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1.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(10): e387-e389, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066719

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a clinical syndrome manifested by a dysregulation of the immune system triggered by an infection. The severity of illness is variable, which can include mild symptoms with no organ dysfunction to severe symptoms and multiorgan failure, eventually leading to death. Advances in bioinformatics have elucidated distinct sepsis endotypes and have allowed for a better understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms. As we learn more about these sepsis endotypes, more precise therapies will emerge for use as adjuncts to antibiotics. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(10):e387-e389.].


Subject(s)
Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Genomics , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/genetics , Sepsis/therapy
3.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 38(9): 1727-1734, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888856

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate change in the severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and associated morbidities between pre- and during COVID-19 pandemic periods in Canada. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study extracting the data from level-3 NICUs participating in Canadian Neonatal Network (CNN). The primary outcome was a composite of death in the first week after birth and/or stage 3 HIE (Sarnat and Sarnat). Secondary outcomes included rate and severity of HIE among admitted neonates, overall mortality, brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neonates requiring resuscitation, organ dysfunction, and therapeutic hypothermia (TH) usage. We included 1591 neonates with gestational age ≥ 36 weeks with HIE during the specified periods: pandemic cohort from April 1st to December 31st of 2020; pre-pandemic cohort between April 1st and December 31st of 2017, 2018, and 2019. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We observed no significant difference in the primary outcome (15% vs. 16%; OR 1.08; 95%CI 0.78-1.48), mortality in the first week after birth (6% vs. 6%; OR 1.10, 95%CI 0.69-1.75), neonates requiring resuscitation, organ dysfunction, TH usage, or rate of brain injury. In the ad hoc analysis, per 1000 live births, there was an increase in the rate of infants with HIE and TH use. CONCLUSIONS: Severity of HIE, associated morbidities, and mortality were not significantly different during the pandemic lockdown compared to a pre-pandemic period in Canada. Anticipated risks and difficulties in accessing healthcare have not increased the mortality and morbidities in neonates with HIE in Canada.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , COVID-19 , Hypothermia, Induced , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Brain Injuries/complications , Canada/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/epidemiology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
4.
Crit Care Med ; 50(6): 964-976, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of extracorporeal cytokine reduction by CytoSorb (CytoSorbents, Monmouth Junction, NJ) on COVID-19-associated vasoplegic shock. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized controlled pilot study. SETTING: Eight ICUs at three sites of the tertiary-care university hospital Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin. PATIENTS: COVID-19 patients with vasoplegic shock requiring norepinephrine greater than 0.2 µg/kg/min, C-reactive protein greater than 100 mg/L, and indication for hemodialysis. INTERVENTIONS: Randomization of 1:1 to receive CytoSorb for 3-7 days or standard therapy. To account for inadvertent removal of antibiotics, patients in the treatment group received an additional dose at each adsorber change. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary endpoint was time until resolution of vasoplegic shock, estimated by Cox-regression. Secondary endpoints included mortality, interleukin-6 concentrations, and catecholamine requirements. The study was registered in the German Registry of Clinical Trials (DRKS00021447). From November 2020 to March 2021, 50 patients were enrolled. Twenty-three patients were randomized to receive CytoSorb and 26 patients to receive standard of care. One patient randomized to cytokine adsorption was excluded due to withdrawal of informed consent. Resolution of vasoplegic shock was observed in 13 of 23 patients (56.5%) in the CytoSorb and 12 of 26 patients (46.2%) in the control group after a median of 5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 4-5 d) and 4 days (IQR, 3-5 d). The hazard ratio (HR) for the primary endpoint, adjusted for the predefined variables age, gender, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-therapy, or time from shock onset to study inclusion was HR, 1.23 (95% CI, 0.54-2.79); p = 0.63. The mortality rate was 78% in the CytoSorb and 73% in the control group (unadjusted HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.61-2.23]; p = 0.64). The effects on inflammatory markers, catecholamine requirements, and the type and rates of adverse events were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In severely ill COVID-19 patients, CytoSorb did not improve resolution of vasoplegic shock or predefined secondary endpoints.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Shock , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Norepinephrine , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Research Design , Treatment Outcome
5.
Artif Organs ; 46(5): 735-746, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multi-organ failure characterized by acute kidney injury, liver dysfunction, and respiratory failure is a complex condition associated with high mortality, for which multiple individual support devices may be simultaneously required. This review aims to appraise the current evidence for the ADVanced Organ Support (ADVOS) system, a novel device integrating liver, lung, and kidney support with blood detoxification. METHODS: We performed a literature review of the PubMed database to identify human and animal studies evaluating the ADVOS system. RESULTS: In porcine models of acute liver injury and small clinical studies in humans, ADVOS significantly enhanced the elimination of water-soluble and protein-bound toxins and metabolites, including creatinine, ammonia, blood urea nitrogen, and lactate. Cardiovascular parameters (mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, and cardiac index) and renal function were improved. ADVOS clears carbon dioxide (CO2 ) effectively with rapid correction of pH abnormalities, achieving normalization of CO2 , and bicarbonate levels. In patients with COVID-19 infection, ADVOS enables rapid correction of acid-base disturbance and respiratory acidosis. ADVOS therapy reduces mortality in multi-organ failure and has been shown to be safe with minimal adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: From the small observational studies analyzed, ADVOS demonstrates excellent detoxification of water-soluble and protein-bound substances. In particular, ADVOS permits the correction of metabolic and respiratory acidosis through the fluid-based direct removal of acid and CO2 . ADVOS is associated with significant improvements in hemodynamic and biochemical parameters, a trend toward improved survival in multi-organ failure, and is well-tolerated. Larger randomized trials are now necessary to further validate these encouraging results.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Respiratory , COVID-19 , Animals , Carbon Dioxide , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Swine , Water
6.
Pancreas ; 50(9): 1305-1309, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: It is unknown to what extent coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) may co-occur with acute pancreatitis (AP) in children and how their clinical course may differ from children with AP alone. METHODS: An online survey was sent to pediatric gastroenterologists to report on COVID-19 and AP cases from December 11, 2020, to February 26, 2021. RESULTS: From 72 respondents (20 countries, 5 continents), 22 cases of positive COVID-19 infection and AP were reported. Patients were predominantly White or Hispanic/Latinx (73%), female (68%), and adolescents (68%). For 86% of patients, this was their first episode of AP. Sixty-eight percent of positive COVID-19 tests were polymerase chain reaction based. There was significant morbidity; 60% required intensive care, 45% had multiorgan involvement, and 24% developed shock. Eleven percent had pancreatic necrosis. Abnormal clotting and systemic inflammatory laboratories were common (31%-92% and 93%, respectively). Median length of symptomatic pancreatitis recovery was 1.8× longer than AP without COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Coronavirus 2019 infection and AP co-occur primarily in children without a prior history of pancreatitis. Given the increased need for intensive care, multiorgan involvement, and potentially higher risk for pancreatic necrosis, pediatric providers should have a high level of suspicion for AP in children with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Pancreatitis/diagnosis , Pancreatitis/therapy , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
7.
Artif Organs ; 45(12): 1522-1532, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526346

ABSTRACT

Disturbed oxygenation is foremost the leading clinical presentation in COVID-19 patients. However, a small proportion also develop carbon dioxide removal problems. The Advanced Organ Support (ADVOS) therapy (ADVITOS GmbH, Munich, Germany) uses a less invasive approach by combining extracorporeal CO2 -removal and multiple organ support for the liver and the kidneys in a single hemodialysis device. The aim of our study is to evaluate the ADVOS system as treatment option in-COVID-19 patients with multi-organ failure and carbon dioxide removal problems. COVID-19 patients suffering from severe respiratory insufficiency, receiving at least two treatments with the ADVOS multi system (ADVITOS GmbH, Munich, Germany), were eligible for study inclusion. Briefly, these included patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) according to KDIGO guidelines, and moderate or severe ARDS according to the Berlin definition, who were on invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 72 hours. In total, nine COVID-19 patients (137 ADVOS treatment sessions with a median of 10 treatments per patient) with moderate to severe ARDS and carbon dioxide removal problems were analyzed. During the ADVOS treatments, a rapid correction of acid-base balance and a continuous CO2 removal could be observed. We observed a median continuous CO2 removal of 49.2 mL/min (IQR: 26.9-72.3 mL/min) with some treatments achieving up to 160 mL/min. The CO2 removal significantly correlated with blood flow (Pearson 0.421; P < .001), PaCO2 (0.341, P < .001) and HCO 3 - levels (0.568, P < .001) at the start of the treatment. The continuous treatment led to a significant reduction in PaCO2 from baseline to the last ADVOS treatment. In conclusion, it was feasible to remove CO2 using the ADVOS system in our cohort of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure. This efficient removal of CO2 was achieved at blood flows up to 300 mL/min using a conventional hemodialysis catheter and without a membrane lung or a gas phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Extracorporeal Circulation/instrumentation , Lung/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Renal Dialysis/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Circulation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480601

ABSTRACT

As the number of confirmed cases and deaths occurring from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surges worldwide, health experts are striving hard to fully comprehend the extent of damage caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although COVID-19 primarily manifests itself in the form of severe respiratory distress, it is also known to cause systemic damage to almost all major organs and organ systems within the body. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms leading to multi-organ failure seen in COVID-19 patients. We also examine the potential of stem cell therapy in treating COVID-19 multi-organ failure cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunomodulation , Multiple Organ Failure/immunology , Regenerative Medicine , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stem Cells/cytology , Stem Cells/immunology
9.
Blood ; 138(25): 2702-2713, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365304

ABSTRACT

Multiple organ dysfunction is the most severe outcome of sepsis progression and is highly correlated with a worse prognosis. Excessive neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are critical players in the development of organ failure during sepsis. Therefore, interventions targeting NET release would likely effectively prevent NET-based organ injury associated with this disease. Herein, we demonstrate that the pore-forming protein gasdermin D (GSDMD) is active in neutrophils from septic humans and mice and plays a crucial role in NET release. Inhibition of GSDMD with disulfiram or genic deletion abrogated NET formation, reducing multiple organ dysfunction and sepsis lethality. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that during sepsis, activation of the caspase-11/GSDMD pathway controls NET release by neutrophils during sepsis. In summary, our findings uncover a novel therapeutic use for disulfiram and suggest that GSDMD is a therapeutic target to improve sepsis treatment.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps/genetics , Gene Deletion , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Multiple Organ Failure/genetics , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/genetics , Sepsis/genetics , Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adoptive Transfer , Aged , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Disulfiram/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Sepsis/pathology , Sepsis/therapy
10.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 104, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: H syndrome (HS) is a rare autoinflammatory disease caused by a mutation in the solute carrier family 29, member 3 (SCL29A3) gene. It has a variable clinical presentation and little phenotype-genotype correlation. The pathognomonic sign of HS is cutaneous hyperpigmentation located mainly in the inner thighs and often accompanied by other systemic manifestations. Improvement after tocilizumab treatment has been reported in a few patients with HS. We report the first patient with HS who presented cardiogenic shock, multiorgan infiltration, and digital ischemia. CASE PRESENTATION: 8-year-old boy born to consanguineous parents of Moroccan origin who was admitted to the intensive care unit during the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with tachypnoea, tachycardia, and oliguria. Echocardiography showed dilated cardiomyopathy and severe systolic dysfunction compatible with cardiogenic shock. Additionally, he presented with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody detection by chromatographic immunoassay were negative. A previously ordered gene panel for pre-existing sensorineural hearing loss showed a pathological mutation in the SCL29A3 gene compatible with H syndrome. Computed tomography scan revealed extensive alveolar infiltrates in the lungs and multiple poor defined hypodense lesions in liver, spleen, and kidneys; adenopathy; and cardiomegaly with left ventricle subendocardial nodules. Invasive mechanical ventilation, broad antibiotic and antifungal coverage showed no significant response. Therefore, Tocilizumab as compassionate use together with pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone was initiated. Improvement was impressive leading to normalization of inflammation markers, liver and kidney function, and stabilising heart function. Two weeks later, he was discharged and has been clinically well since then on two weekly administration of Tocilizumab. CONCLUSIONS: We report the most severe disease course produced by HS described so far in the literature. Our patient's manifestations included uncommon, new complications such as acute heart failure with severe systolic dysfunction, multi-organ cell infiltrate, and digital ischemia. Most of the clinical symptoms of our patient could have been explained by SARS-CoV-2, demonstrating the importance of a detailed differential diagnosis to ensure optimal treatment. Although the mechanism of autoinflammation of HS remains uncertain, the good response of our patient to Tocilizumab makes a case for the important role of IL-6 in this syndrome and for considering Tocilizumab as a first-line treatment, at least in severely affected patients.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/physiopathology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/therapy , Child , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/diagnosis , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/genetics , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/therapy , Humans , Ischemia/therapy , Kidney Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/physiopathology , Lymphadenopathy/therapy , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Nucleoside Transport Proteins/genetics , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Splenic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Splenic Diseases/physiopathology , Splenic Diseases/therapy , Toes/blood supply , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(7): e259-e262, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258812

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is an infrequent and poorly understood illness. It can present as severe multiorgan failure in children, potentially lethal. Immunomodulation is the empiric treatment because a dysregulated immune response is the primary pathophysiologic mechanism. We present an infant with severe MIS-C, refractory to usual treatment, successfully treated with plasmapheresis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulation , Multiple Organ Failure/immunology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Plasma Exchange , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Treatment Outcome
13.
Pharmacol Res ; 168: 105581, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157664

ABSTRACT

In-depth characterization of heart-brain communication in critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory failure is attracting significant interest in the COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic era during intensive care unit (ICU) stay and after ICU or hospital discharge. Emerging research has provided new insights into pathogenic role of the deregulation of the heart-brain axis (HBA), a bidirectional flow of information, in leading to severe multiorgan disease syndrome (MODS) in patients with confirmed infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Noteworthy, HBA dysfunction may worsen the outcome of the COVID-19 patients. In this review, we discuss the critical role HBA plays in both promoting and limiting MODS in COVID-19. We also highlight the role of HBA as new target for novel therapeutic strategies in COVID-19 in order to open new translational frontiers of care. This is a translational perspective from the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Researches.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/therapy , Brain/drug effects , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Diseases/therapy , Heart/drug effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Brain/immunology , Brain/metabolism , Brain Diseases/immunology , Brain Diseases/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Functional Food , Heart Diseases/immunology , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Microvessels/drug effects , Microvessels/immunology , Microvessels/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/immunology , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066836

ABSTRACT

This case represents a rare fulminant course of fried-rice associated food poisoning in an immunocompetent person due to pre-formed exotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus, with severe manifestations of sepsis, including multi-organ (hepatic, renal, cardiac, respiratory and neurological) failure, shock, metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis and coagulopathy. Despite maximal supportive measures (continuous renal replacement therapy, plasmapheresis, N-acetylcysteine infusion and blood products, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials) and input from a multidisciplinary team (consisting of infectious diseases, intensive care, gastroenterology, surgery, toxicology, immunology and haematology), mortality resulted. This case is the first to use whole genome sequencing techniques to confirm the toxigenic potential of B. cereus It has important implications for food preparation and storage, particularly given its occurrence in home isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bacillus cereus/genetics , Exotoxins/genetics , Foodborne Diseases/diagnosis , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acidosis/physiopathology , Acidosis/therapy , Adult , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Bacillus cereus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Brain Diseases , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/physiopathology , Foodborne Diseases/therapy , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunocompetence , Liver Failure/physiopathology , Liver Failure/therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Plasmapheresis , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Rhabdomyolysis/physiopathology , Rhabdomyolysis/therapy , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy , Shock/physiopathology , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Whole Genome Sequencing
15.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ; 58: 114-133, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007960

ABSTRACT

The devastating global impact of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has prompted scientists to develop novel strategies to fight Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19), including the examination of pre-existing treatments for other viral infections in COVID-19 patients. This review provides a reasoned discussion of the possible use of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) or their products as a treatment in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. The main benefits and concerns of using this cellular therapy, guided by preclinical and clinical data obtained from similar pathologies will be reviewed. MSC represent a highly immunomodulatory cell population and their use may be safe according to clinical studies developed in other pathologies. Notably, four clinical trials and four case reports that have already been performed in COVID-19 patients obtained promising results. The clinical application of MSC in COVID-19 is very preliminary and further investigational studies are required to determine the efficacy of the MSC therapy. Nevertheless, these preliminary studies were important to understand the therapeutic potential of MSC in COVID-19. Based on these encouraging results, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized the compassionate use of MSC, but only in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and a poor prognosis. In fact, patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 can present infection and tissue damage in different organs, such as lung, heart, liver, kidney, gut and brain, affecting their function. MSC may have pleiotropic activities in COVID-19, with the capacity to fight inflammation and repair lesions in several organs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/trends , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(6): 912-925, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834247

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a significant surge of critically ill patients and an unprecedented demand on intensive care services. The rapidly evolving understanding of pathogenesis, limited disease specific evidence, and demand-resource imbalances have posed significant challenges for intensive care clinicians. COVID-19 is a complex multisystem inflammatory vasculopathy with a significant mortality implication for those admitted to intensive care. Institutional strategic preparation and meticulous intensive care support are essential to maximising outcomes during the pandemic. The significant mortality variation observed between institutions and internationally, despite a single aetiology and uniform presentation, highlights the potential influence of management strategies on outcome. Given that optimal organ support and adjunctive therapies for COVID-19 have not yet been well defined by trial-based outcomes, strategies are predicated on existing literature and experiential learning. This review outlines the relevant pathophysiology and management strategies for critically ill patients with COVID-19, and shares some of the collective learning accumulated in a high volume severe respiratory failure centre in London.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Disease Management , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
19.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 8198963, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829084

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus is not only causing respiratory problems, but it may also damage the heart, kidneys, liver, and other organs; in Wuhan, 14 to 30% of COVID-19 patients have lost their kidney function and now require either dialysis or kidney transplants. The novel coronavirus gains entry into humans by targeting the ACE2 receptor that found on lung cells, which destroy human lungs through cytokine storms, and this leads to hyperinflammation, forcing the immune cells to destroy healthy cells. This is why some COVID-19 patients need intensive care. The inflammatory chemicals released during COVID-19 infection cause the liver to produce proteins that defend the body from infections. However, these proteins can cause blood clotting, which can clog blood vessels in the heart and other organs; as a result, the organs are deprived of oxygen and nutrients which could ultimately lead to multiorgan failure and consequent progression to acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and often death. However, there are novel protein modification tools called the QTY code, which are similar in their structure to antibodies, which could provide a solution to excess cytokines. These synthetic proteins can be injected into the body to bind the excess cytokines created by the cytokine storm; this will eventually remove the excessive cytokines and inhibit the severe symptoms caused by the COVID-19 infection. In this review, we will focus on cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients, their impact on the body organs, and the potential treatment by QTY code-designed detergent-free chemokine receptors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Chemokine/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Design , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Models, Molecular , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/immunology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protein Engineering , Protein Modification, Translational , Receptors, Chemokine/genetics , Receptors, Chemokine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Infect Dis ; 222(8): 1293-1297, 2020 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811301

ABSTRACT

The number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases has exceeded 10 million. However, little is known about the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infants. We collected medical information of 46 confirmed patients (<1 year old) and retrospectively analyzed epidemiological history, clinical symptoms, and laboratory test results. The median age was 5 (interquartile range, 2-7) months. Sixteen cases had fever and 27 cases had cough. Moderate disease was present in 40 cases and cardiac injury occurred in 38 cases, following by liver dysfunction in 20 cases and lymphocytosis in no cases. Of all infant patients, 2 received invasive mechanical ventilation and 1 died with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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