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1.
J Neurol Sci ; 450: 120689, 2023 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Natalizumab is a high-efficacy therapy for recurrent multiple sclerosis (RMS) with a four-week administration interval. Controlled trials have shown that extending this interval to six weeks led to better safety without increasing the risk of relapse. We aimed to analyze the safety of extending the natalizumab interdose interval from 4 to 6 weeks in a real-life setting. METHODS: This monocentric retrospective self-controlled study included adult patients with RMS treated with natalizumab with a four-week interval between infusions for a minimum of six months, before switching to a six-week interval. The main outcomes were the incidence of MS relapse, new MRI lesions, and MRI activity signs during the two periods, with patients being their own controls. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were included in the analysis. The mean (95%CI) annualized relapse rate (AAR) before natalizumab introduction was 1.03 (0.52; 1.55). During the four-week interval dosing period, no patient presented with an MS relapse, and seven (13.5%) patients had new MRI lesions. During the six-week interval dosing period, no relapse was observed and two (3.6%) patients had new MRI lesions. CONCLUSION: We did not observe more relapses or signs of MRI activity when extending the interval between natalizumab infusions from four to six weeks.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
2.
Med Princ Pract ; 32(2): 143-148, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) may affect the course and outcome of COVID-19, but withholding them could permit disease activity. This study aimed to understand the course of COVID-19 in unvaccinated patients with MS on disease-modifying therapies. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This descriptive study examined the course of COVID-19 among infected patients with MS followed up at a large tertiary center in Kuwait between March 1, 2020, and March 1, 2021. All subjects were outpatients at the time of data collection. RESULTS: We studied 51 patients with MS confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of these patients, 33/51 were female, median age was 35 years (IQR 27-39 years), median Expanded Disability Status Scale score was 1.5 (IQR zero-3), and 47/51 had RRMS. B-cell-depleting agents (ocrelizumab and rituximab) were given to 19 patients, another 19 were on immune cell traffickers (fingolimod and natalizumab), and 13 were on other DMT treatments (alemtuzumab, cladribine, interferon-beta, dimethyl fumarate, and teriflunomide). 43/51 of these patients experienced mild COVID-19, not requiring hospitalization. None of the subjects experienced MS relapses during infection. Two patients on rituximab had a moderate course of the illness, which required hospitalization for oxygen support, but did not need mechanical ventilation; the rest of the subjects remained asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that DMT may not adversely affect the course of COVID-19 in MS patients; however, patients on B-cell-depleting agents trended toward a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Female , Adult , Male , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Rituximab , COVID-19/complications , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/complications , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 228: 107675, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301290

ABSTRACT

Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody indicated for treatment of highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (HA-RRMS). It binds to CD52 antigen and produces a rapid and prolonged lymphocyte depletion followed by a different pattern of T and B cell repopulation. Among others, its adverse events are autoimmune diseases.In this article, we present a patient with HA-RRMS, who was subsequently treated with alemtuzumab and afterwards developed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Albeit rarely, HLH can be triggered by alemtuzumab treatment.HLH can favourably respond to prompt immunosuppressant therapy.Multidisciplinary approach by a team consisting of a neurology, hematology and rheumatology specialist is needed to treat this potentially lethal condition.


Subject(s)
Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Alemtuzumab/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis/chemically induced , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/chemically induced , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy
4.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 70: 104472, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in older people is increasing due to population aging and availability of effective disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). Treating older people with MS is complicated by age-related and MS-related comorbidities, immunologic effects of prior DMTs, and immunosenescence. Teriflunomide is a once-daily oral immunomodulator that has demonstrated efficacy and acceptable safety in clinical trials of adults with relapsing forms of MS (RMS). However, there are limited clinical trial and real-world data regarding teriflunomide use in people with MS aged >55 years. We analyzed real-world data to assess the effectiveness and safety of teriflunomide in older people with RMS who had switched to this agent from other DMTs. METHODS: People with RMS (relapsing remitting and active secondary progressive MS) aged ≥55 years who had switched from other DMTs to teriflunomide (7 mg or 14 mg) for ≥1 year were identified retrospectively by chart review at four sites in the United States. Data were extracted from medical records from 1 year pre-index to 2 years post-index (index defined as the teriflunomide start date). Assessments of effectiveness included annualized relapse rate (ARR), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes. Assessments of safety included lymphocyte counts, infections, and malignancies. We examined the effectiveness outcomes and lymphocyte counts within sub-groups defined by age (55-64, ≥65 years), sex, MS type, and prior route of DMT administration (oral, injectable, infusible). RESULTS: In total, 182 patients with RMS aged ≥55 years who switched from other DMTs to teriflunomide were identified (mean [SD] age: 62.5 [5.4] years). Mean ARR decreased from the start of teriflunomide treatment (mean [SD]: 0.43 [0.61]) to year 1 post-index (0.13 [0.65]) and year 2 post-index (0.05 [0.28]). Mean EDSS score remained unchanged from index (mean [SD]: 4.5 [1.8]) to 1 year post-treatment (4.5 [1.8]) and increased slightly at 2 years post-treatment (4.7 [1.7]). MRI scans from index and years 1 and 2 post-index compared with scans from the previous year indicated that most patients had stable or improved MRI outcomes at index (87.7%) and remained stable or improved at years 1 (96.0%) and 2 (93.6%). Lymphopenia decreased at years 1 (21.4%) and 2 post-index (14.8%, compared to index (23.5%). By 1 year post-index, fewer patients had grade 3 or 4 lymphopenia, and at 2 years post-index, there were no patients with grade 3 or 4 lymphopenia. Infection incidence was low (n = 40, 22.0%) and none were related to teriflunomide. The decreases in lymphopenia were driven by decreases among people who switched from a prior oral DMT; there were no notable differences in lymphopenia across the other sub-groups examined. ARR, EDSS score, and MRI outcomes across all sub-groups were similar to the results of the overall population. CONCLUSION: Our multicenter, longitudinal, retrospective study demonstrated that patients with RMS aged 55 or older switching to teriflunomide from other DMTs had significantly improved ARR, stable disability, and stable or improved MRI over up to 2 years' follow up. Safety results were acceptable with fewer patients exhibiting lymphopenia at years 1 and 2 post-index.


Subject(s)
Leukopenia , Lymphopenia , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Crotonates/therapeutic use , Toluidines/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Lymphopenia/chemically induced , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy
5.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 73: 104657, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, French health authorities allowed the home administration of natalizumab by a healthcare-at-home service. We evaluated the patients' perception of care quality following the transition from day-hospital to home natalizumab administration. METHODS: Thirty relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab were prospectively evaluated for one year after changing onto a home treatment procedure, using MusiCare, the first MS-specific questionnaire to evaluate patient experience and MusiQol. A numerical rating scale score for satisfaction and a dedicated questionnaire concerning patient experience were completed after each infusion. The primary endpoint was the mean difference in MusiCare score between baseline and 12 months. RESULTS: From June 2020 to November 2021, 306 infusions were performed at home. Three patients withdrew from the study (one lost to follow-up and two preferred to return at the day hospital). No worsening of patient experience or quality of life was observed. The mean scores of the Musicare dimensions were higher at 12 months than at baseline, significantly for the "relationship with healthcare professionals" (p = 0.0203). The MusiQol global score remained stable but the coping and friendship dimensions were significantly better at M12 than at baseline (p = 0.0491 and p = 0.0478, respectively). The satisfaction questionnaire highlighted some pain during the infusions (21.8%) and contradictions between healthcare professionals (17.2%). The mean score for satisfaction with care was 9.1/10. No safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSION: The positive experience of patients with home natalizumab administration provides an important opportunity to improve the quality of patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Natalizumab/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Quality of Life , Pandemics , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Patient Outcome Assessment , Hospitals
6.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 68: 104403, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early initiation with high efficacy therapies seems to be better than an escalation approach in terms of disability prevention in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Although efficacy and safety of cladribine tablets have been shown in clinical trials, real-world evidence (RWE) studies from Latin America are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To describe the baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the Argentina Patient Support Program (PSP) for cladribine tablets (Adveva®), with at least 1 treatment course, evaluate treatment persistence, adverse event reports from PSP patients and reported relapses characterization. METHODS: Anonymized data routinely collected by Adveva® team of patients that received the first dose of cladribine from April 16th 2018 to March 31st 2021 were analyzed. Treatment persistence was defined as the percentage of patients that initiated year 2 (Y2) from the population of patients with elapsed time since year 1 (Y1) cladribine tablet initiation of at least 18 months. In addition, using the pharmacovigilance data, reported adverse events and the time elapsed from treatment initiation to relapse were analyzed. RESULTS: The present analysis included 269 patients (mean age: 41.7 ± 16 years) that had initiated Y1 of cladribine tablets treatment between April 16th 2018 and March 31st 2021. Although only 29.4% (79/269) of our population was treatment naïve, the ratio of naïve/switch patients that initiated cladribine tablets increased from April 2018-March 2019 to April 2020-March 2021. From the 110 patients with elapsed time since treatment initiation ≥18 months, 101 patients initiated Y2 indicating a persistence level of 91.8%. During follow-up, 425 adverse events were reported, mainly MS relapse (8.9%, 38/425), fatigue (3.8%, 16/425) and headache (3.5%, 15/425). Lymphopenia and infections were rarely reported by RRMS patients treated with cladribine tablets. MS relapse was more frequently reported in patients switching from a previous treatment (87.5%, 27/32) than in the naïve cohort (12.5%, 5/32). CONCLUSIONS: The first real life experience in RRMS patients from Latin America demonstrated that the Adveva® enrolled support program patients have a high persistence level to oral treatment with cladribine tablets. Our results also confirmed the known safety profile of cladribine tablets, with a low incidence of lymphopenia and infections.


Subject(s)
Lymphopenia , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Cladribine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Argentina , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/chemically induced , Lymphopenia/chemically induced , Tablets , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy
7.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 69: 104441, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical and radiological effectiveness of ocrelizumab in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in a clinical practice setting and describe its tolerability and adverse events. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted comparing clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of all patients with (pw)PPMS and RRMS who had received treatment with ocrelizumab at least one cycle and have been followed up for one year at minimum. RESULTS: 42 patients (27 women) treated with ocrelizumab: 29 had RRMS and 13 PPMS. The follow-up period was 26.4 ± 8.4 months. The proportion of pwRRMS with no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) in the first year was 69.2% and in the second was 80%. In the first year, radiological activity was reduced by 80.0% in pwRRMS and 91.7% in pwPPMS. In the second year, radiological activity was completely reduced in both groups. A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the pre-ocrelizumab rate of disability progression vs. the first year rate of progression for pwRRMS and pwPPMS. However, an increase in the disability progression rate in the second year of treatment was found in pwPPMS. Ocrelizumab was mostly well tolerated and some adverse effects were reported: infusion-related reactions (IRRs) were the most frequent adverse event, followed by infections and hematological side effects. Discontinuations were due to infections, hematological complications, and perception of ineffectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Ocrelizumab was very effective in reducing relapses and MRI activity. The rate of progression was slowed down; however, the effect was more evident for pwRRMS than for pwPPMS over time.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Female , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/chemically induced , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/drug therapy , Recurrence
8.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 94(6): 487-493, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with multiple sclerosis on ocrelizumab have B-cell depletion after standard interval dosing of 26 weeks. With B-cell-guided dosing patients receive their next dose when B-cell repopulation occurs. Prediction of B-cell repopulation using ocrelizumab concentrations could aid in personalising treatment regimes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the association between ocrelizumab drug concentration, antidrug antibodies (ADAs) and CD19 B-cell count, and to define a cut-off ocrelizumab concentration for start of B-cell repopulation (defined by ≥10 CD19+ B cells/µL). METHODS: In this investigator-initiated prospective study, blood samples at various time points during ocrelizumab treatment were collected from a biobank. Serum ocrelizumab concentrations and ADAs were measured with two different assays developed for this study. Data were analysed using linear mixed effect models. An receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine a cut-off ocrelizumab concentration for start of B-cell repopulation (defined by ≥10 cells/µL). RESULTS: A total of 452 blood samples from 72 patients were analysed. Ocrelizumab concentrations were detectable up until 53.3 weeks after last infusion and ranged between <0.0025 and 204 µg/mL after 1-67 weeks. Ocrelizumab concentration was negatively associated with B-cell count, with body mass index identified as effect modifier. We found a cut-off value of 0.06 µg/mL for start of B-cell repopulation of ≥10 cells/µL. Ocrelizumab ADAs were detectable in four patients (5.7%) with corresponding low ocrelizumab concentrations and start of B-cell repopulation. CONCLUSIONS: Serum ocrelizumab concentration was strongly associated with B-cell count. Measurement of ocrelizumab drug concentrations and ADAs could play an important role to further personalise treatment and predict the start of B-cell repopulation.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy
9.
Rev Neurol ; 76(s01): S1-S6, 2023 Jan 31.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2218112

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological disease with numerous disease-modifying treatments available, including dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a first-line therapy for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Although rates of discontinuation of DMF are generally low in clinical trials, non-adherence to treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Assessing real-world adherence and predictive factors is critical to be able to improve clinical outcomes for patients. This study evaluated adherence to DMF over 24 months in a cohort of patients treated in a Portuguese healthcare centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective, non-interventional, single-centre study with 24 months' follow-up was conducted. The study included adult patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with DMF in routine clinical practice. Adherence to DMF was calculated and patients were considered to have adhered if the value was above 80%. Clinical and socio-demographic variables were compared between groups. RESULTS: Of the 80 patients included, 74% were women, with a mean age of 39 years and a mean age of 32 years at diagnosis. Twenty-six patients had not received any previous treatment. Adherence varied between 93, 82 and 87.5% at 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively. No differences were found between patients who had not received any prior treatment and those who had been treated. CONCLUSION: This real-world analysis showed significant adherence to DMF treatment by Portuguese patients over a period of two years. However, these results must be interpreted in the light of the substantial changes in outpatient consultations and the various periodic restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which had an important effect on patient follow-up and data collection.


TITLE: Adhesión real al dimetilfumarato en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple remitente-recurrente.Introducción. La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad neurológica crónica con numerosos tratamientos modificadores de la enfermedad disponibles, incluido el dimetilfumarato (DMF), una terapia de primera línea para la esclerosis múltiple remitente-recurrente. Aunque las tasas de discontinuación del DMF suelen ser bajas en los ensayos clínicos, la falta de adhesión al tratamiento se asocia con peores resultados clínicos. Evaluar la adhesión en el mundo real y los factores predictivos es fundamental para mejorar los resultados clínicos de los pacientes. Este estudio evaluó la adhesión al DMF durante 24 meses en una cohorte de pacientes tratados en un centro portugués. Pacientes y métodos. Estudio prospectivo no intervencionista, de un solo centro, con un seguimiento de 24 meses. El estudio incluyó a pacientes adultos con esclerosis múltiple remitente-recurrente tratados con DMF en la práctica clínica habitual. Se calculó la adhesión al DMF y se consideró que los pacientes eran adherentes si el valor estaba por encima del 80%. Se compararon variables clínicas y sociodemográficas entre grupos. Resultados. De los 80 pacientes incluidos, el 74% eran mujeres, con una edad media de 39 años y una edad media en el momento del diagnóstico de 32 años. Veintiséis pacientes no habían recibido tratamiento previo. La adhesión varió entre el 93, el 82 y el 87,5% a los 6, 12 y 24 meses, respectivamente. No se encontraron diferencias entre los pacientes que no habían recibido tratamiento previo y los que sí lo habían recibido. Conclusión. Este análisis en el mundo real mostró una adhesión significativa al tratamiento con DMF durante dos años por parte de los pacientes portugueses. No obstante, estos resultados deben interpretarse considerando los cambios sustanciales en las consultas externas y las diversas restricciones periódicas debidas a la pandemia de COVID-19, que afectaron en gran medida al seguimiento de los pacientes y a la recopilación de datos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Dimethyl Fumarate/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
10.
CNS Drugs ; 36(12): 1285-1299, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2175288

ABSTRACT

There are > 18 distinct disease-modifying therapy (DMT) options covering 10 mechanisms of action currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Given the multitude of available treatment options, and recent international consensus guidelines offering differing recommendations, there is broad heterogeneity in how the DMTs are used in clinical practice. Choosing a DMT for newly diagnosed patients with MS is currently a topic of significant debate in MS care. Historically, an escalation approach to DMT was used for newly diagnosed patients with RRMS. However, the evidence for clinical benefits of early treatment with high-efficacy therapies (HETs) in this population is emerging. In this review, we provide an overview of the DMT options and MS treatment strategies, and discuss the clinical benefits of HETs (including ofatumumab, ocrelizumab, natalizumab, alemtuzumab, and cladribine) in the early stages of MS, along with safety concerns associated with these DMTs. By minimizing the accumulation of neurological damage early in the disease course, early treatment with HETs may enhance long-term clinical outcomes over the lifetime of the patient.


Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) can help people with multiple sclerosis (MS) by changing the way that their MS develops over time. Some people with MS have relapses when their symptoms get worse, followed by recovery when their MS is remitting. This is called relapsing­remitting MS (RRMS). DMTs can reduce both the number and the severity of relapses. They can also delay the nerve damage that relapses cause. A range of DMTs are approved for treating people with RRMS. These treatments work in different ways, and international treatment guidelines vary on their recommendations for using DMTs in the clinic. Selecting DMTs for people with newly diagnosed RRMS is still a topic of discussion. Previously, people with RRMS only received the more effective high-efficacy therapies (HETs) if their first treatment was not effective. HETs include ofatumumab, ocrelizumab, natalizumab, alemtuzumab, and cladribine. Recently, using HETs at an earlier stage has shown promising results. In this review article, we provide an overview of the clinical strategies and the DMT options that are available for people with MS. Additionally, we discuss the benefits of using HETs for people with newly diagnosed MS and consider the safety issues related to DMTs. We summarize that using HETs to reduce the buildup of nerve damage during the early stages of MS may lead to improved long-term clinical outcomes over a person's lifetime.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , Alemtuzumab/therapeutic use
11.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 28(4): 1025-1051, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065056

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the expansion of options for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis, this review outlines the framework for developing a treatment strategy, with consideration of when to switch or discontinue therapies, and a comprehensive elaboration of the mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety considerations for each of the therapeutic classes. RECENT FINDINGS: The armamentarium of immunotherapies has grown rapidly, to encompass 19 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved immunotherapies available in 2021, which are addressed in the review. The coronavirus pandemic that began in 2020 underscored existing concerns regarding vaccine efficacy in those treated with immune-suppressing immunotherapies, which are also addressed here. SUMMARY: By choosing a treatment strategy before exploring the individual medications, patients and providers can focus their efforts on a subset of the therapeutic options. Although the mechanisms of action, routes of administration, efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the described agents and classes differ, all are effective in reducing relapse frequency in multiple sclerosis (MS), with most also showing a reduction in the accumulation of neurologic disability. These powerful effects are improving the lives of people with MS. Pharmacovigilance is critical for the safe use of these immune-modulating and -suppressing agents, and vaccine efficacy may be reduced by those with immune-suppressing effects.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Immunotherapy , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Recurrence , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
12.
Mult Scler ; 28(12): 1944-1962, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ozanimod, an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 and 5 modulator, is approved in multiple countries for treatment of relapsing forms of MS. OBJECTIVE: To characterize long-term safety and efficacy of ozanimod. METHODS: Patients with relapsing MS who completed a phase 1‒3 ozanimod trial were eligible for an open-label extension study (DAYBREAK) of ozanimod 0.92 mg/d. DAYBREAK began 16 October 2015; cutoff for this interim analysis was 2 February 2021. RESULTS: This analysis included 2494 participants with mean 46.8 (SD 11.9; range 0.033‒62.7) months of ozanimod exposure in DAYBREAK. During DAYBREAK, 2143 patients (85.9%) had treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs; similar in nature to those in the parent trials), 298 (11.9%) had a serious TEAE, and 75 (3.0%) discontinued treatment due to TEAEs. Serious infections (2.8%), herpes zoster infections (1.7%), confirmed macular edema cases (0.2%), and cardiac TEAEs (2.8%) were infrequent. Adjusted annualized relapse rate was 0.103 (95% confidence interval, 0.086‒0.123). Over 48 months, 71% of patients remained relapse free. Adjusted mean numbers of new/enlarging T2 lesions/scan and gadolinium-enhancing lesions were low and similar across parent trial treatment subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: This long-term extension of ozanimod trials confirmed a favorable safety/tolerability profile and sustained benefit on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging measures of disease activity.


Subject(s)
Indans , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Oxadiazoles , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Indans/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Oxadiazoles/adverse effects , Recurrence , Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors
13.
Neurotherapeutics ; 19(5): 1535-1545, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014575

ABSTRACT

In the COVID-19 pandemic era, safety concerns have been raised regarding the risk of severe infection following administration of ocrelizumab (OCR), a B-cell-depleting therapy. We enrolled all relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients who received maintenance doses of OCR from January 2020 to June 2021. Data were extracted in December 2021. Standard interval dosing (SID) was defined as a regular maintenance interval of OCR infusion every 6 months, whereas extended interval dosing (EID) was defined as an OCR infusion delay of at least 4 weeks. Three infusions were considered in defining SID vs. EID (infusions A, B, and C). Infusion A was the last infusion before January 2020. The primary study outcome was a comparison of disease activity during the A-C interval, which was defined as either clinical (new relapses) or radiological (new lesions on T1-gadolinium or T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences). Second, we aimed to assess confirmed disability progression (CDP). A total cohort of 278 patients (174 on SID and 104 on EID) was enrolled. Patients who received OCR on EID had a longer disease duration and a higher rate of vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (p < 0.05). EID was associated with an increased risk of MRI activity during the A-C interval (OR 5.373, 95% CI 1.203-24.001, p = 0.028). Being on SID or EID did not influence CDP (V-Cramer 0.47, p = 0.342). EID seemed to be associated with a higher risk of MRI activity in our cohort. EID needs to be carefully considered for OCR-treated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Sudden Infant Death , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Pandemics , Gadolinium/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Recurrence , Cytidine Diphosphate/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy
14.
Mult Scler ; 28(10): 1576-1590, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ofatumumab is approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). Ongoing safety reporting is crucial to understand its long-term benefit-risk profile. OBJECTIVE: Report the safety and tolerability of ofatumumab in RMS after extended treatment up to 3.5 years. METHODS: Patients completing ASCLEPIOS I/II (phase 3), APLIOS, or APOLITOS (phase 2) trials could enter ALITHIOS, a phase 3b, open-label, long-term safety study. We analyzed cumulative data of continuous ofatumumab treatment and of patients newly switched from teriflunomide. RESULTS: The safety population had 1969 patients: 1292 continuously treated with ofatumumab (median time-at-risk 35.5 months, 3253 patient-years) and 677 newly switched (median time-at-risk 18.3 months, 986 patient-years). A total of 1650 patients (83.8%) had ⩾1 adverse events and 191 (9.7%) had ⩾1 serious adverse events. No opportunistic infections or progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy events were identified; the risk of malignancies was low. Mean serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G levels remained stable. Mean IgM levels decreased but remained above the lower limit of normal in most. Serious infection incidence was low; decreased Ig levels were not associated with serious infections. CONCLUSION: In patients with up to 3.5 years' exposure, ofatumumab was well tolerated, with no new safety risks identified. These findings, with its established effectiveness, support a favorable benefit-risk profile of ofatumumab in RMS.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy
15.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 172(15-16): 365-372, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941901

ABSTRACT

Cladribine (CLAD) is a purine nucleoside analog approved in tablet form to treat highly active multiple sclerosis (MS). CLAD tablets are the first oral therapy with an infrequent dosing schedule, administered in two annual treatment courses, each divided into two treatment cycles comprising 4-5 days of treatment. The efficacy and safety of CLAD tablets have been verified in randomized controlled clinical trials. Clinical observational studies are performed in more representative populations and over more extended periods, and thus provide valuable complementary insights. Here, we summarize the available evidence for CLAD tablets from post-marketing trials, including two observational, four long-term extensions, and two comparative studies. The patients in the post-marketing setting differed from the cohort recruited in the pivotal phase III trials regarding demographics and MS-related disability. The limited number of studies with small cohorts corroborate the disease-modifying capacity of oral CLAD and report on a durable benefit after active treatment periods. Skin-related adverse events were common in the studies focusing on safety aspects. In addition, single cases of CLAD-associated autoimmune events have been reported. Lastly, CLAD tablets appear safe regarding COVID-19 concerns, and patients mount a robust humoral immune response to SARS-CoV­2 vaccination. We conclude that the current real-world evidence for CLAD tablets as immune reconstitution therapy for treatment of MS is based on a small number of studies and a population distinct from the cohorts randomized in the pivotal phase III trials. Further research should advance the understanding of long-term disease control after active treatment periods and the mitigation of adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Cladribine/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/chemically induced , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/chemically induced , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Nucleosides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Tablets/therapeutic use
16.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 63: 103863, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients receive immunomodulatory treatments which can influence their ability to maintain vaccine specific serological response overtime. MS patients treated with cladribine tablets developed a positive serology response following two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. However, there is only limited data regarding the effect of cladribine tablets on long-term humoral response after the second and the third booster. METHODS: Serology response to SARS-CoV-2 was tested in healthy controls (HCs) and MS patients treated with cladribine tablets 6 and 9-12 months after the second dose, and 1 and 3-6 months following the third booster-dose of the BTN162b2 mRNA vaccine. RESULTS: Thirty-five out of 36 MS patients treated with cladribine tablets and 100% (46/46) of HCs had a positive serology response up to 10 months after the second vaccine dose. In addition, all cladribine tablets -treated MS patients (22/22) and HCs (24/24) had a positive robust serology response following the third vaccine with a positive humoral response sustain up to 6 months. One month after the third vaccine dose IgG levels were significantly lower in patients treated with cladribine tablets compared to HCs (15,598+11,313 vs 26,394+11,335, p<0.01). Six-month post second vaccine and 3-6 months post third vaccine there was no difference in IgG levels between the groups (1088.0 ± 1072.0 vs 1153.0 ± 997.1, p = 0.79; 5234+4097 vs 11,198+14,679, p = 0.4). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: MS patients treated with cladribine tablets have sustained positive vaccine specific serology response following the second and third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cladribine/adverse effects , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tablets , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
17.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 134, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and degenerative disease of the central nervous system with an increasing worldwide prevalence. Since 1993, more than 15 disease-modifying immunotherapies (DMTs) have been licenced and have shown moderate efficacy in clinical trials. Based on the heterogeneity of the disease and the partial effectiveness of therapies, a personalised medicine approach would be valuable taking individual prognosis and suitability of a chosen therapy into account to gain the best possible treatment effect. The primary objective of this review is to assess the differential treatment effects of all approved DMTs in subgroups of adults with clinically isolated syndrome or relapsing forms of MS. We will analyse possible treatment effect modifiers (TEM) defined by baseline demographic characteristics (gender, age), and diagnostic (i.e. MRI measures) and clinical (i.e. relapses, disability level) measures of MS disease activity. METHODS: We will include all published and accessible unpublished primary and secondary analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a follow-up of at least 12 months investigating the efficacy of at least one approved DMT, with placebo or other approved DMTs as control intervention(s) in subgroups of trial participants. As the primary outcome, we will address disability as defined by the Expanded Disability Status Scale or multiple sclerosis functional composite scores followed by relapse frequency, quality of life measures, and side effects. MRI data will be analysed as secondary outcomes. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, CENTRAL and major trial registers will be searched for suitable studies. Titles and abstracts and full texts will be screened by two persons independently using Covidence. The risk of bias will be analysed based on the Cochrane "Risk of Bias 2" tool, and the certainty of evidence will be assessed using GRADE. Treatment effects will be reported as rate ratio or odds ratio. Primary analyses will follow the intention-to-treat principle. Meta-analyses will be carried out using random-effects models. DISCUSSION: Given that individual patient data from clinical studies are often not available, the review will allow to analyse the evidence on TEM in MS immunotherapy and thus support clinical decision making in individual cases. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021279665 .


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Biomarkers , Demography , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
18.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 172(15-16): 359-364, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899205

ABSTRACT

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system leading to demyelination and neurodegeneration of brain tissue. For a long time, research focused on T cells as the primary mechanism of disease. Driven by reports on the clinical results of B cell-depleting therapies, this therapeutic approach has come into focus in the last decade, and new highly effective treatments have been developed and are now complementing the therapeutic landscape. This review provides an overview of the development of B cell-depleting therapies and shows the advantages and disadvantages of current developments. In addition, we discuss basic considerations for CD20-depleted MS patients in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Pandemics , Antigens, CD20/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Immunotherapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy
19.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 65: 103985, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895343

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic is thought to influence the natural history of immune disorders, yet the knowledge on its effect on multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown and not fully understood for which we conducted this retrospective study. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We included all patients with MS seen in King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between January 2017 and October 20201. We determined clinical and radiological evidence of disease activities in all patients by the end of the study period, and we compared the disease patterns before and during the pandemic. We also identified patients with COVID-19 since March 2020, who had at least 3 months of follow-up following the infection. RESULTS: We studied 301 patients; 216 (72%) were women, the mean age was 38 years (range; 16, 73 years), the mean disease duration was 10 years (range; 1, 36 years), and the median EDSS score was 0.5 (range; 0, 8). RRMS accounted for most of the cases (270 patients). MS disease activities were 25% less prevalent during the pandemic compared to the preceding 3 years (26 vs. 51%, respectively, p < 0.01). Bivariate analysis showed significant higher disease activities in patients younger than 35 years (73 vs 27%), on DMT (68 vs 32%), and complaint to therapy (69 vs 31%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the likelihood of MS disease activities were 3 times more during the pre-pandemic era (adjusted OR = 3.1, p value < 0.05, 95% CI; 1.4, 7.1). Thirty patients (10%) were infected with COVID-19. All patients reported mild symptoms, and none required hospitalization. COVID-19 was prevalent among younger patients with RRMS, with low EDSS scores, irrespective of DMTs they received. COVID-19 infection was not associated with clinical relapses or MRI changes. Disease activities were dependent on DMT use and not COVID-19 status. Multivariate analyses also confirmed no effect of COVID-19 on disease activities (p = 0.3 and 0.4, for clinical and MRI changes, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MS disease activities did not increase during the pandemic, yet the apparent decrease in the disease activities is probably due to under reporting and not a real decrease in disease activities because of the pandemic. The COVID-19 infection in our MS patients showed a benign disease course, yet standard precautions to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission should be applied accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
20.
Mult Scler ; 28(7): 1126-1130, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite impressive efficacy in immunocompetent individuals, the immunogenicity of a single dose of COVID-19 vaccine in B-cell-deplete patients remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify real-world vaccine immunogenicity in ocrelizumab recipients. METHODS: We measured post-vaccination SARS-COV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) in ocrelizumab recipients using a highly sensitive Luminex assay. RESULTS: 44.1% of patients had detectable SARS-COV-2-IgG 21+ days after one vaccine dose, regardless of vaccine type (AZD1222 vs BNT162b2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.157-2.32, p = 0.72). B-cell count strongly predicted seroconversion (ß1 = 12.38, 95% CI = 4.59-20.16, p = 0.0029), but undetectable B-cells did not preclude it. The second vaccine seroconverted 53% of the patients who had not already responded to dose 1. CONCLUSION: Humoral response after one COVID-19 vaccine dose is lower than expected in CD20-deplete patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
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