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1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 593: 52-56, 2022 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633160

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the respiratory infection caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, presents a clinical picture consistent with the dysregulation of many of the pathways mediated by the metalloprotease ADAM17. ADAM17 is a sheddase that plays a key role in the modulation of ACE2, the receptor which also functions as the point of attachment leading to cell entry by the virus. This work investigates the possibility that ADAM17 dysregulation and attachment of the SARS-CoV-2 virion to the ACE2 receptor are linked events, with the latter causing the former. Tetraspanins, the transmembrane proteins that function as scaffolds for the construction of viral entry platforms, are mooted as key components in this connection.


Subject(s)
ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tetraspanin 29/metabolism , Virus Internalization , ADAM17 Protein/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Models, Biological , Molecular Docking Simulation , Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry , Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tetraspanin 29/chemistry
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2843, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228252

ABSTRACT

Although the accessory proteins are considered non-essential for coronavirus replication, accumulating evidences demonstrate they are critical to virus-host interaction and pathogenesis. Orf9b is a unique accessory protein of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. It is implicated in immune evasion by targeting mitochondria, where it associates with the versatile adapter TOM70. Here, we determined the crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 orf9b in complex with the cytosolic segment of human TOM70 to 2.2 Å. A central portion of orf9b occupies the deep pocket in the TOM70 C-terminal domain (CTD) and adopts a helical conformation strikingly different from the ß-sheet-rich structure of the orf9b homodimer. Interactions between orf9b and TOM70 CTD are primarily hydrophobic and distinct from the electrostatic interaction between the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) EEVD motif and the TOM70 N-terminal domain (NTD). Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), we demonstrated that the orf9b dimer does not bind TOM70, but a synthetic peptide harboring a segment of orf9b (denoted C-peptide) binds TOM70 with nanomolar KD. While the interaction between C-peptide and TOM70 CTD is an endothermic process, the interaction between Hsp90 EEVD and TOM70 NTD is exothermic, which underscores the distinct binding mechanisms at NTD and CTD pockets. Strikingly, the binding affinity of Hsp90 EEVD motif to TOM70 NTD is reduced by ~29-fold when orf9b occupies the pocket of TOM70 CTD, supporting the hypothesis that orf9b allosterically inhibits the Hsp90/TOM70 interaction. Our findings shed light on the mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 orf9b mediated suppression of interferon responses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/chemistry , Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Escherichia coli/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism , Multiprotein Complexes/ultrastructure , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(21)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223143

ABSTRACT

The genome of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coronavirus has a capping modification at the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) to prevent its degradation by host nucleases. These modifications are performed by the Nsp10/14 and Nsp10/16 heterodimers using S-adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor. Nsp10/16 heterodimer is responsible for the methylation at the ribose 2'-O position of the first nucleotide. To investigate the conformational changes of the complex during 2'-O methyltransferase activity, we used a fixed-target serial synchrotron crystallography method at room temperature. We determined crystal structures of Nsp10/16 with substrates and products that revealed the states before and after methylation, occurring within the crystals during the experiments. Here we report the crystal structure of Nsp10/16 in complex with Cap-1 analog (m7GpppAm2'-O). Inhibition of Nsp16 activity may reduce viral proliferation, making this protein an attractive drug target.


Subject(s)
RNA Caps/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Crystallography , Methylation , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry , Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism , RNA Cap Analogs/chemistry , RNA Cap Analogs/metabolism , RNA Caps/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Viral/chemistry , S-Adenosylhomocysteine/chemistry , S-Adenosylhomocysteine/metabolism , S-Adenosylmethionine/chemistry , S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Synchrotrons , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(17)2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172591

ABSTRACT

In order to understand the transmission and virulence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), it is necessary to understand the functions of each of the gene products encoded in the viral genome. One feature of the SARS-CoV-2 genome that is not present in related, common coronaviruses is ORF10, a putative 38-amino acid protein-coding gene. Proteomic studies found that ORF10 binds to an E3 ubiquitin ligase containing Cullin-2, Rbx1, Elongin B, Elongin C, and ZYG11B (CRL2ZYG11B). Since CRL2ZYG11B mediates protein degradation, one possible role for ORF10 is to "hijack" CRL2ZYG11B in order to target cellular, antiviral proteins for ubiquitylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Here, we investigated whether ORF10 hijacks CRL2ZYG11B or functions in other ways, for example, as an inhibitor or substrate of CRL2ZYG11B While we confirm the ORF10-ZYG11B interaction and show that the N terminus of ORF10 is critical for it, we find no evidence that ORF10 is functioning to inhibit or hijack CRL2ZYG11B Furthermore, ZYG11B and its paralog ZER1 are dispensable for SARS-CoV-2 infection in cultured cells. We conclude that the interaction between ORF10 and CRL2ZYG11B is not relevant for SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Cullin Proteins/metabolism , Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism , Open Reading Frames , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Cullin Proteins/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Multiprotein Complexes/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(48): 30687-30698, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922313

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has made it clear that we have a desperate need for antivirals. We present work that the mammalian SKI complex is a broad-spectrum, host-directed, antiviral drug target. Yeast suppressor screening was utilized to find a functional genetic interaction between proteins from influenza A virus (IAV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) with eukaryotic proteins that may be potential host factors involved in replication. This screening identified the SKI complex as a potential host factor for both viruses. In mammalian systems siRNA-mediated knockdown of SKI genes inhibited replication of IAV and MERS-CoV. In silico modeling and database screening identified a binding pocket on the SKI complex and compounds predicted to bind. Experimental assays of those compounds identified three chemical structures that were antiviral against IAV and MERS-CoV along with the filoviruses Ebola and Marburg and two further coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The mechanism of antiviral activity is through inhibition of viral RNA production. This work defines the mammalian SKI complex as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug target and identifies lead compounds for further development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Filoviridae/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Cell Line , Genes, Suppressor , Models, Molecular , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Binding , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Science ; 368(6492): 779-782, 2020 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47347

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)] outbreak has caused a global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, resulting in tens of thousands of infections and thousands of deaths worldwide. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [(RdRp), also named nsp12] is the central component of coronaviral replication and transcription machinery, and it appears to be a primary target for the antiviral drug remdesivir. We report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of COVID-19 virus full-length nsp12 in complex with cofactors nsp7 and nsp8 at 2.9-angstrom resolution. In addition to the conserved architecture of the polymerase core of the viral polymerase family, nsp12 possesses a newly identified ß-hairpin domain at its N terminus. A comparative analysis model shows how remdesivir binds to this polymerase. The structure provides a basis for the design of new antiviral therapeutics that target viral RdRp.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/enzymology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/ultrastructure , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/ultrastructure , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Drug Design , Models, Molecular , Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry , Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism , Multiprotein Complexes/ultrastructure , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Domains , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
7.
J Med Virol ; 92(9): 1649-1656, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-27178

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the recent COVID-19 public health crisis. Bat is the widely believed original host of SARS-CoV-2. However, its intermediate host before transmitting to humans is not clear. Some studies proposed pangolin, snake, or turtle as the intermediate hosts. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, which determines the potential host range for SARS-CoV-2. On the basis of structural information of the complex of human ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), we analyzed the affinity to S protein of the 20 key residues in ACE2 from mammal, bird, turtle, and snake. Several ACE2 proteins from Primates, Bovidae, Cricetidae, and Cetacea maintained the majority of key residues in ACE2 for associating with SARS-CoV-2 RBD. The simulated structures indicated that ACE2 proteins from Bovidae and Cricetidae were able to associate with SARS-CoV-2 RBD. We found that nearly half of the key residues in turtle, snake, and bird were changed. The simulated structures showed several key contacts with SARS-CoV-2 RBD in turtle and snake ACE2 were abolished. This study demonstrated that neither snake nor turtle was the intermediate hosts for SARS-CoV-2, which further reinforced the concept that the reptiles are resistant against infection of coronavirus. This study suggested that Bovidae and Cricetidae should be included in the screening of intermediate hosts for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Arvicolinae , Cattle , Humans , Models, Molecular , Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry , Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Tropism
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