib, dexamethasone, and daratumumab (KdD or DKd) which has shown promising results in patients with RRMM who have tried multiple lines of therapy, and has been approved in the U.S., EU, and Japan. The KdD triplet has two recommended dosage regimens, carfilzomib once-weekly (KdD70 QW) and carfilzomib twice-weekly (KdD56 BIW), with comparable efficacy and safety profiles. Expert opinion: These options provide flexibility to patients and healthcare providers, especially in the era of COVID-19. Carfilzomib-based regimens remain a standard of care based on multiple randomized phase 3 studies. Additional studies are currently underway investigating carfilzomib-based regimens such as KdD combined with novel agents. Nevertheless, KdD is one of the most efficacious options for patients with RRMM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Myeloma , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Oligopeptides , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211013230, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410018

ABSTRACT

Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematological malignancy. Ixazomib is the first oral proteasome inhibitor approved in the United States for the management of multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior treatment. The availability of oral chemotherapeutic agents for the management of multiple myeloma has made it easier for patients who do not have to come to the hospital for chemotherapy infusions. However, many barriers are associated with oral chemotherapy, and one of them is a misinterpretation of instruction which can have deleterious effects. In this case report, we present a case of a 69-year-old male with multiple myeloma who accidentally took ixazomib daily for 3 days instead of the weekly regimen and thus coming into the hospital with an overdose. In this report, we focus on the adverse effects associated with ixazomib toxicity and how to manage the adverse reactions. Although there is no antidote available for ixazomib, supportive care is very essential in these patients.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Boron Compounds , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Multiple Myeloma , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/poisoning , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Boron Compounds/poisoning , Boron Compounds/therapeutic use , Drug Overdose , Glycine/poisoning , Glycine/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy
16.
Orv Hetil ; 162(36): 1451-1458, 2021 09 05.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394630

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A myeloma multiplex mindmáig alapvetoen gyógyíthatatlan betegség, ezért nagy klinikai jelentoségük van az eredményes mento kezeléseknek. A szájon át adható elso proteaszómagátlóval, az ixazomibbal kiegészített lenalidomid-dexametazon terápia jól tolerálható, csak orális szerekbol álló kombináció, mely hazánkban 2015 áprilisától kezdodoen a "Named Patient Program" keretén belül vált elérhetové relabált, refrakter myeloma multiplexes betegek kezelésére. Célkituzés: Kutatásunk célja az ixazomib-lenalidomid-dexametazon kezelés mellett a hosszú távon progressziómentes túlélok célzott vizsgálata. Módszer: A program keretében összesen 7 centrumban 80 visszaeso beteg részesült e triplet kezelésben, adataikat retrospektíven elemeztük. Leíró statisztikai és Kaplan-Meier-analízist végeztünk. Eredmények: A betegek nagyobb hányada reagált: 63,75%-os válaszarány mellett 14 (17,5%) betegnél nem volt terápiás válasz/stabil betegség alakult ki, és 15-nél (18,75%) a betegség a kezelés mellett is progrediált. A progressziómentes túlélés a teljes betegcsoportban 10,6 hónapnak adódott, ugyanakkor 16 beteg (18,75%) két éven túl progressziómentesnek bizonyult, sot közülük 11-nél a betegség még 3 év után sem progrediált. Tanulmányunkban a fenti, hosszú távú túlélo betegcsoport tulajdonságait tárjuk fel. Megbeszélés: A folyamatos terápia a myeloma multiplex kezelésében meghatározóvá vált. Ezért fontos ismernünk, hogy kik lehetnek azok a betegek, akik különösen sokat profitálnak egy bizonyos terápiából. A hosszú távon progressziómentes túlélok között az immunglobulin-nehézláncot érinto transzlokációk vagy triszómiák közül (trend szintjén) az utóbbiak kedvezobb progressziómentes túléléssel bírtak, de progressziómentes platót mindkét betegcsoportban észleltünk. A betegség tumortömegét méro nemzetközi stádiumbeosztás (ISS) nem jelezte elore a hosszú túlélést. Gyógyszerelhagyáshoz vezeto mellékhatást a hosszú távú túlélo csoportban egyet sem regisztráltunk; az észlelt mellékhatások nagy része enyhe volt. Következtetések: Munkánk során az ixazomib-lenalidomid-dexametazon kombinációt effektívnek és biztonságosnak találtuk relabált, refrakter myeloma multiplex kezelésére, mely a betegek mintegy hatodánál több éven át eredményesen alkalmazható. Cikkünkkel a hazai beteganyagon szerzett tapasztalatainkat szeretnénk megosztani a COVID-19-világjárvány alatt különösen aktuálissá vált, tisztán orális terápiás lehetoségrol. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(36): 1451-1458. INTRODUCTION: Despite great advances in therapy, multiple myeloma is still a largely incurable disease, therefore the importance of salvage therapies is paramount. The first oral proteasome inhibitor ixazomib in combination with lenalidomide-dexamethasone is a tolerable, orally administered regime, which has become available for Hungarian relapsed, refractory multiple myeloma patients from April 2015 in the Named Patient Program. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to investigate the long-time progression-free surviving patient population treated with the ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone triplet. METHOD: We retrospectively studied a total of 80 patients from 7 centers who received the triplet combination. Survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: Two-third of the patients responded: the overall response rate was 63.75%. 14 patients (17.5%) did not respond/had stable disease and 15 patients (18.75%) outright progressed upon therapy. Although progression-free survival was only 10.6 months for the entire patient cohort, the disease in a subgroup of 16 patients did not progress within two years. In fact, 11 of them were still in sustained remission after 3 years of therapy. Our goal was to analyze the characteristics of this subgroup. DISCUSSION: The idea of long-term therapy of multiple myeloma is gaining widespread acceptance. Therefore it is important to know which patients may benefit the most from certain therapies. Among these 16 long-term responder patients, reciprocal translocation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain seemed to lack an adverse impact on progression-free survival; comparable to trisomies, both curves had a progression-free plateau. The International Staging System (ISS) score at the start of therapy did not predict long-term survivorship. Most of the side effects in this subgroup were mild, manageable, none led to therapy discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone was confirmed to be an effective and safe combination for relapsed, refractory multiple myeloma, and one-sixth of the treated patients were able to receive it for several years, effectively. This fully oral therapeutic option is at its best during the present COVID-19 pandemic. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(36): 1451-1458.


Subject(s)
Boron Compounds/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Glycine/therapeutic use , Lenalidomide/therapeutic use , Multiple Myeloma , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Progression-Free Survival , Retrospective Studies
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 117, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355245

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a major challenge in the management of patients with hematologic malignancies. Individuals with plasma cell dyscrasias, including multiple myeloma, are at increased risk of developing severe disease. Furthermore, immunosuppressant agents, which represent an important component of multiple myeloma treatment, may increase the risk of serious infection; thus, treatment regimens may need to be modified in some patients. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is incompletely understood and much remains to be established regarding cancer care in the setting of this new global health threat. We report a case of multiple myeloma remission that occurred after a single cycle of chemotherapy in a patient with COVID-19. In addition, we discuss possible mechanisms underlying this surprising observation. The findings warrant further investigation and may have important implications for the management of multiple myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias in the age of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , COVID-19/physiopathology , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Aged , Female , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Remission Induction
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