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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(5)2023 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238503

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Common problems in people with COVID-19 include decreased respiratory strength and function. We investigated the effects of thoracic mobilization and respiratory muscle endurance training (TMRT) and lower limb ergometer (LE) training on diaphragm thickness and respiratory function in patients with a history of COVID-19. Materials and Methods: In total, 30 patients were randomly divided into a TMRT training group and an LE training group. The TMRT group performed thoracic mobilization and respiratory muscle endurance training for 30 min three times a week for 8 weeks. The LE group performed lower limb ergometer training for 30 min three times a week for 8 weeks. The participants' diaphragm thickness was measured via rehabilitative ultrasound image (RUSI) and a respiratory function test was conducted using a MicroQuark spirometer. These parameters were measured before the intervention and 8 weeks after the intervention. Results: There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the results obtained before and after training in both groups. Right diaphragm thickness at rest, diaphragm thickness during contraction, and respiratory function were significantly more improved in the TMRT group than in the LE group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In this study, we confirmed the effects of TMRT training on diaphragm thickness and respiratory function in patients with a history of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endurance Training , Humans , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Diaphragm/physiology , Respiratory Muscles/physiology , Respiration , Muscle Strength/physiology
2.
Support Care Cancer ; 31(6): 348, 2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Light-to-moderate intensity strength training (LMST) improves muscular strength, physical functioning, and some side effects in head and neck cancer survivors (HNCS). Heavy lifting strength training (HLST) may further improve these outcomes; however, it has not been studied in HNCS. The primary aim of the LIFTING trial was to examine the feasibility and safety of a HLST program in HNCS ≥1-year post-surgical neck dissection. METHODS: In this single-arm feasibility study, HNCS were asked to complete a twice weekly, 12-week, supervised HLST program, gradually progressing to lifting heavy loads of 80-90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for barbell squat, bench press, and deadlift. The feasibility outcomes included recruitment rate, 1RM completion rate, program adherence, barriers, and motivation. The preliminary efficacy outcomes included changes in upper and lower body strength. RESULTS: Nine HNCS were recruited over an 8-month period during the COVID-19 pandemic. All 9 (100%) completed the 1RM tests and successfully progressed to heavy loads at approximately 5 weeks. The median attendance was 95.8% (range 71-100%), and few barriers were reported. Weight lifted increased for squat/leg press (median change: +34kg; 95% CI +25 to +47), bench press (median change: +6kg; 95% CI +2 to +10), and deadlift (median change: +12kg; 95% CI +7 to +24). No adverse events were reported and participants were motivated to continue HLST after the study. CONCLUSIONS: HLST appears feasible and safe for HNCS and may result in meaningful improvements in muscular strength. Future research should consider additional recruitment strategies and compare HLST to LMST in this understudied survivor population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04554667.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Resistance Training , Humans , Neck Dissection/adverse effects , Feasibility Studies , Lifting , Pandemics , Muscle Strength , Weight Lifting , Survivors , Muscle, Skeletal
3.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0279310, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314921

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Current evidence suggests the emergence of a novel syndrome (long COVID syndrome) due to sequels and persistent COVID-19 symptoms. Respiratory muscle training improves respiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, diaphragm thickness, and dyspnea, especially in patients with decreased respiratory muscle strength. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a protocol for home-based inspiratory muscle training to improve respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and quality of life of patients post-COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSES: This randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial will be conducted at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil). Sample size will be determined using maximal inspiratory pressure after a pilot study with five patients per group (total of 10 patients). Patients included in the study will be evaluated in three moments: pre-training (initial), post-training (three weeks), and retention (24 weeks). The sample will be randomized in two groups: active (IMT using 30% of IMT and load increase of 10% of initial IMT every week. Patients will perform 30 repetitions, twice a day (morning and afternoon), for seven consecutive days, and six weeks) and SHAM (IMT without load). The following measurements will be assessed: anthropometry, respiratory muscle strength, pulmonary volume and capacity, dyspnea, perception of effort and lower limb fatigue, handgrip strength, functional capacity, anxiety, depression, and functional status. After initial evaluation, all patients will receive a POWERbreathe® (POWERbreathe®, HaB Ltd, Southam, UK) device to perform the training. Normality will be verified using Shapiro-Wilk or Kolmogorov-Smirnov, according to the number of patients included. Variables presenting nonparametric distribution will be compared using Wilcoxon (intragroup analysis) and Mann-Whitney test (intergroup analysis), whereas repeated measures two-way ANOVA will be performed in case of parametric distribution. Dunn's post hoc test will be used to identify significant differences in the two-way ANOVA test. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and quality of life of post-COVID-19 patients. SECOND OUTCOMES: Pulmonary function, dyspnea, exercise tolerance, handgrip strength, anxiety, depression, and functional status. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial register number NCT05077241.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Hand Strength , Pilot Projects , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Breathing Exercises/methods , Diaphragm , Respiratory Muscles , Dyspnea/therapy , Muscle Strength/physiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Heart Lung ; 60: 95-101, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The two most common symptoms associated with COVID-19 are dyspnea and fatigue. One possible cause of such symptoms may be inspiratory muscle weakness. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine inspiratory muscle performance (IMP) from intensive care unit discharge (ICUD) to hospital discharge (HD) in patients with COVID-19 hypothesizing that IMP would be markedly depressed at both ICUD and HD. METHODS: IMP was examined at ICUD and HD via the PrO2 device (PrO2 Health, Smithfield, RI) which provided the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), sustained MIP (SMIP), inspiratory duration (ID), and fatigue index test (FIT). Patient symptoms were assessed at ICUD, HD, and 1-month post-HD. RESULTS: 30 patients (19 men, 11 women) with COVID-19 were included. The mean±SD age, BMI, and length of ICU and hospital stay was 71±11 yrs, 27.9 ± 6.3 kg/m, 9 ± 6 days, and 26±16 days, respectively. The mean±SD MIP, SMIP, ID, and FIT of the entire cohort at ICUD vs HD were 36±21 vs 40±20 cm H2O, 231±157 vs 297±182 PTU, 8.8 ± 4.2 vs 9.5 ± 4.6 s, and 9.0 ± 9.4 vs 13.1 ± 12.3, respectively, with only SMIP and FIT significantly greater at HD (p=.006 and 0.03, respectively). SMIP at HD was significantly related to resting dyspnea at HD (r=-0.40; p=.02). The SMIP and FIT of men were found to increase significantly from ICUD to HD, but no measure of IMP in the women increased significantly from ICUD to HD. At least one COVID-19-related symptom was present 1 month after HD with the most persistent symptoms being fatigue, cough, and dyspnea in 47%, 40%, and 37% of the patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A significant reduction in IMP exists in patients with COVID-19 at both ICUD and HD and no measure of IMP in women was observed to increase significantly from ICUD to HD. Impaired inspiratory muscle endurance rather than strength was associated with greater dyspnea at HD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Muscles , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiratory Muscles/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Breathing Exercises/adverse effects
5.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 285: 24-30, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297618

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility of three physiotherapy interventions for the treatment of diastasis recti abdominis (DRA): core stabilization exercises, abdominal corset and a combination of exercise and abdominal corset. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five women 6 to 12 weeks postpartum who were diagnosed with DRA by a gynecologist/obstetrician were recruited for the study. The women were randomly divided into three groups: core stabilization exercises (1st group), the combination of exercise and abdominal corset (2nd group) and abdominal corset (3rd group). The treatment session for each group continued for 8 weeks. Outcome measurements were pain evaluation, inter-rectus distance (IRD) measured using ultrasound, trunk flexion strength and endurance, balance with open eyes/closed with a balance board, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). RESULTS: Statistically significant difference was observed in all outcome measures except the balance eyes closed results in the first group (p < 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in all outcome measures in the second group (p < 0.05). Also, there was a statistically significant difference in visual analog scale, trunk flexor endurance, IRD results, balance with open eyes and ODI results in the third group (p < 0.05). When the values pre and post-treatment between the groups were examined, a statistically significant change was observed in trunk flexion strength, trunk flexor endurance, and balance with open eyes/closed parameters (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Physiotherapy interventions as core stabilization exercises and the abdominal corset can positively impact IRD, trunk flexion muscle strength and endurance, balance and disability in DRA management. The combination of exercise and corset was found more effective in the postpartum process.


Subject(s)
Diastasis, Muscle , Rectus Abdominis , Female , Humans , Postpartum Period , Exercise Therapy/methods , Abdomen , Muscle Strength , Diastasis, Muscle/therapy
6.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 135(9-10): 251-259, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295917

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes permanent problems, even mild severity. The long-term consequences of COVID-19 are still unknown. This study aimed to investigate physical activity levels, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, and pulmonary function in the long term in young adult COVID-19 patients who recovered from mild disease. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out at least 6 months after the COVID-19 diagnosis, 54 patients with COVID-19 (median age: 20 years) and 46 controls (median age: 21 years) were compared. Functional status (post-COVID-19 functional status scale), respiratory (maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP, MEP)) and peripheral muscle strength (dynamometer), pulmonary function (Spirometry), dyspnea and fatigue (modified Borg scale), and physical activity levels (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) were evaluated. CLINICALTRIAL NUMBER: NCT05381714. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 measured and percent predicted MIP and MEP were statistically decreased compared with the controls (p < 0.05). Shoulder abductors muscle strength (p < 0.001) and the number of individuals with low physical activity levels were significantly higher in patients compared with controls (p = 0.048). Pulmonary function, quadriceps muscle strength, exertional dyspnea, and fatigue scores were similar in groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Respiratory and peripheral muscle strength and physical activity levels are adversely affected in patients with COVID-19, even though the patients were mildly affected in the long term. Also, symptoms such as dyspnea and fatigue may persist. Therefore, these parameters should be evaluated in the long term, even in young adults who are mildly affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Young Adult , Humans , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Respiratory Muscles , COVID-19/epidemiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue , Exercise
7.
J Sci Med Sport ; 26(3): 159-163, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294109

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore relationships between groin pain and adductor squeeze strength in male academy football players over a 14-week period. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Weekly monitoring of youth male football players consisted of reporting groin pain and testing long lever adductor squeeze strength. Players who reported groin pain at any time during the study period were stratified into the "groin pain" group while players who did not report pain remained in the "no groin pain" group. Baseline squeeze strength was retrospectively compared between groups. Players that developed groin pain were examined via repeated measures ANOVA at four timepoints: baseline, last squeeze before pain, pain onset, and return to pain-free. RESULTS: 53 players were included (age 14.4 ±â€¯1.6 years). Baseline squeeze strength was not different between players in the "groin pain" (n = 29, 4.35 ±â€¯0.89 N/kg) versus "no groin pain" group (n = 24, 4.33 ±â€¯0.90 N/kg, p = 0.83). At a group level, players with no groin pain maintained similar adductor squeeze strength throughout 14 weeks (p > 0.05). Compared to baseline (4.33 ±â€¯0.90 N/kg), players with groin pain had decreased adductor squeeze strength at the last squeeze before pain (3.91 ±â€¯0.85 N/kg, p = 0.003) and at pain onset (3.58 ±â€¯0.78 N/kg, p < 0.001). Adductor squeeze strength at the point where pain subsided (4.06 ±â€¯0.95 N/kg) was not different from baseline (p = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: Decreases in adductor squeeze strength manifest one-week prior to groin pain onset and further decrease at pain onset. Weekly adductor squeeze strength may be an early detector for groin pain in youth male football players.


Subject(s)
Soccer , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Male , Longitudinal Studies , Muscle Strength , Muscle, Skeletal , Pain , Retrospective Studies
8.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 38(3): 545-557, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272742

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 negatively impacts several organs and systems weeks or months after initial diagnosis. Skeletal muscle can be affected, leading to fatigue, lower mobility, weakness, and poor physical performance. Older adults are at increased risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms during long COVID. Systemic inflammation, physical inactivity, and poor nutritional status are some of the mechanisms leading to muscle dysfunction in individuals with long COVID. Current evidence suggests that long COVID negatively impacts body composition, muscle function, and quality of life. Muscle mass and function assessments can contribute toward the identification, diagnosis, and management of poor muscle health resulting from long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muscle Strength , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal , Quality of Life , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
9.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 42(1): 4, 2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reduced people's physical activity. It is essential to accumulate knowledge regarding the influence of COVID-19 on the stimulation of physical fitness and physical functions. Several studies have reported the effects of COVID-19 on physical fitness; however, there are very few reports regarding preschoolers. This study aimed to compare the physical fitness of preschoolers before and during the COVID-19 pandemic to clarify the effects of curtailment of outings implemented to control the pandemic on physical fitness among preschoolers. METHODS: The subjects were 593 Japanese preschool children enrolled at a kindergarten during 2015-2019 and in 2021 who received a physical fitness test. Children enrolled in 2020 who did not receive a physical fitness test because of the COVID-19 pandemic were excluded. The physical fitness test included grip strength, standing long jump, and a 25-m run. The relationship between physical fitness level and survey year was analyzed using a general linear model, with grip strength and standing long jump as dependent variables, year of study as the independent variable, and sex and age in months as adjusted variables. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze data for the 25-m run. Multiple comparisons were used to compare fitness levels between 2021 (during the COVID-19 pandemic) with levels in previous years. RESULTS: Significant relationships were found between survey year and each of grip strength (p < 0.001), standing long jump (p < 0.05), and 25-m run (p < 0.001) among the overall subjects. Grip strength was significantly lower in 2021 compared with the 2016-2019 period. Similarly, sub-stratification analysis by sex showed that grip strength was lower in 2021 than in previous survey years, in both sexes. However, there was no difference in standing long jump or 25-m run times between before and during the pandemic among the overall subjects or according to sex. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on the development of muscle strength in preschoolers, and suggest the need to develop strategies that could promote the development of muscle strength of preschool children when limitations are placed on activity during prolonged infectious disease pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Physical Fitness/physiology , Exercise , Muscle Strength/physiology , Hand Strength
10.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 55(8): 1366-1374, 2023 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253040

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions/lockdowns on physical activity levels, body mass, quadriceps strength, and gait biomechanics over 18 months. METHODS: Ten healthy men were assessed at baseline (~14 wk before first lockdown) and 17.9 ± 0.3 months later (<1 wk after second lockdown). At both times, physical activity levels, body mass, and quadriceps strength were acquired using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, a force plate, and a dynamometer, respectively. Gait data were also acquired using a motion capture system and force plates during self-paced walking, from which spatiotemporal parameters, knee angles, and external moments were computed. Baseline and follow-up measurements were compared using two-tailed paired t -tests ( α = 0.05). RESULTS: At follow-up, participants spent less time doing vigorous physical activity (∆ = -76 ± 157 min·wk -1 , P = 0.048), exhibited a tendency toward increased sedentary time (∆ = +120 ± 162 min·d -1 , P = 0.056), weighed more (∆ = +2.5 ± 2.8 kg, P = 0.021), and showed a trend toward reduced quadriceps strength (∆ = -0.29 ± 0.45 (N·m)·kg -1 , P = 0.071) compared with baseline. At follow-up, participants walked slower (∆ = -0.09 ± 0.07 m·s -1 , P = 0.005), had greater knee flexion angles at heel strike (∆ = +2.2° ± 1.8°, P = 0.004) and during late stance (∆ = +2.2° ± 1.8°, P = 0.004), had reduced knee extension moments (∆ = -0.09 ± 0.09 (N·m)·kg -1 , P = 0.012) and knee internal rotation moments (∆ = -0.02 ± 0.02 (N·m)·kg -1 , P = 0.012) during late stance. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy men exhibited reduced physical activity levels, increased body weight, a tendency toward reduced quadriceps strength, and altered gait biomechanics over the initial 18 months of the COVID-19 pandemic-alterations that could have far-reaching health consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Humans , Biomechanical Phenomena , Muscle Strength , Communicable Disease Control , Gait , Knee Joint , Walking , Quadriceps Muscle , Body Weight
11.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 111: 105005, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250079

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the impacts of 28 months of detraining imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic on the functional fitness of older women practicing functional or concurrent training. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A clinical trial was conducted with 16 weeks of intervention and 28 months of detraining imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Ninety-five participants were allocated to functional training (FT - 32), concurrent training (CT - 31), or the control group (CG - 32). All the dependent variables were measured pre-training, post-training, and after the detraining period. The functional fitness was assessed by the put on and take off a t-shirt (PTS - upper limbs), timed up and go (TUG - dynamic balance), five times sit-to-stand (FTSST - lower-limb muscle power), gallon-jug shelf-transfer (GJST - global function), and 10 m walk (W10 m - walking ability) tests. RESULTS: Sixty-three women remained after the detraining period, twenty-four in the FT (66.0 ± 3.8 years), twenty in the CT (65.0 ± 4.3 years), and nineteen in the CG (69.6 ± 5.9 years). Comparing the detraining vs. the pre-intervention, the FT and CT showed a smaller reduction than CG for the PTS (ßFT = -2.296; ßCT = -1.914), timed up and go (ßFT = -0.705; ßCT = -0.600), five times sit-to-stand (ßFT = -1.970; ßCT = -2.970), gallon-jug shelf-transfer (ßFT = -1.512; ßCT = -1.003), without differences in the 10 m walk. Also, the concurrent training showed a smaller reduction than the functional training in the FTSST (ß = 1.000). CONCLUSION: Even after a long detraining period imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, FT and CT practices were effective strategies for maintaining the functional fitness of older women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Fitness , Aged , Female , Humans , Exercise , Muscle Strength , Pandemics , Walking
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266343

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of online home-based resistance exercise training on fitness, depression, stress, and well-being. A total of 67 individuals participated. Of them, 28 participants (13 men and 15 women, average age: 45.1 ± 12.2 years) performed the same exercise training online (n = 17), using Zoom, or in person (n = 11) in 2020 (Study 1). In addition, 39 participants (15 men and 24 women; average age: 47.6 ± 10.8 years) performed eight weeks of online home-based resistance exercise training in 2021 (Study 2). The participants performed low-load resistance exercises twice a week for eight weeks (16 sessions). Muscle strength, thigh muscle cross-sectional area, fitness parameters, blood pressure, mental health (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale-CES-D; and Kessler Psychological Distress scale-K6), and well-being (Well-Being Index-WHO-5) were measured pre-and post-resistance training. In Study 1, eight weeks of online home-based resistance training improved CES-D (p = 0.003), and a similar tendency was observed in resistance training (RT) with the in-person group (p = 0.06). There was a significant improvement in CES-D symptoms after the online home-based resistance training in Study 2 (p = 0.009). However, there were no significant changes in the WHO-5 and K6. Our results suggest that online low-load resistance training improves fitness parameters and curbs depressive status.


Subject(s)
Resistance Training , Male , Middle Aged , Humans , Female , Adult , Resistance Training/methods , Pilot Projects , Depression/therapy , Physical Fitness , Exercise/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology
13.
J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil ; 36(4): 871-882, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Body composition decline, lower limb impairments, and mobility deficits affect independence of older people. The exploration for a practical measure involving upper extremities may offer an alternative tool to be used by primary healthcare (PHC) providers for these individuals. OBJECTIVE: To explore reliability and validity of seated push-up tests (SPUTs) among older participants when used by PHC providers. METHODS: Older participants (n= 146) with an average age of > 70 years were cross-sectionally assessed using various demanding forms of SPUTs and standard measures to assess validity of the SPUTs. Reliability of the SPUTs were assessed in nine PHC raters, including an expert, health professionals, village health volunteers, and care givers. RESULTS: The SPUTs demonstrated very good agreement, with excellent rater and test-retest reliability (kappa values > 0.87 and ICCs > 0.93, p< 0.001). Moreover, the SPUT outcomes significantly correlated with lean body mass, bone mineral contents, muscle strength and mobility of older participants (r, rp⁢b=-0.270 to 0.758, p< 0.05). CONCLUSION: SPUTs are reliable and valid for older adults when used by PHC members. The incorporation of such practical measures is particularly important during this COVID-19 pandemic with limited people's hospital access.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Muscle Strength , Lower Extremity
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2216021

ABSTRACT

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common cause of anterior knee pain, and therapeutic exercises are recommended. During the COVID-19 pandemic, despite recommendations on the importance of telerehabilitation, insufficient studies have investigated functional outcomes between supervised rehabilitation and telerehabilitation in patients with PFPS. This study aimed to compare the muscle strength, muscle activation time, and patient-reported outcomes between supervised rehabilitation and telerehabilitation in female patients with PFPS. A total of 61 patients (supervised, n = 30; telerehabilitation, n = 31) participated. Muscle strength and activation time of the quadriceps and hamstrings were measured using an isokinetic device. Hip muscle strength was evaluated using a hand-held dynamometer. Patient-reported outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) for functional ability, and Tampa scale for kinesiophobia (TSK-11). No significant differences were found in muscle strength, muscle activation time, or patient-reported outcomes of the involved knees between the two groups (p > 0.05). In addition, the rate of change in all parameters did not significantly differ between the two groups (p > 0.05). Telerehabilitation, such as a home-exercise program supervised by physical therapists, may be as effective as supervised rehabilitation in improving functional outcomes in female patients with PFPS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome , Telerehabilitation , Humans , Female , Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome/therapy , Pandemics , Exercise Therapy , Pain , Muscle Strength/physiology
15.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200560

ABSTRACT

ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine metabolite, can increase skeletal muscle size and function. However, HMB may be less effective at improving muscle function in people with insufficient Vitamin D3 (25-OH-D < 30 ng/mL) which is common in middle-aged and older adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that combining HMB plus Vitamin D3 (HMB + D) supplementation would improve skeletal muscle size, composition, and function in middle-aged women. In a double-blinded fashion, women (53 ± 1 yrs, 26 ± 1 kg/m2, n = 43) were randomized to take placebo or HMB + D (3 g Calcium HMB + 2000 IU D per day) during 12 weeks of sedentary behavior (SED) or resistance exercise training (RET). On average, participants entered the study Vitamin D3 insufficient while HMB + D increased 25-OH-D to sufficient levels after 8 and 12 weeks. In SED, HMB + D prevented the loss of arm lean mass observed with placebo. HMB + D increased muscle volume and decreased intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volume in the thigh compared to placebo but did not change muscle function. In RET, 12-weeks of HMB + D decreased IMAT compared to placebo but did not influence the increase in skeletal muscle volume or function. In summary, HMB + D decreased IMAT independent of exercise status and may prevent the loss or increase muscle size in a small cohort of sedentary middle-aged women. These results lend support to conduct a longer duration study with greater sample size to determine the validity of the observed positive effects of HMB + D on IMAT and skeletal muscle in a small cohort of middle-aged women.


Subject(s)
Cholecalciferol , Muscle Strength , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , Aged , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Muscle, Skeletal , Double-Blind Method
16.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 23(1): 5-15, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192597

ABSTRACT

We defined respiratory sarcopenia as a coexistence of respiratory muscle weakness and decreased respiratory muscle mass. Although respiratory muscle function is indispensable for life support, its evaluation has not been included in the regular assessment of respiratory function or adequately evaluated in clinical practice. Considering this situation, we prepared a position paper outlining basic knowledge, diagnostic and assessment methods, mechanisms, involvement in respiratory diseases, intervention and treatment methods, and future perspectives on respiratory sarcopenia, and summarized the current consensus on respiratory sarcopenia. Respiratory sarcopenia is diagnosed when respiratory muscle weakness and decreased respiratory muscle mass are observed. If respiratory muscle mass is difficult to measure, we can use appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a surrogate. Probable respiratory sarcopenia is defined when respiratory muscle weakness and decreased appendicular skeletal muscle mass are observed. If only respiratory muscle strength is decreased without a decrease in respiratory function, the patient is diagnosed with possible respiratory sarcopenia. Respiratory muscle strength is assessed using maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure. Ultrasonography and computed tomography are commonly used to assess respiratory muscle mass; however, there are insufficient data to propose the cutoff values for defining decreased respiratory muscle mass. It was jointly prepared by the representative authors and authorized by the Japanese Society for Respiratory Care and Rehabilitation, Japanese Association on Sarcopenia and Frailty, Japanese Society of Respiratory Physical Therapy and Japanese Association of Rehabilitation Nutrition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2023; 23: 5-15.


Subject(s)
Sarcopenia , Humans , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/therapy , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle Weakness , Respiratory Muscles
17.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 134(1): 95-104, 2023 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153163

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise, respiratory muscle training, and the self-management World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations leaflet on the recovery of physical fitness, quality of life, and symptom status in people with post-COVID-19 conditions. Eighty nonhospitalized adults with a post-COVID-19 condition were randomly assigned to one of four 8-wk parallel intervention groups: 1) multicomponent exercise program based on concurrent training (CT, number of subjects (n) = 20; 3 resistance and endurance supervised sessions per week at low-moderate intensity); 2) inspiratory muscle training (RM, n = 17; 2 standardized daily sessions); 3) a combination of both of the above (CTRM, n = 23); and 4) control group (CON, n = 20; following the WHO guidelines for post-COVID-19-related illness rehabilitation). No significant differences between groups were detected at baseline. Although no significant differences between interventions were detected in the V̇o2max, significant individual improvements were identified in the CT (7.5%; effect size, ES = 0.28) and CTRM (7.8%; ES = 0.36) groups. Lower body muscle strength significantly improved in the CT and CTRM (14.5%-32.6%; ES = 0.27-1.13) groups compared with RM and CON (-0.3% to 11.3%; ES = 0.10-0.19). The CT and CTRM groups improved significantly for dyspnea and fatigue, as did the health status. In addition, significant differences between interventions were described in fatigue and depression scales favoring CT and CTRM interventions. An individualized and supervised concurrent training with or without inspiratory muscle training was safe and more effective than self-care recommendations and inspiratory muscle training alone, to regain cardiovascular and muscular fitness, improve symptom severity, and health status in outpatients with post-COVID-19 conditions.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Eight weeks of concurrent training, with or without inspiratory muscle exercise, was better than WHO "Support for Rehabilitation: Self-Management after COVID-19-Related Illness" recommendations or inspiratory muscle training alone to improve cardiopulmonary fitness, strength, and symptom severity, in a safe and effective manner. The RECOVE trial proved the benefits and utility of a supervised exercise program in people with post-COVID-19 conditions after mild COVID-19 in an ambulatory setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Management , Adult , Humans , Quality of Life , Exercise/physiology , Respiratory Muscles/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Breathing Exercises , Fatigue
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients affected by COVID-19 may develop an impaired lung function, with reduced lung capacities and volumes, respiratory muscle weakness, changes in radiographic and tomographic findings, limitations in exercising, decreased functional capacity, depression, anxiety and reduced quality of life. Thus, we aimed to analyze the effects of a pulmonary and functional rehabilitation program on the functional capacity, lung function and respiratory muscle strength in patients who were affected by COVID-19 syndrome. METHODS: This is a pilot clinical trial, composed of post-COVID-19 patients with mild, moderate or severe involvement, in which, they underwent a pulmonary and functional rehabilitation program. Patients were evaluated for functional capacity by the 6 min walk test, pulmonary function by spirometry, respiratory muscle strength by manovacuometry, handgrip strength by dynamometry, quality of life by the COPD Assessment Test and functional status by the PCFS. After the initial assessments, the patients performed the rehabilitation protocol in 16 sessions (inspiratory muscle training, aerobic exercise and peripheral muscle strength) and, at the end, they were evaluated again. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients completed the program (12.7 ± 2.7 sessions). The functional capacity increased in meters walked from 326.3 ± 140.6 to 445.4 ± 151.1 (p < 0.001), with an increase in the predicted value from 59.7% to 82.6% (p < 0.001). The lung function increased in liters from 2.9 ± 0.8 to 3.2 ± 0.8 (p = 0.004) for forced vital capacity and from 2.5 ± 0.7 to 2.7 ± 0.7 (p = 0.001) for forced expiratory volume in the first second. The respiratory muscle strength increased in cmH2O from 101.4 ± 46.3 to 115.8 ± 38.3 (p = 0.117) for inspiratory pressure and from 85.8 ± 32.8 to 106.7 ± 36.8 (p < 0.001) for expiratory pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The pulmonary and functional rehabilitation program provided an improvement in the functional capacity, pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in post-COVID-19 patients, restoring their quality of life.


Subject(s)
Breathing Exercises , COVID-19 , Humans , Breathing Exercises/methods , Hand Strength , Lung , Muscle Strength/physiology , Quality of Life , Respiratory Muscles/physiology , Pilot Projects
19.
Respiration ; 101(11): 981-989, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persistent symptoms after acute coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19) are common, and there is no significant correlation with the severity of the acute disease. In long-COVID (persistent symptoms >4 weeks after acute COVID-19), respiratory symptoms are frequent, but lung function testing shows only mild changes that do not explain the symptoms. Although COVID-19 may lead to an impairment of the peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscles, respiratory muscle function has not been examined in this setting. METHODS: In this study, we assessed the severity of dyspnea (NYHA-function class) in long-COVID patients and analyzed its association with body mass index (BMI), FEV1, forced vital capacity, other parameters of body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), arterial blood gases, and inspiratory muscle function, assessed by airway occlusion pressure (P0.1) and maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) in two respiratory clinics in Germany between Oct 2020 and Aug 2021. RESULTS: A total of 116 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 50.2 ± 14.5 years; BMI, 26.7 ± 5.87 kg/m2; NYHA class I, 19%; II, 27%; III, 41%; and IV, 14%. While lung function values and computed tomography or conventional X-ray of the chest were in the normal range, inspiratory muscle function was markedly impaired. P01 was elevated to 154 ± 83%predicted and PImax was reduced to 41 ± 25%predicted. PImax reduction was strongly associated with the severity of dyspnea but independent of BMI, time after acute COVID-19 and most of the other parameters. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that in long-COVID patients, respiratory symptoms may be mainly caused by reduced inspiratory muscle strength. Assessment of PImax and P0.1 might better explain dyspnea than classical lung function tests and DLCO. A prospective study is needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Muscles , Vital Capacity/physiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
20.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071663

ABSTRACT

Muscle weakness is a prominent symptom in post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). However, few studies have objectively and longitudinally assessed muscle strength after varying COVID-19 severity grades. This observational study aimed to explore the prevalence, determinants, and 1.5 years change of quadriceps muscle weakness in 98 patients discharged from COVID-19 hospitalization and in 50 patients with PASC following mild COVID-19. Isometric quadriceps maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was assessed on a computerized dynamometer at three visits. Also, in a subgroup of 14 post-COVID-19 patients with quadriceps muscle weakness, muscle thickness and echo intensity were determined by muscle ultrasound of nine upper and lower extremity muscles. Muscle weakness was found in 59% of post-hospitalized patients and in 65% of those with PASC following mild COVID-19 at ~14 weeks after acute COVID-19. Whereas during ~1.5 years follow-up MVC modestly improved, muscle weakness prevalence remained unchanged. Hospital length of stay and diabetes mellitus were identified as possible predictors of muscle weakness following COVID-19 hospitalization. No predictors could be identified in those with PASC following mild COVID-19. Ultrasound outcomes revealed no large structural abnormalities. In conclusion, clinically relevant muscle weakness is common after COVID-19 and its long-term improvement is poor. Future studies with relevant control groups are warranted to confirm our data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quadriceps Muscle , Humans , Quadriceps Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Quadriceps Muscle/physiology , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Muscle Strength/physiology , Disease Progression , Hospitalization
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