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Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132416, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439929


The healthcare community acknowledged that bio-medical wastes (BMWs) have reached a colossal level across the globe. The recent pandemic (COVID-19) has brought a deluge of contaminated waste which calls for an urgent need of treatment technology for its safe disposal. BMW generally undergoes a conservative treatment approach of incineration which in turn generates potentially toxic ash known as BMW ash. BMW ash, if directly dumped in landfill, leaches and further pollutes both land and groundwater. The present study deployed Brassica juncea [Indian Mustard (IM)], Chrysopogon zizanioides [Vetiver Grass (VG)], and Pistia stratiotes [Water Lettuce (WL)] to remediate toxicity of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) i.e., Cd, Al, Pb, Cu, Mn, Co and Zn in BMW ash both in the presence and absence of chelate with an increased dosage of toxicity. The phyto-assessment results showed that IM extracted 202.2 ± 0.1-365.5 ± 0.02, 7.8 ± 0.03-12.5 ± 0.3, 132.1 ± 0.1-327.3 ± 0.1 and >100 mg kg-1 of Al, Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively without the assistance of a chelating agent. The VG accumulated heavy metals in greater concentration up to 10.5 ± 0.1 and 290.1 ± 0.05 mg kg-1 of Cd and Zn, respectively, and similar trends were observed in the WL set-up. However, the application of an ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) had also increased the efficiency on an average by 20-30% for IM, 35-45% for VG, and 25-35% for WL. The experimental set-up shows that the BCF for IM, VG and WL was found to be greater than 1 for most of the PTEs. The higher value of BCF resulted in a better ability to phytoextract the heavy metals from the soil. The results suggested that IM, VG and WL have the potential to phytoextract PTEs both in the absence and presence of chelating agents.

Araceae , COVID-19 , Chrysopogon , Soil Pollutants , Biodegradation, Environmental , Chelating Agents , Humans , Mustard Plant , SARS-CoV-2 , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Soil Pollutants/toxicity
Phytother Res ; 34(12): 3400-3410, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704946


The world is in an immediate need of treatment for coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Chronic exposure of hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19 may have multiple adverse effects on human physiology, such as cardiac arrhythmias. Natural compounds need to be evaluated as treatment and preventive agents in coronavirus infection. A total of 30 compounds of Solanum tuberosum and Brassica juncea residue smoke water were selected for the virtual screening against SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and cellular proteins involved in the mechanism of infection. Docking analysis identified lead molecules with favorable binding energy, number of poses and hydrogen bond interactions, which indicates the effective modulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors. Results indicated (a) curcumenol, (b) N-desmethylselegiline, (c) phentermine and (d) sphingolipid derivatives as a selective and potent candidates in comparison to hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 treatment. Our in silico findings, therefore, warrant further in vitro validations of the selected compounds for the discovery of novel preventive and therapeutic drug against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Mustard Plant , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Smoke , Solanum tuberosum , Computer Simulation , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Water/chemistry , COVID-19 Drug Treatment