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1.
JAMA ; 327(6): 559-565, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1711979

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: One-year outcomes in patients who have had COVID-19 and who received treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU) are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of physical, mental, and cognitive symptoms among patients with COVID-19 at 1 year after ICU treatment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An exploratory prospective multicenter cohort study conducted in ICUs of 11 Dutch hospitals. Patients (N = 452) with COVID-19, aged 16 years and older, and alive after hospital discharge following admission to 1 of the 11 ICUs during the first COVID-19 surge (March 1, 2020, until July 1, 2020) were eligible for inclusion. Patients were followed up for 1 year, and the date of final follow-up was June 16, 2021. EXPOSURES: Patients with COVID-19 who received ICU treatment and survived 1 year after ICU admission. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The main outcomes were self-reported occurrence of physical symptoms (frailty [Clinical Frailty Scale score ≥5], fatigue [Checklist Individual Strength-fatigue subscale score ≥27], physical problems), mental symptoms (anxiety [Hospital Anxiety and Depression {HADS} subscale score ≥8], depression [HADS subscale score ≥8], posttraumatic stress disorder [mean Impact of Event Scale score ≥1.75]), and cognitive symptoms (Cognitive Failure Questionnaire-14 score ≥43) 1 year after ICU treatment and measured with validated questionnaires. RESULTS: Of the 452 eligible patients, 301 (66.8%) patients could be included, and 246 (81.5%) patients (mean [SD] age, 61.2 [9.3] years; 176 men [71.5%]; median ICU stay, 18 days [IQR, 11 to 32]) completed the 1-year follow-up questionnaires. At 1 year after ICU treatment for COVID-19, physical symptoms were reported by 182 of 245 patients (74.3% [95% CI, 68.3% to 79.6%]), mental symptoms were reported by 64 of 244 patients (26.2% [95% CI, 20.8% to 32.2%]), and cognitive symptoms were reported by 39 of 241 patients (16.2% [95% CI, 11.8% to 21.5%]). The most frequently reported new physical problems were weakened condition (95/244 patients [38.9%]), joint stiffness (64/243 patients [26.3%]) joint pain (62/243 patients [25.5%]), muscle weakness (60/242 patients [24.8%]) and myalgia (52/244 patients [21.3%]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this exploratory study of patients in 11 Dutch hospitals who survived 1 year following ICU treatment for COVID-19, physical, mental, or cognitive symptoms were frequently reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Critical Care , Adult , Aged , Arthralgia/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Myalgia/etiology , Netherlands , Prospective Studies , Self Report
2.
PM R ; 14(2): 227-238, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616090

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often become critically ill requiring intensive care unit (ICU) management. These individuals are at risk for developing ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW), a multifactorial condition in which polyneuropathy, myopathy, and/or disuse muscle atrophy result in motor weakness. This weakness is thought to contribute to the long-term functional disability frequently observed in survivors of critical illness. This review discusses the current evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, risk factors, and rehabilitation-specific management of ICUAW in patients with COVID-19. Because of the novelty of COVID-19, the exact prevalence of ICUAW is not well delineated among COVID-19 patients. However, ICUAW has been reported in this population with retrospective studies showing weakness occurring in up to 45.5% of patients with severe COVID-19. There are multiple risk factors for developing ICUAW among COVID-19 patients, including premorbid health status, sepsis, multiple organ failure, mechanical ventilation, immobilization, neuromuscular blockade, corticosteroid use, and glycemic control. ICUAW is more likely to occur after prolonged mechanical ventilation and long hospital stays and can be diagnosed with manual muscle and electrodiagnostic testing. Although the long-term sequela of COVID-19 after ICU stays is not fully studied, increasing evidence indicates significant risk for this population developing long-term functional impairments. Establishing postacute rehabilitation programs for COVID-19 survivors will be important for recovery of endurance, mobility, and function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , Muscle Weakness/epidemiology , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Rehabil Med ; 54: jrm00257, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594311

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 may develop a range of neurological disorders. We report here 4 COVID-19 subjects with intensive care unit-acquired weakness and their functional outcome. In addition, a scoping review of COVID-19 literature was performed to investigate this issue. Of the post-COVID-19 patients admitted to our Neuro-Rehabilitation Unit, 4 (3 males, 1 female; mean age 59.2 ± 8.62 years) had intensive care unit-acquired weakness, diagnosed with electromyography. Muscle strength and functional evaluation were performed on all patients with Medical Research Council, Disability Rating Scale and Functional Independence Measure, respectively, at admission, discharge and 6-month follow-up after discharge. Electromyography revealed that 3 subjects had critical illness polyneuropathy and 1 had critical illness polyneuropathy/critical illness myopathy. At follow-up, the 3 subjects with critical illness polyneuropathy reached full recovery. The patient with critical illness polyneuropathy/critical illness myopathy showed moderate disability requiring bilateral ankle foot-orthosis and support for ambulation. The scoping review retrieved 11 studies of COVID-19 patients with intensive care unit-acquired weakness, concerning a total of 80 patients: 23 with critical illness myopathy (7 probable), 21 with critical illness polyneuropathy (8 possible), 15 with critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM) and 21 with intensive care unit-acquired weakness. Of 35 patients who survived, only 3 (8.5%) reached full recovery. All 3 had critical illness myopathy, but 2 of these had a diagnosis of probable critical illness myopathy. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness commonly occurred in subjects with COVID-19. Recovery was variable and a low percentage reached full recovery. However, the heterogeneity of studies did not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muscular Diseases , Polyneuropathies , Aged , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Polyneuropathies/etiology
4.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502478

ABSTRACT

Post-acute consequences of COVID-19, also termed long COVID, include signs and symptoms persisting for more than 12 weeks with prolonged multisystem involvement; most often, however, malnutrition is ignored. METHOD: The objective was to analyze persistent symptoms, nutritional status, the evolution of muscle strength and performance status (PS) at 6 months post-discharge in a cohort of COVID-19 survivors. RESULTS: Of 549 consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between 1 March and 29 April 2020, 23.7% died and 288 patients were at home at D30 post-discharge. At this date, 136 of them (47.2%) presented persistent malnutrition, a significant decrease in muscle strength or a PS ≥ 2. These patients received dietary counseling, nutritional supplementation, adapted physical activity guidance or physiotherapy assistance, or were admitted to post-care facilities. At 6 months post-discharge, 91.0% of the 136 patients (n = 119) were evaluated and 36.0% had persistent malnutrition, 14.3% complained of a significant decrease in muscle strength and 14.9% had a performance status > 2. Obesity was more frequent in patients with impairment than in those without (52.8% vs. 31.0%; p = 0.0071), with these patients being admitted more frequently to ICUs (50.9% vs. 31.3%; p = 0.010). Among those with persistent symptoms, 10% had psychiatric co-morbidities (mood disorders, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress syndrome), 7.6% had prolonged pneumological symptoms and 4.2% had neurological symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Obese subjects as well as patients who have stayed in intensive care have a higher risk of functional loss or undernutrition 6 months after a severe COVID infection. Malnutrition and loss of muscle strength should be considered in the clinical assessment of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Malnutrition/etiology , Muscle Strength , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Nutritional Status , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Functional Status , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Malnutrition/therapy , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Muscle Weakness/therapy , Obesity/complications , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
5.
Lancet ; 398(10302): 747-758, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The full range of long-term health consequences of COVID-19 in patients who are discharged from hospital is largely unclear. The aim of our study was to comprehensively compare consequences between 6 months and 12 months after symptom onset among hospital survivors with COVID-19. METHODS: We undertook an ambidirectional cohort study of COVID-19 survivors who had been discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between Jan 7 and May 29, 2020. At 6-month and 12-month follow-up visit, survivors were interviewed with questionnaires on symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and received a physical examination, a 6-min walking test, and laboratory tests. They were required to report their health-care use after discharge and work status at the 12-month visit. Survivors who had completed pulmonary function tests or had lung radiographic abnormality at 6 months were given the corresponding tests at 12 months. Non-COVID-19 participants (controls) matched for age, sex, and comorbidities were interviewed and completed questionnaires to assess prevalent symptoms and HRQoL. The primary outcomes were symptoms, modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) score, HRQoL, and distance walked in 6 min (6MWD). Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the risk factors of 12-month outcomes. FINDINGS: 1276 COVID-19 survivors completed both visits. The median age of patients was 59·0 years (IQR 49·0-67·0) and 681 (53%) were men. The median follow-up time was 185·0 days (IQR 175·0-198·0) for the 6-month visit and 349·0 days (337·0-361·0) for the 12-month visit after symptom onset. The proportion of patients with at least one sequelae symptom decreased from 68% (831/1227) at 6 months to 49% (620/1272) at 12 months (p<0·0001). The proportion of patients with dyspnoea, characterised by mMRC score of 1 or more, slightly increased from 26% (313/1185) at 6-month visit to 30% (380/1271) at 12-month visit (p=0·014). Additionally, more patients had anxiety or depression at 12-month visit (26% [331/1271] at 12-month visit vs 23% [274/1187] at 6-month visit; p=0·015). No significant difference on 6MWD was observed between 6 months and 12 months. 88% (422/479) of patients who were employed before COVID-19 had returned to their original work at 12 months. Compared with men, women had an odds ratio of 1·43 (95% CI 1·04-1·96) for fatigue or muscle weakness, 2·00 (1·48-2·69) for anxiety or depression, and 2·97 (1·50-5·88) for diffusion impairment. Matched COVID-19 survivors at 12 months had more problems with mobility, pain or discomfort, and anxiety or depression, and had more prevalent symptoms than did controls. INTERPRETATION: Most COVID-19 survivors had a good physical and functional recovery during 1-year follow-up, and had returned to their original work and life. The health status in our cohort of COVID-19 survivors at 12 months was still lower than that in the control population. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National Key Research and Development Program of China, Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, the China Evergrande Group, Jack Ma Foundation, Sino Biopharmaceutical, Ping An Insurance (Group), and New Sunshine Charity Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Survivors , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Exercise Tolerance , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Walk Test
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(10)2020 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304206

ABSTRACT

We report the first case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Japan. A 54-year-old woman developed neurological symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We tested for various antiganglioside antibodies, that had not been investigated in previous cases. The patient was diagnosed with GBS based on neurological and electrophysiological findings; no antiganglioside antibodies were detected. In previous reports, most patients with SARS-CoV-2-infection-related GBS had lower limb predominant symptoms, and antiganglioside antibody tests were negative. Our findings support the notion that non-immune abnormalities such as hyperinflammation following cytokine storms and microvascular disorders due to vascular endothelial damage may lead to neurological symptoms in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our case further highlights the need for careful diagnosis in suspected cases of GBS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Electromyography/methods , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Hypesthesia/diagnosis , Hypesthesia/etiology , Japan , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Rare Diseases , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
8.
Rev Neurol ; 73(1): 10-16, 2021 07 01.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282814

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Weakness is a frequent complication in those critically ill due to COVID-19. This study describes its characteristics and the factors that can condition and predict it. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, descriptive, observational study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to COVID-19 between April and May 2020 with muscle weakness. A motor balance equal to or lower than 3/5 according to the modified Medical Research Council muscle strength scale was considered to be severe clinical impairment. Altogether 25 analytical studies, 16 neurophysiological studies and one muscle biopsy were performed, with a telephone follow-up at one month, a comparative analysis between the groups with and without severe compromise, and determination of cut-off points for analytical parameters to predict severe involvement using ROC curves. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 25 patients with a mean age of 58 years (standard deviation ± 9). The median length of stay in the ICU was 27.5 days. All the electromyograms exhibited a myogenic pattern and 75% also showed neuropathy. The group with severe clinical involvement had higher levels of D-dimer (p = 0.08), lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.03) and interleukin-6 (p = 0.10), and the combination of the alteration of any two of these three parameters predicted severe involvement with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 76.9%. At one month of follow-up, 36% were unable to walk autonomously and 92% continued with muscle weakness. CONCLUSIONS: Weakness in severe COVID-19 patients has a major clinical impact. Its early detection and study by means of predictors of its development may allow for better management. The absence in some cases of classical risk factors for ICU-acquired weakness suggests a different pathophysiology.


TITLE: Debilidad como complicación del paciente crítico por COVID-19: características clínicas y factores pronósticos en una serie de casos.Introducción. La debilidad es una complicación frecuente en el enfermo crítico por COVID-19. Se describen sus características, y los factores que pueden condicionarla y predecirla. Pacientes y métodos. Estudio observacional descriptivo prospectivo con pacientes ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) por COVID-19 entre abril y mayo de 2020 con debilidad muscular. Se consideró una afectación clínica grave un equilibrio motor igual o inferior a 3/5 según la escala de fuerza muscular modificada del Medical Research Council. Se han realizado 25 estudios analíticos, 16 estudios neurofisiológicos y una biopsia muscular; seguimiento telefónico al mes; análisis comparativo entre los grupos con y sin afectación grave, y determinación de puntos de corte de parámetros analíticos para predecir afectación grave mediante curvas ROC. Resultados. Se incluyó a 25 pacientes con 58 años (desviación estándar ± 9) de edad media. La mediana de estancia en la UCI fue de 27,5 días. Todos los electromiogramas mostraban un patrón miógeno y el 75%, también una neuropatía. El grupo con afectación clínica grave tenía mayores niveles de dímero-D (p = 0,08), lactato deshidrogenasa (p = 0,03) e interleucina 6 (p = 0,10), y la combinación de la alteración de dos cualquiera de estos tres parámetros pronosticaba la afectación grave con una sensibilidad del 100% y una especificidad del 76,9%. Al mes de seguimiento, el 36% no podía deambular autónomamente y el 92% seguía con debilidad muscular. Conclusiones. La debilidad en el enfermo por COVID-19 grave tiene una repercusión clínica importante. Su detección y estudio precoces mediante predictores de su desarrollo pueden permitir un mejor manejo. La ausencia en algunos casos de los factores de riesgo clásicos para la debilidad adquirida en la UCI sugiere una fisiopatología diferente.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Adult , Aged , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
9.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 22(4): 228-231, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238256

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Elsberg syndrome is a rare cause of lumbosacral radiculitis with concomitant thoracic and lumbosacral myelitis that can be seen after an acute or reactivated viral infection. After the initial coronavirus surge in New York City, a 68-year-old man developed progressive lower extremity weakness and a defined sensory level at the lower abdomen. He had highly elevated SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies despite an absence of preceding COVID-19 symptoms. Serial electrodiagnostic testing revealed absent lower extremity late responses, with otherwise normal distal sensorimotor conductions. Electromyography revealed active neurogenic changes and reduced motor unit recruitment in the L3-L4 myotomes. Treatment with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin was followed by minimal clinical improvement but re-emergence of the lower extremity late responses on electrodiagnostic testing. We report here, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of suspected COVID-19-associated Elsberg syndrome, which expands the spectrum of neuromuscular manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and sheds light on ways to approach diagnostic and treatment options for these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myelitis/etiology , Radiculopathy/etiology , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Electrodiagnosis , Electromyography , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Myelitis/diagnosis , Neural Conduction , Radiculopathy/diagnosis , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Syndrome , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5599-5602, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182168

ABSTRACT

The relation between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and demyelinating Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) has been defined. We aim to report the clinical features of a child with axonal GBS associated with SARS-CoV-2. A 6-year-old male presented with symmetric ascending paralysis progressed over a 4-day course and 2 days of fever. He had bilateral lower and upper limb flaccid weakness of 1/5 with absent deep tendon reflexes. He had severe respiratory muscle weakness requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. On admission, SARS-CoV-2 returned as positive by real-time polymerase chain reaction on a nasopharyngeal swab. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed elevated protein without pleocytosis. He was diagnosed with GBS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The nerve conduction study was suggestive of acute motor axonal neuropathy. Ten consecutive therapeutic plasma exchange sessions with 5% albumin replacement followed by four sessions on alternate days were performed. On Day 12, methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg/day for 5 days) was given. On Day 18, intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg/day) was given and repeated 14 days after due to severe motor weakness. On Day 60, he was discharged from the hospital with weakness of neck flexor and extensor muscles of 3/5 and the upper limbs and the lower limbs of 2/5 on home-ventilation. Our patient is considered to be the youngest patient presenting with a possible para-infectious association between axonal GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The disease course was severe with a rapid progression, an earlier peak, and prolonged duration in weakness as expected in axonal GBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Child , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
12.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(7): 1733-1740, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to characterize the electrophysiological features and plasma biomarkers of critical illness polyneuropathy (CIN) and myopathy (CIM) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW). METHODS: An observational ICU cohort study including adult patients admitted to the ICU at Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, from March 13th to June 8th 2020. We compared the clinical, electrophysiological and plasma biomarker data between COVID-19 patients who developed CIN/CIM and those who did not. Electrophysiological characteristics were also compared between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ICU patients. RESULTS: 111 COVID-19 patients were included, 11 of whom developed CIN/CIM. Patients with CIN/CIM had more severe illness; longer ICU stay, more thromboembolic events and were more frequently treated with invasive ventilation for longer than 2 weeks. In particular CIN was more frequent among COVID-19 patients with ICUAW (50%) compared with a non-COVID-19 cohort (0%, p = 0.008). Neurofilament light chain (NfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp) levels were higher in the CIN/CIM group compared with those that did not develop CIN/CIM (both p = 0.001) and correlated with nerve amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS: CIN/CIM was more prevalent among COVID-19 ICU patients with severe illness. SIGNIFICANCE: COVID-19 patients who later developed CIN/CIM had significantly higher NfL and GFAp in the early phase of ICU care, suggesting their potential as predictive biomarkers for CIN/CIM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Muscular Diseases/blood , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Polyneuropathies/blood , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Thromboembolism/etiology
13.
Neurol Sci ; 42(6): 2173-2178, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146213

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report clinical and electroneuromyographic (ENMG) characteristics of patients affected by severe COVID-19 infection, evaluated for muscular weakness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ENMGs performed for evaluation of diffuse weakness in patients who could not be discharged from semi-intensive care COVID unit because of difficulties in ventilation weaning were reviewed. Patients with severe COVID-19 infection who had undergone endotracheal intubation and able to co-operate were considered. ENMG protocol was focused on neurophysiological items that excluded or confirmed critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), myopathy (CIM), or polyneuromyopathy (CIPM). Standardized clinical evaluation was performed using Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score. RESULTS: Eight patients were included in the study. All presented known risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW), and none of them had history of underlying neuromuscular disorders. ENMG findings were normal in two patients, while only two patients had an altered MRC sum score (< 48). Neuromuscular involvement was diagnosed in 6/8 patients (75%): 2 had CIP, 1 had possible CIM, 1 had CIPM, while 1 patient, with clinically evident weakness but equivocal ENMG findings, was classified as ICU-AW. Finally, 1 patient was diagnosed with acute demyelinating neuropathy. Patients with neuromuscular involvement were those with longer intubation duration and higher levels of IL-6 at admission. CONCLUSION: Neuromuscular complications are frequent in severe COVID-19 and cannot be excluded by MRC sum scores above 48. Standardized ENMG is helpful in guiding diagnosis when clinical evaluation is not reliable or possible. Elevated IL-6 at admission may be a predictor biomarker of ICU-AW in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muscular Diseases , Polyneuropathies , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Muscular Diseases/complications , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Polyneuropathies/complications , Polyneuropathies/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 64, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated muscle strength in COVID-19 ICU survivors. We aimed to report the incidence of limb and respiratory muscle weakness in COVID-19 ICU survivors. METHOD: We performed a cross sectional study in two ICU tertiary Hospital Settings. COVID-19 ICU survivors were screened and respiratory and limb muscle strength were measured at the time of extubation. An ICU mobility scale was performed at ICU discharge and walking capacity was self-evaluated by patients 30 days after weaning from mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients were included. Sixteen (69%) had limb muscle weakness and 6 (26%) had overlap limb and respiratory muscle weakness. Amount of physiotherapy was not associated with muscle strength. 44% of patients with limb weakness were unable to walk 100 m 30 days after weaning. CONCLUSION: The large majority of COVID-19 ICU survivors developed ICU acquired limb muscle weakness. 44% of patients with limb weakness still had severely limited function one-month post weaning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Aged , Arm/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France , Humans , Leg/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Chest ; 159(3): e151-e154, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108122

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old previously healthy man presented with 8 weeks of progressive dyspnea on exertion and cough. Prior to presentation, the patient was able to bicycle > 60 miles per week and work full-time in a home improvement store. He was up-to-date with age-appropriate cancer screening and immunizations, and home medications included famotidine for reflux and nonsteroidal antiinflammatories for osteoarthritis, both as-needed. He had no significant respiratory exposure, aside from previous work as an electrician. His symptoms began in mid-February 2020 amid the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, although he had no known exposure to the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase/blood , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Myositis , Plasma Exchange/methods , Rituximab/administration & dosage , Threonine-tRNA Ligase/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Myositis/blood , Myositis/diagnosis , Myositis/physiopathology , Myositis/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 150, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106496

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus 2019 epidemic declared in China on December 31, 2019 soon spread to the rest of the world, becoming the subject of an unprecedented health pandemic according to the World Health Organization's declaration of March 11, 2020. It is a disease that has the potential to cause multiple systemic infections. We report here the case of an acute polyradiculoneuritis of the Guillain-Barré type (GBS) indicative of a COVID-19 infection. This is a 41 year old patient seen for ascending, symmetrical and bilateral, progressive and acute tetraparesis with in a context of influenza syndrome and digestive infections treated 2 weeks earlier. During a COVID-19 infection, certain inflammatory cells stimulated by the virus produce inflammatory cytokines creating immune-mediated processes. The same mechanism is observed in GBS being also an immune-mediated disorder. The management of this disease in COVID-19 positive patients does not differ from that of patients who do not carry the virus. The risk of respiratory distress in COVID-19 positive patients becomes twice as great in patients with GBS who test positive for COVID-19 at the same time. Monitoring for hemodynamic disorders and respiratory distress in a neuro-intensive care unit may be fruitful.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Combined Modality Therapy , Contraindications, Drug , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Male , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Quadriplegia/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Incontinence/etiology
18.
Lancet ; 397(10270): 220-232, 2021 01 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term health consequences of COVID-19 remain largely unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the long-term health consequences of patients with COVID-19 who have been discharged from hospital and investigate the associated risk factors, in particular disease severity. METHODS: We did an ambidirectional cohort study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 who had been discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between Jan 7, 2020, and May 29, 2020. Patients who died before follow-up, patients for whom follow-up would be difficult because of psychotic disorders, dementia, or re-admission to hospital, those who were unable to move freely due to concomitant osteoarthropathy or immobile before or after discharge due to diseases such as stroke or pulmonary embolism, those who declined to participate, those who could not be contacted, and those living outside of Wuhan or in nursing or welfare homes were all excluded. All patients were interviewed with a series of questionnaires for evaluation of symptoms and health-related quality of life, underwent physical examinations and a 6-min walking test, and received blood tests. A stratified sampling procedure was used to sample patients according to their highest seven-category scale during their hospital stay as 3, 4, and 5-6, to receive pulmonary function test, high resolution CT of the chest, and ultrasonography. Enrolled patients who had participated in the Lopinavir Trial for Suppression of SARS-CoV-2 in China received severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibody tests. Multivariable adjusted linear or logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between disease severity and long-term health consequences. FINDINGS: In total, 1733 of 2469 discharged patients with COVID-19 were enrolled after 736 were excluded. Patients had a median age of 57·0 (IQR 47·0-65·0) years and 897 (52%) were men. The follow-up study was done from June 16, to Sept 3, 2020, and the median follow-up time after symptom onset was 186·0 (175·0-199·0) days. Fatigue or muscle weakness (63%, 1038 of 1655) and sleep difficulties (26%, 437 of 1655) were the most common symptoms. Anxiety or depression was reported among 23% (367 of 1617) of patients. The proportions of median 6-min walking distance less than the lower limit of the normal range were 24% for those at severity scale 3, 22% for severity scale 4, and 29% for severity scale 5-6. The corresponding proportions of patients with diffusion impairment were 22% for severity scale 3, 29% for scale 4, and 56% for scale 5-6, and median CT scores were 3·0 (IQR 2·0-5·0) for severity scale 3, 4·0 (3·0-5·0) for scale 4, and 5·0 (4·0-6·0) for scale 5-6. After multivariable adjustment, patients showed an odds ratio (OR) 1·61 (95% CI 0·80-3·25) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and 4·60 (1·85-11·48) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for diffusion impairment; OR 0·88 (0·66-1·17) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and OR 1·77 (1·05-2·97) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for anxiety or depression, and OR 0·74 (0·58-0·96) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and 2·69 (1·46-4·96) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for fatigue or muscle weakness. Of 94 patients with blood antibodies tested at follow-up, the seropositivity (96·2% vs 58·5%) and median titres (19·0 vs 10·0) of the neutralising antibodies were significantly lower compared with at the acute phase. 107 of 822 participants without acute kidney injury and with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2 or more at acute phase had eGFR less than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2 at follow-up. INTERPRETATION: At 6 months after acute infection, COVID-19 survivors were mainly troubled with fatigue or muscle weakness, sleep difficulties, and anxiety or depression. Patients who were more severely ill during their hospital stay had more severe impaired pulmonary diffusion capacities and abnormal chest imaging manifestations, and are the main target population for intervention of long-term recovery. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, National Key Research and Development Program of China, Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, and Peking Union Medical College Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Quality of Life , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/epidemiology , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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