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3.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 100(3): 463-470, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473984

ABSTRACT

Multiple myeloma patients are often treated with immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors, or monoclonal antibodies until disease progression. Continuous therapy in combination with the underlying disease frequently results in severe humoral and cellular immunodeficiency, which often manifests in recurrent infections. Here, we report on the clinical management and immunological data of three multiple-myeloma patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Despite severe hypogammaglobulinemia, deteriorated T cell counts, and neutropenia, the patients were able to combat COVID-19 by balanced response of innate immunity, strong CD8+ and CD4+ T cell activation and differentiation, development of specific T-cell memory subsets, and development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 type IgM and IgG antibodies with virus-neutralizing capacities. Even 12 months after re-introduction of lenalidomide maintenance therapy, antibody levels and virus-neutralizing antibody titers remained detectable, indicating persisting immunity against SARS-CoV-2. We conclude that in MM patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were receiving active MM treatment, immune response assessment could be a useful tool to help guide decision-making regarding the continuation of anti-tumor therapy and supportive therapy. KEY MESSAGES: Immunosuppression due to multiple myeloma might not be the crucial factor that is affecting the course of COVID-19. In this case, despite pre-existing severe deficits in CD4+ T-cell counts and IgA und IgM deficiency, we noticed a robust humoral and cellular immune response against SARS-CoV-2. Evaluation of immune response and antibody titers in MM patients that were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and are on active MM treatment should be performed on a larger scale; the findings might affect further treatment recommendations for COVID-19, MM treatment re-introduction, and isolation measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , Multiple Myeloma/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged
5.
Leukemia ; 35(12): 3534-3541, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333898

ABSTRACT

Multiple myeloma (MM) patients are at higher risk for severe COVID-19. Their mRNA vaccination response against SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. Thus, we analyzed responses to mRNA vaccination against COVID-19 among these patients. Using an ELISA-based assay that detects IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, we determined serum antibody levels prior to immunization and 12-21 and 14-21 days following the first and second vaccinations, respectively, with mRNA-1273 (Moderna) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) among 103 MM patients (96 and 7 with active and smoldering disease, respectively). We stratified patients into clinically relevant responders (>250 IU/mL), partial responders (50-250 IU/mL, which was above pre-COVID-19 background), and nonresponders (<50 IU/mL). Smoldering MM patients responded better than those with active disease. Only 45% of active MM patients developed an adequate response, while 22% had a partial response. Lower spike antibody levels were associated with older age, impaired renal function, low lymphocyte counts, reduced uninvolved immunoglobulin levels, > second line of treatment, and among those not in complete remission. Patients who received mRNA-1273 vaccine had higher anti-spike antibody levels than those who were vaccinated with BNT162b2. Thus, most MM patients have impaired responses to mRNA vaccination against COVID-19, and specific clinical and myeloma-related characteristics predict vaccine responsiveness.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , /immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/virology , Vaccination
7.
Blood ; 136(26): 3033-3040, 2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992403

ABSTRACT

The primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is an infection. Therefore, there is great concern about susceptibility to the outcome of COVID-19-infected patients with MM. This retrospective study describes the baseline characteristics and outcome data of COVID-19 infection in 650 patients with plasma cell disorders, collected by the International Myeloma Society to understand the initial challenges faced by myeloma patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Analyses were performed for hospitalized MM patients. Among hospitalized patients, the median age was 69 years, and nearly all patients (96%) had MM. Approximately 36% were recently diagnosed (2019-2020), and 54% of patients were receiving first-line therapy. Thirty-three percent of patients have died, with significant geographic variability, ranging from 27% to 57% of hospitalized patients. Univariate analysis identified age, International Staging System stage 3 (ISS3), high-risk disease, renal disease, suboptimal myeloma control (active or progressive disease), and 1 or more comorbidities as risk factors for higher rates of death. Neither history of transplant, including within a year of COVID-19 diagnosis, nor other anti-MM treatments were associated with outcomes. Multivariate analysis found that only age, high-risk MM, renal disease, and suboptimal MM control remained independent predictors of adverse outcome with COVID-19 infection. The management of MM in the era of COVID-19 requires careful consideration of patient- and disease-related factors to decrease the risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection, while not compromising disease control through appropriate MM treatment. This study provides initial data to develop recommendations for the management of MM patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Internationality , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Societies, Medical , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors
9.
Curr Oncol ; 27(5): 270-274, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902689

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has necessitated changes to the way patients with chronic diseases are managed. Given that patients with multiple myeloma are at increased risk of covid-19 infection and related complications, national bodies and experts around the globe have made recommendations for risk mitigation strategies for those vulnerable patients. Understandably, because of the novelty of the virus, many of the proposed risk mitigation strategies have thus far been reactionary and cannot be supported by strong evidence. In this editorial, we highlight some of the risk mitigation strategies implemented at our institutions across Canada during the first wave of covid-19, and we discuss the considerations that should be made when managing patients during the second wave and beyond.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19 , Canada/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Management , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(10): 103, 2020 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880683

ABSTRACT

There is limited information on the characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) hospitalized with COVID-19. This retrospective case series investigated 167 patients reported from 73 hospitals within the Spanish Myeloma Collaborative Group network in March and April, 2020. Outcomes were compared with 167 randomly selected, contemporary, age-/sex-matched noncancer patients with COVID-19 admitted at six participating hospitals. Among MM and noncancer patients, median age was 71 years, and 57% of patients were male; 75 and 77% of patients, respectively, had at least one comorbidity. COVID-19 clinical severity was moderate-severe in 77 and 89% of patients and critical in 8 and 4%, respectively. Supplemental oxygen was required by 47 and 55% of MM and noncancer patients, respectively, and 21%/9% vs 8%/6% required noninvasive/invasive ventilation. Inpatient mortality was 34 and 23% in MM and noncancer patients, respectively. Among MM patients, inpatient mortality was 41% in males, 42% in patients aged >65 years, 49% in patients with active/progressive MM at hospitalization, and 59% in patients with comorbid renal disease at hospitalization, which were independent prognostic factors on adjusted multivariate analysis. This case series demonstrates the increased risk and identifies predictors of inpatient mortality among MM patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Kidney/pathology , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Leukemia ; 34(8): 2000-2011, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342808

ABSTRACT

Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) seem to be at increased risk for more severe COVID-19 infection and associated complications due to their immunocompromised state, the older age and comorbidities. The European Myeloma Network has provided an expert consensus statement in order to guide therapeutic decisions in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. Patient education for personal hygiene and social distancing measures, along with treatment individualization, telemedicine and continuous surveillance for early diagnosis of COVID-19 are essential. In countries or local communities where COVID-19 infection is widely spread, MM patients should have a PCR test of nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 before hospital admission, starting a new treatment line, cell apheresis or ASCT in order to avoid ward or community spread and infections. Oral agent-based regimens should be considered, especially for the elderly and frail patients with standard risk disease, whereas de-intensified regimens for dexamethasone, bortezomib, carfilzomib and daratumumab should be used based on patient risk and response. Treatment initiation should not be postponed for patients with end organ damage, myeloma emergencies and aggressive relapses. Autologous (and especially allogeneic) transplantation should be delayed and extended induction should be administered, especially in standard risk patients and those with adequate MM response to induction. Watchful waiting should be considered for standard risk relapsed patients with low tumor burden, and slow biochemical relapses. The conduction of clinical trials should continue with appropriate adaptations to the current circumstances. Patients with MM and symptomatic COVID-19 disease should interrupt anti-myeloma treatment until recovery. For patients with positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, but with no symptoms for COVID-19, a 14-day quarantine should be considered if myeloma-related events allow the delay of treatment. The need for surveillance for drug interactions due to polypharmacy is highlighted. The participation in international COVID-19 cancer registries is greatly encouraged.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Telemedicine , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Management , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acta Haematol ; 143(5): 410-416, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-94334

ABSTRACT

We provide our recommendations (not evidence based) for managing multiple myeloma patients during the pandemic of COVID-19. We do not recommend therapy for smoldering myeloma patients (standard or high risk). Screening for COVID-19 should be done in all patients before therapy. For standard-risk patients, we recommend the following: ixazomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (IRd) (preferred), cyclophosphamide lenalidomide and dexamethasone (CRd), daratumumab lenalidomide and dexamethasone (DRd), lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (RVd), or cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (CyBorD). For high-risk patients we recommend carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd) (preferred) or RVd. Decreasing the dose of dexamethasone to 20 mg and giving bortezomib subcutaneously once a week is recommended. We recommend delaying autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT), unless the patient has high-risk disease that is not responding well, or if the patient has plasma cell leukemia (PCL). Testing for COVID-19 should be done before ASCT. If a patient achieves a very good partial response or better, doses and frequency of drug administration can be modified. After 10-12 cycles, lenalidomide maintenance is recommended for standard-risk patients and bortezomib or ixazomib are recommended for high-risk patients. Daratumumab-based regimens are recommended for relapsed patients. Routine ASCT is not recommended for relapse during the epidemic unless the patient has an aggressive relapse or secondary PCL. Patients on current maintenance should continue their therapy.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/therapy , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Clinical Decision-Making , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Disease Management , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Humans , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , Multiple Myeloma/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Transplantation, Autologous
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