Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 66
Filter
1.
Antiviral Res ; 208: 105451, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085917

ABSTRACT

A recent study demonstrated that a DNA-RNA dual-activity topoisomerase complex, TOP3B-TDRD3, is required for normal replication of positive-sense RNA viruses, including several human flaviviruses and coronaviruses; and the authors proposed that TOP3B is a target of antiviral drugs. Here we examined this hypothesis by investigating whether inactivation of Top3b can inhibit the replication of a mouse coronavirus, MHV, using cell lines and mice that are inactivated of Top3b or Tdrd3. We found that Top3b-KO or Tdrd3-KO cell lines generated by different CRISPR-CAS9 guide RNAs have variable effects on MHV replication. In addition, we did not find significant changes of MHV replication in brains or lungs in Top3B-KO mice. Moreover, immunostaining showed that Top3b proteins are not co-localized with MHV replication complexes but rather, localized in stress granules in the MHV-infected cells. Our results suggest that Top3b does not have a universal role in promoting replication of positive-sense RNA virus, and cautions should be taken when targeting it to develop anti-viral drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Murine hepatitis virus , RNA Viruses , Animals , Mice , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Murine hepatitis virus/genetics , Murine hepatitis virus/metabolism , Proteins , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Virus Replication
2.
J Immunol ; 209(7): 1314-1322, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055633

ABSTRACT

Postviral bacterial infections are a major health care challenge in coronavirus infections, including COVID-19; however, the coronavirus-specific mechanisms of increased host susceptibility to secondary infections remain unknown. In humans, coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, infect lung immune cells, including alveolar macrophages, a phenotype poorly replicated in mouse models of SARS-CoV-2. To overcome this, we used a mouse model of native murine ß-coronavirus that infects both immune and structural cells to investigate coronavirus-enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infections. Our data show that coronavirus infection impairs the host ability to clear invading bacterial pathogens and potentiates lung tissue damage in mice. Mechanistically, coronavirus limits the bacterial killing ability of macrophages by impairing lysosomal acidification and fusion with engulfed bacteria. In addition, coronavirus-induced lysosomal dysfunction promotes pyroptotic cell death and the release of IL-1ß. Inhibition of cathepsin B decreased cell death and IL-1ß release and promoted bacterial clearance in mice with postcoronavirus bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , Bacteria , Cathepsin B , Humans , Lung , Lysosomes , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
3.
mBio ; 13(5): e0254322, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053129

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had a devastating impact on global public health, emphasizing the importance of understanding innate immune mechanisms and cellular restriction factors that cells can harness to fight viral infections. The multimembrane-spanning zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 is one such restriction factor. ZMPSTE24 has a well-characterized proteolytic role in the maturation of prelamin A, precursor of the nuclear scaffold protein lamin A. An apparently unrelated role for ZMPSTE24 in viral defense involves its interaction with the interferon-inducible membrane proteins (IFITMs), which block virus-host cell fusion by rigidifying cellular membranes and thereby prevent viral infection. ZMPSTE24, like the IFITMs, defends cells against a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses. However, its ability to protect against coronaviruses has never been examined. Here, we show that overexpression of ZMPSTE24 reduces the efficiency of cellular infection by SARS-CoV-2 Spike-pseudotyped lentivirus and that genetic knockout or small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous ZMPSTE24 enhances infectivity. We further demonstrate a protective role for ZMPSTE24 in a Spike-ACE2-dependent cell-cell fusion assay. In both assays, a catalytic dead version of ZMPSTE24 is equally as protective as the wild-type protein, indicating that ZMPSTE24's proteolytic activity is not required for defense against SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we demonstrate by plaque assays that Zmpste24-/- mouse cells show enhanced infection by a genuine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). This study extends the range of viral protection afforded by ZMPSTE24 to include coronaviruses and suggests that targeting ZMPSTE24's mechanism of viral defense could have therapeutic benefit. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has underscored the importance of understanding intrinsic cellular components that can be harnessed as the cell's first line of defense to fight against viral infection. Our paper focuses on one such protein, the integral membrane protease ZMPSTE24, which interacts with interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs). IFITMs interfere with virus entry by inhibiting fusion between viral and host cell membranes, and ZMPSTE24 appears to contribute to this inhibitory activity. ZMPSTE24 has been shown to defend cells against several, but not all, enveloped viruses. In this study, we extend ZMPSTE24's reach to include coronaviruses, by showing that ZMPSTE24 protects cells from SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection, Spike protein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and infection by the mouse coronavirus MHV. This work lays the groundwork for further studies to decipher the mechanistic role of ZMPSTE24 in blocking the entry of SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses into cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Humans , Mice , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Pandemics , Lamin Type A , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Virus Internalization , Murine hepatitis virus/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Giant Cells , Metalloproteases , Interferons , Zinc
4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0186222, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019795

ABSTRACT

In 2020 and 2021, many meat processing plants faced temporary closures due to outbreaks of COVID-19 cases among the workers. There are several factors that could potentially contribute to the increased numbers of COVID-19 cases in meat processing plants: the survival of viable SARS-CoV-2 on meat and meat packaging materials, difficulties in maintaining workplace physical distancing, personal hygiene, and crowded living and transportation conditions. In this study, we used murine hepatitis virus (MHV) as a biosafety level 2 (BSL2) surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 to determine viral survival on the surface of meat, namely, stew-cut beef and ground beef, and commonly used meat packaging materials, such as plastic wrap, meat-absorbent material, and Styrofoam. From our studies, we observed the infectivity of MHV inoculated on ground beef and stew-cut beef for 48 h and saw no significant loss in infectivity for MHV from 0 to 6 h postinoculation (hpi) (unpaired t test). However, beginning at 9 hpi, viral infectivity steadily decreased, resulting in a 1.12-log reduction for ground beef and a 0.46-log reduction for stew-cut beef by 48 hpi. We also observed a significant persistence of MHV on meat packaging materials, with Styrofoam supporting the highest viability (3.25 × 103 ± 9.57 × 102 PFU/mL, a 0.91-log reduction after 48 hpi), followed by meat-absorbent material (75 ± 50 PFU/mL, a 1.10-log reduction after 48 hpi), and lastly, plastic wrap (no detectable PFU after 3 hpi, a 3.12-log reduction). Despite a notable reduction in infectivity, the virus was able to survive and remain infectious for up to 48 h at 7°C on four of the five test surfaces. Our results provide evidence that coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, could potentially survive on meat, meat-absorbent materials. and Styrofoam for up to 2 days, and potentially longer. IMPORTANCE The meat industry has been faced with astronomical challenges with the rampant spread of COVID-19 among meat processing plant workers. This has resulted in meat processing and packaging plant closures, creating bottlenecks everywhere in the chain, from farms to consumers, subsequently leading to much smaller production outputs and higher prices for all parties involved. This study tested the viability of meat and meat packaging materials as potential reservoirs for SARS-CoV-2, allowing the virus to survive and potentially spread among the workers. We used murine hepatitis virus (MHV) as a biosafety level 2 (BSL2) surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. Our results suggest that ground beef, stew-cut beef, meat-absorbent material, and Styrofoam can harbor coronavirus particles, which can remain viable for at least 48 h. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that the environmental and physical conditions within meat processing facilities can facilitate the survival of viable virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Viruses , Mice , Cattle , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Containment of Biohazards , Polystyrenes , Meat
5.
Nature ; 609(7927): 582-589, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016756

ABSTRACT

Increased levels of proteases, such as trypsin, in the distal intestine have been implicated in intestinal pathological conditions1-3. However, the players and mechanisms that underlie protease regulation in the intestinal lumen have remained unclear. Here we show that Paraprevotella strains isolated from the faecal microbiome of healthy human donors are potent trypsin-degrading commensals. Mechanistically, Paraprevotella recruit trypsin to the bacterial surface through type IX secretion system-dependent polysaccharide-anchoring proteins to promote trypsin autolysis. Paraprevotella colonization protects IgA from trypsin degradation and enhances the effectiveness of oral vaccines against Citrobacter rodentium. Moreover, Paraprevotella colonization inhibits lethal infection with murine hepatitis virus-2, a mouse coronavirus that is dependent on trypsin and trypsin-like proteases for entry into host cells4,5. Consistently, carriage of putative genes involved in trypsin degradation in the gut microbiome was associated with reduced severity of diarrhoea in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, trypsin-degrading commensal colonization may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and protection from pathogen infection.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Intestine, Large , Symbiosis , Trypsin , Administration, Oral , Animals , Bacterial Secretion Systems , Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Bacteroidetes/isolation & purification , Bacteroidetes/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Citrobacter rodentium/immunology , Diarrhea/complications , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Intestine, Large/metabolism , Intestine, Large/microbiology , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/metabolism , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Proteolysis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Trypsin/metabolism , Virus Internalization
6.
J Immunol ; 209(4): 723-730, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975028

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome known as COVID-19, has rapidly spread in almost every country and devastated the global economy and health care system. Lung injury is an early disease manifestation believed to be a major contributor to short- and long-term pathological consequences of COVID-19, and thus drug discovery aiming to ameliorate lung injury could be a potential strategy to treat COVID-19 patients. By inducing a severe acute respiratory syndrome-like pulmonary disease model through infecting A/J mice with murine hepatitis virus strain 1 (MHV-1), we show that i.v. administration of pazopanib ameliorates acute lung injuries without affecting MHV-1 replication. Pazopanib reduces cell apoptosis in MHV-1-infected lungs. Furthermore, we also identified that pazopanib has to be given no later than 48 h after the virus infection without compromising the therapeutic effect. Our study provides a potential treatment for coronavirus-induced lung injuries and support for further evaluation of pazopanib in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Indazoles , Lung , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Mice , Pyrimidines , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
7.
J Virol ; 96(16): e0084122, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973794

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) initiate replication by translation of the positive-sense RNA genome into the replicase polyproteins connecting 16 nonstructural protein domains (nsp1-16), which are subsequently processed by viral proteases to yield mature nsp. For the betacoronavirus murine hepatitis virus (MHV), total inhibition of translation or proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins results in rapid cessation of RNA synthesis. The nsp5-3CLpro (Mpro) processes nsps7-16, which assemble into functional replication-transcription complexes (RTCs), including the enzymatic nsp12-RdRp and nsp14-exoribonuclease (ExoN)/N7-methyltransferase. The nsp14-ExoN activity mediates RNA-dependent RNA proofreading, high-fidelity RNA synthesis, and replication. To date, the solved partial RTC structures, biochemistry, and models use or assume completely processed, mature nsp. Here, we demonstrate that in MHV, engineered deletion of the cleavage sites between nsp13-14 and nsp14-15 allowed recovery of replication-competent virus. Compared to wild-type (WT) MHV, the nsp13-14 and nsp14-15 cleavage deletion mutants demonstrated delayed replication kinetics, impaired genome production, altered abundance and patterns of recombination, and impaired competitive fitness. Further, the nsp13-14 and nsp14-15 mutant viruses demonstrated mutation frequencies that were significantly higher than with the WT. The results demonstrate that cleavage of nsp13-14 or nsp14-15 is not required for MHV viability and that functions of the RTC/nsp14-ExoN are impaired when assembled with noncleaved intermediates. These data will inform future genetic, structural, biochemical, and modeling studies of coronavirus RTCs and nsp 13, 14, and 15 and may reveal new approaches for inhibition or attenuation of CoV infection. IMPORTANCE Coronavirus replication requires proteolytic maturation of the nonstructural replicase proteins to form the replication-transcription complex. Coronavirus replication-transcription complex models assume mature subunits; however, mechanisms of coronavirus maturation and replicase complex formation have yet to be defined. Here, we show that for the coronavirus murine hepatitis virus, cleavage between the nonstructural replicase proteins nsp13-14 and nsp14-15 is not required for replication but does alter RNA synthesis and recombination. These results shed new light on the requirements for coronavirus maturation and replication-transcription complex assembly, and they may reveal novel therapeutic targets and strategies for attenuation.


Subject(s)
Exoribonucleases , Genetic Fitness , Murine hepatitis virus , Proteolysis , RNA, Viral , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Viral Replicase Complex Proteins , Animals , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/enzymology , Murine hepatitis virus/genetics , Murine hepatitis virus/growth & development , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Mutation , Polyproteins/chemistry , Polyproteins/genetics , Polyproteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Transcription, Genetic , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Replicase Complex Proteins/chemistry , Viral Replicase Complex Proteins/genetics , Viral Replicase Complex Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
8.
Mol Neurobiol ; 59(10): 5970-5986, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930554

ABSTRACT

We recently reported acute COVID-19 symptoms, clinical status, weight loss, multi-organ pathological changes, and animal death in a murine hepatitis virus-1 (MHV-1) coronavirus mouse model of COVID-19, which were similar to that observed in humans with COVID-19. We further examined long-term (12 months post-infection) sequelae of COVID-19 in these mice. Congested blood vessels, perivascular cavitation, pericellular halos, vacuolation of neuropils, pyknotic nuclei, acute eosinophilic necrosis, necrotic neurons with fragmented nuclei, and vacuolation were observed in the brain cortex 12 months post-MHV-1 infection. These changes were associated with increased reactive astrocytes and microglia, hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 and tau, and a decrease in synaptic protein synaptophysin-1, suggesting the possible long-term impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on defective neuronal integrity. The lungs showed severe inflammation, bronchiolar airway wall thickening due to fibrotic remodeling, bronchioles with increased numbers of goblet cells in the epithelial lining, and bronchiole walls with increased numbers of inflammatory cells. Hearts showed severe interstitial edema, vascular congestion and dilation, nucleated red blood cells (RBCs), RBCs infiltrating between degenerative myocardial fibers, inflammatory cells and apoptotic bodies and acute myocyte necrosis, hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Long-term changes in the liver and kidney were less severe than those observed in the acute phase. Noteworthy, the treatment of infected mice with a small molecule synthetic peptide which prevents the binding of spike protein to its respective receptors significantly attenuated disease progression, as well as the pathological changes observed post-long-term infection. Collectively, these findings suggest that COVID-19 may result in long-term, irreversible changes predominantly in the brain, lung, and heart.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Humans , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Necrosis , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 886611, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903019

ABSTRACT

Rhinoviruses (RV) have been shown to inhibit subsequent infection by heterologous respiratory viruses, including influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To better understand the mechanisms whereby RV protects against pulmonary coronavirus infection, we used a native murine virus, mouse hepatitis virus strain 1 (MHV-1), that causes severe disease in the lungs of infected mice. We found that priming of the respiratory tract with RV completely prevented mortality and reduced morbidity of a lethal MHV-1 infection. Replication of MHV-1 was reduced in RV-primed mouse lungs although expression of antiviral type I interferon, IFN-ß, was more robust in mice infected with MHV-1 alone. We further showed that signaling through the type I interferon receptor was required for survival of mice given a non-lethal dose of MHV-1. RV-primed mice had reduced pulmonary inflammation and hemorrhage and influx of leukocytes, especially neutrophils, in the airways upon MHV-1 infection. Although MHV-1 replication was reduced in RV-primed mice, RV did not inhibit MHV-1 replication in coinfected lung epithelial cells in vitro. In summary, RV-mediated priming in the respiratory tract reduces viral replication, inflammation, and tissue damage, and prevents mortality of a pulmonary coronavirus infection in mice. These results contribute to our understanding of how distinct respiratory viruses interact with the host to affect disease pathogenesis, which is a critical step in understanding how respiratory viral coinfections impact human health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Enterovirus Infections , Murine hepatitis virus , Pneumonia , Animals , Lung , Mice , Rhinovirus , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 19(8): 455-468, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886337

ABSTRACT

The list of EPA-approved disinfectants for coronavirus features many products for use on hard, non-porous materials. There are significantly fewer products registered for use on porous materials. Further, many common, high-touch surfaces fall in between non-porous materials such as glass and porous materials such as soft fabrics. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of selected commercially available disinfectant products against coronaviruses on common, high-touch surfaces. Four disinfectants (Clorox Total 360, Bleach solution, Vital Oxide, and Peroxide Multi-Surface Cleaner) were evaluated against Murine Hepatitis Virus A59 (MHV) as a surrogate coronavirus for SARS-CoV-2. MHV in cell culture medium was inoculated onto four materials: stainless steel, latex-painted drywall tape, Styrene Butadiene rubber (rubber), and bus seat fabric. Immediately (T0) or 2-hr (T2) post-inoculation, disinfectants were applied by trigger-pull or electrostatic sprayer and either held for recommended contact times (Spray only) or immediately wiped (Spray and Wipe). Recovered infectious MHV was quantified by median tissue culture infectious dose assay. Bleach solution, Clorox Total 360, and Vital Oxide were all effective (>3-log10 reduction or complete kill of infectious virus) with both the Spray Only and Spray and Wipe methods on stainless steel, rubber, and painted drywall tape when used at recommended contact times at both T0 and T2 hr. Multi-Surface Cleaner unexpectedly showed limited efficacy against MHV on stainless steel within the recommended contact time; however, it showed increased (2.3 times greater efficacy) when used in the Spray and Wipe method compared to Spray Only. The only products to achieve a 3-log10 reduction on fabric were Vital Oxide and Clorox Total 360; however, the efficacy of Vital Oxide against MHV on fabric was reduced to below 3-log10 when applied by an electrostatic sprayer compared to a trigger-pull sprayer. This study highlights the importance of considering the material, product, and application method when developing a disinfection strategy for coronaviruses on high-touch surfaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Mice , Rubber/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Stainless Steel/pharmacology
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(12): e0050422, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879112

ABSTRACT

Multiple pathways of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission have been examined, and the role of contaminated foods as a source of SARS-CoV-2 exposure has been suggested. As many cases of SARS-CoV-2 have been linked to meat processing plants, it may be that conditions in live animal markets and slaughterhouses or meat processing plant procedures transfer viral particles to meat, poultry, and seafood during animal slaughter, processing, storage, or transport. Because of the potential for contamination of foods such as beef, chicken, pork, or fish, the goal of this study was to evaluate the survival of a lipid enveloped RNA bacteriophage, phi 6, as well as two animal coronaviruses, murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), as SARS-CoV-2 surrogates for their survival under various meat and fish cold-storage conditions over 30 days. Viral surrogates differed in survival, depending on food product and temperature, but overall, viruses survived for extended periods of time at high concentrations at both refrigerated and frozen temperatures. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 viral surrogates like Phi 6 and animal coronaviruses to survive for varying extents on some meat and fish products when stored refrigerated or frozen is a significant and concerning finding. Continued efforts are needed to prevent contamination of foods and food processing surfaces, worker hands, and food processing utensils such as knives, and there is a need to better address the lack of or inadequate disinfection of these foods prior to meat packaging. IMPORTANCE The ability of SARS-CoV-2 viral surrogates like Phi 6 and animal coronaviruses to survive for long periods on meat and fish products at cold temperatures emphasizes the need for rigorous and sustained food sanitation and hygiene in the harvest, transport, processing, and distribution of these foods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , Cattle , Fish Products , Meat , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 880915, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847156

ABSTRACT

With the epidemic of betacoronavirus increasing frequently, it poses a great threat to human public health. Therefore, the research on the pathogenic mechanism of betacoronavirus is becoming greatly important. Murine hepatitis virus strain-3 (MHV-3) is a strain of betacoronavirus which cause tissue damage especially fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in mice, and is commonly used to establish models of acute liver injury. Recently, MHV-3-infected mice have also been introduced to a mouse model of COVID-19 that does not require a Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) facility. FHF induced by MHV-3 is a type of severe liver damage imbalanced by regenerative hepatocellular activity, which is related to numerous factors. The complement system plays an important role in host defense and inflammation and is involved in first-line immunity and/or pathogenesis of severe organ disorders. In this study, we investigated the role of aberrant complement activation in MHV-3 infection-induced FHF by strategies that use C3-deficient mice and intervene in the complement system. Our results showed that mice deficient in C3 had more severe liver damage, a higher viral load in the liver and higher serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines than wild-type controls. Treatment of C57BL/6 mice with C3aR antagonist or anti-C5aR antibody reduced liver damage, viral load, and serum IFN-γ concentration compared with the control group. These findings indicated that complement system acts as a double-edged sword during acute MHV-3 infection. However, its dysregulated activation leads to sustained inflammatory responses and induces extensive liver damage. Collectively, by investigating the role of complement activation in MHV-3 infection, we can further understand the pathogenic mechanism of betacoronavirus, and appropriate regulation of immune responses by fine-tuning complement activation may be an intervention for the treatment of diseases induced by betacoronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Failure, Acute , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , Complement Activation , Liver Failure, Acute/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
13.
J Immunol ; 208(8): 1989-1997, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776403

ABSTRACT

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for regulating immunopathogenic responses in a variety of infections, including infection of mice with JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV), a neurotropic coronavirus that causes immune-mediated demyelinating disease. Although virus-specific Tregs are known to mitigate disease in this infection by suppressing pathogenic effector T cell responses of the same specificity, it is unclear whether these virus-specific Tregs form memory populations and persist similar to their conventional T cell counterparts of the same epitope specificity. Using congenically labeled JHMV-specific Tregs, we found that virus-specific Tregs persist long-term after murine infection, through at least 180 d postinfection and stably maintain Foxp3 expression. We additionally demonstrate that these cells are better able to proliferate and inhibit virus-specific T cell responses postinfection than naive Tregs of the same specificity, further suggesting that these cells differentiate into memory Tregs upon encountering cognate Ag. Taken together, these data suggest that virus-specific Tregs are able to persist long-term in the absence of viral Ag as memory Tregs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Mice , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2883, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707349

ABSTRACT

We report the development of a large scale process for heat inactivation of clinical COVID-19 samples prior to laboratory processing for detection of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-qPCR. With more than 266 million confirmed cases, over 5.26 million deaths already recorded at the time of writing, COVID-19 continues to spread in many parts of the world. Consequently, mass testing for SARS-CoV-2 will remain at the forefront of the COVID-19 response and prevention for the near future. Due to biosafety considerations the standard testing process requires a significant amount of manual handling of patient samples within calibrated microbiological safety cabinets. This makes the process expensive, effects operator ergonomics and restricts testing to higher containment level laboratories. We have successfully modified the process by using industrial catering ovens for bulk heat inactivation of oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab samples within their secondary containment packaging before processing in the lab to enable all subsequent activities to be performed in the open laboratory. As part of a validation process, we tested greater than 1200 clinical COVID-19 samples and showed less than 1 Cq loss in RT-qPCR test sensitivity. We also demonstrate the bulk heat inactivation protocol inactivates a murine surrogate of human SARS-CoV-2. Using bulk heat inactivation, the assay is no longer reliant on containment level 2 facilities and practices, which reduces cost, improves operator safety and ergonomics and makes the process scalable. In addition, heating as the sole method of virus inactivation is ideally suited to streamlined and more rapid workflows such as 'direct to PCR' assays that do not involve RNA extraction or chemical neutralisation methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Hot Temperature , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods , Virus Inactivation , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Humans , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0184221, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691423

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a beta coronavirus that emerged in 2012, causing severe pneumonia and renal failure. MERS-CoV encodes five accessory proteins. Some of them have been shown to interfere with host antiviral immune response. However, the roles of protein 8b in innate immunity and viral virulence was rarely studied. Here, we introduced individual MERS-CoV accessory protein genes into the genome of an attenuated murine coronavirus (Mouse hepatitis virus, MHV), respectively, and found accessory protein 8b could enhance viral replication in vivo and in vitro and increase the lethality of infected mice. RNA-seq analysis revealed that protein 8b could significantly inhibit type I interferon production (IFN-I) and innate immune response in mice infected with MHV expressing protein 8b. We also found that MERS-CoV protein 8b could initiate from multiple internal methionine sites and at least three protein variants were identified. Residues 1-23 of protein 8b was demonstrated to be responsible for increased virulence in vivo. In addition, the inhibitory effect on IFN-I of protein 8b might not contribute to its virulence enhancement as aa1-23 deletion did not affect IFN-I production in vitro and in vivo. Next, we also found that protein 8b was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi membrane in infected cells, which was disrupted by C-terminal region aa 88-112 deletion. This study will provide new insight into the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV infection. IMPORTANCE Multiple coronaviruses (CoV) cause severe respiratory infections and become global public health threats such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Each coronavirus contains different numbers of accessory proteins which show high variability among different CoVs. Accessory proteins are demonstrated to play essential roles in pathogenesis of CoVs. MERS-CoV contains 5 accessory proteins (protein 3, 4a, 4b, 5, 8b), and deletion of all four accessory proteins (protein 3, 4a, 4b, 5), significantly affects MERS-CoV replication and pathogenesis. However, whether ORF8b also regulates MERS-CoV infection is unknown. Here, we constructed mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) recombinant virus expressing MERS-CoV protein 8b and demonstrated protein 8b could significantly enhance the virulence of MHV, which is mediated by N-terminal domain of protein 8b. This study will shed light on the understanding of pathogenesis of MERS-CoV infection.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Mice , Mortality , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Tropism , Virulence/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics
16.
Virology ; 567: 1-14, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1628759

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein comprises two RNA-binding domains connected by a central spacer, which contains a serine- and arginine-rich (SR) region. The SR region engages the largest subunit of the viral replicase-transcriptase, nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3), in an interaction that is essential for efficient initiation of infection by genomic RNA. We carried out an extensive genetic analysis of the SR region of the N protein of mouse hepatitis virus in order to more precisely define its role in RNA synthesis. We further examined the N-nsp3 interaction through construction of nsp3 mutants and by creation of an interspecies N protein chimera. Our results indicate a role for the central spacer as an interaction hub of the N molecule that is partially regulated by phosphorylation. These findings are discussed in relation to the recent discovery that nsp3 forms a molecular pore in the double-membrane vesicles that sequester the coronavirus replicase-transcriptase.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Intracellular Membranes/metabolism , Viral Replicase Complex Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Motifs , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , Viral Replicase Complex Proteins/chemistry , Viral Replicase Complex Proteins/genetics , Viral Replication Compartments/metabolism
17.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 19(2): 91-101, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553668

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the efficacy of detergent-based surface cleaning methods against Murine Hepatitis Virus A59 (MHV) as a surrogate coronavirus for SARS-CoV-2. MHV (5% soil load in culture medium or simulated saliva) was inoculated onto four different high-touch materials [stainless steel (SS), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene plastic (ABS), Formica, seat fabric (SF)]. Immediately and 2-hr post-inoculation, coupons were cleaned (damp wipe wiping) with and without pretreatment with detergent solution or 375 ppm hard water. Results identified that physical removal (no pretreatment) removed >2.3 log10 MHV on ABS, SS, and Formica when surfaces were cleaned immediately. Pretreatment with detergent or hard water increased effectiveness over wet wiping 2-hr post-inoculation; pretreatment with detergent significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) removal of MHV in simulated saliva, but not in culture media, over hard water pretreatment (Formica and ABS). Detergent and hard water cleaning methods were ineffective on SF under all conditions. Overall, efficacy of cleaning methods against coronaviruses are material- and matrix-dependent; pre-wetting surfaces with detergent solutions increased efficacy against coronavirus suspended in simulated saliva. This study provides data highlighting the importance of incorporating a pre-wetting step prior to detergent cleaning and can inform cleaning strategies to reducing coronavirus surface transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , Detergents , Humans , Mice , Porosity , SARS-CoV-2
19.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 9342748, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, an outbreak of a novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has become a world health concern leading to severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Virus transmission occurs through person-to-person contact, respiratory droplets, and contaminated hands or surfaces. Accordingly, we aim at reviewing the literature on all information available about the persistence of coronaviruses, including human and animal coronaviruses, on inanimate surfaces and inactivation strategies with biocides employed for chemical and physical disinfection. METHOD: A comprehensive search was systematically conducted in main databases from 1998 to 2020 to identify various viral disinfectants associated with HCoV and methods for control and prevention of this newly emerged virus. RESULTS: The analysis of 62 studies shows that human coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus or endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV), canine coronavirus (CCV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) can be efficiently inactivated by physical and chemical disinfectants at different concentrations (70, 80, 85, and 95%) of 2-propanol (70 and 80%) in less than or equal to 60 s and 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Additionally, glutaraldehyde (0.5-2%), formaldehyde (0.7-1%), and povidone-iodine (0.1-0.75%) could readily inactivate coronaviruses. Moreover, dry heat at 56°C, ultraviolet light dose of 0.2 to 140 J/cm2, and gamma irradiation could effectively inactivate coronavirus. The WHO recommends the use of 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solution or an ethanol-based disinfectant with an ethanol concentration between 62% and 71%. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study can help researchers, policymakers, health decision makers, and people perceive and take the correct measures to control and prevent further transmission of COVID-19. Prevention and decontamination will be the main ways to stop the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , 2-Propanol/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus, Canine/drug effects , Disinfection/methods , Ethanol/pharmacology , Formaldehyde/pharmacology , Gamma Rays , Glutaral/pharmacology , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , SARS Virus/drug effects , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/drug effects , Ultraviolet Rays
20.
J Virol ; 95(22): e0127621, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494956

ABSTRACT

The emergence of life-threatening zoonotic diseases caused by betacoronaviruses, including the ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, has highlighted the need for developing preclinical models mirroring respiratory and systemic pathophysiological manifestations seen in infected humans. Here, we showed that C57BL/6J wild-type mice intranasally inoculated with the murine betacoronavirus murine hepatitis coronavirus 3 (MHV-3) develop a robust inflammatory response leading to acute lung injuries, including alveolar edema, hemorrhage, and fibrin thrombi. Although such histopathological changes seemed to resolve as the infection advanced, they efficiently impaired respiratory function, as the infected mice displayed restricted lung distention and increased respiratory frequency and ventilation. Following respiratory manifestation, the MHV-3 infection became systemic, and a high virus burden could be detected in multiple organs along with morphological changes. The systemic manifestation of MHV-3 infection was also marked by a sharp drop in the number of circulating platelets and lymphocytes, besides the augmented concentration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, IL-12, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), thereby mirroring some clinical features observed in moderate and severe cases of COVID-19. Importantly, both respiratory and systemic changes triggered by MHV-3 infection were greatly prevented by blocking TNF signaling, either via genetic or pharmacologic approaches. In line with this, TNF blockage also diminished the infection-mediated release of proinflammatory cytokines and virus replication of human epithelial lung cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Collectively, results show that MHV-3 respiratory infection leads to a large range of clinical manifestations in mice and may constitute an attractive, lower-cost, biosafety level 2 (BSL2) in vivo platform for evaluating the respiratory and multiorgan involvement of betacoronavirus infections. IMPORTANCE Mouse models have long been used as valuable in vivo platforms to investigate the pathogenesis of viral infections and effective countermeasures. The natural resistance of mice to the novel betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has launched a race toward the characterization of SARS-CoV-2 infection in other animals (e.g., hamsters, cats, ferrets, bats, and monkeys), as well as adaptation of the mouse model, by modifying either the host or the virus. In the present study, we utilized a natural pathogen of mice, MHV, as a prototype to model betacoronavirus-induced acute lung injure and multiorgan involvement under biosafety level 2 conditions. We showed that C57BL/6J mice intranasally inoculated with MHV-3 develops severe disease, which includes acute lung damage and respiratory distress that precede systemic inflammation and death. Accordingly, the proposed animal model may provide a useful tool for studies regarding betacoronavirus respiratory infection and related diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Cell Line , Containment of Biohazards , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL