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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 757197, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485060

ABSTRACT

The recent identification and rise to dominance of the P.1 and B.1.351 SARS-CoV-2 variants have brought international concern because they may confer fitness advantages. The same three positions in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) are affected in both variants, but where the 417 substitution differs, the E484K/N501Y have co-evolved by convergent evolution. Here we characterize the functional and immune evasive consequences of the P.1 and B.1.351 RBD mutations. E484K and N501Y result in gain-of-function with two different outcomes: The N501Y confers a ten-fold affinity increase towards ACE-2, but a modest antibody evasion potential of plasma from convalescent or vaccinated individuals, whereas the E484K displays a significant antibody evasion capacity without a major impact on affinity. On the other hand, the two different 417 substitutions severely impair the RBD/ACE-2 affinity, but in the combined P.1 and B.1.351 RBD variants, this effect is partly counterbalanced by the effect of the E484K and N501Y. Our results suggest that the combination of these three mutations is a two-step forward and one step back in terms of viral fitness.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , Adult , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9982729, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476892

ABSTRACT

The human transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) protein plays an important role in prostate cancer progression. It also facilitates viral entry into target cells by proteolytically cleaving and activating the S protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In the current study, we used different available tools like SIFT, PolyPhen2.0, PROVEAN, SNAP2, PMut, MutPred2, I-Mutant Suite, MUpro, iStable, ConSurf, ModPred, SwissModel, PROCHECK, Verify3D, and TM-align to identify the most deleterious variants and to explore possible effects on the TMPRSS2 stability, structure, and function. The six missense variants tested were evaluated to have deleterious effects on the protein by SIFT, PolyPhen2.0, PROVEAN, SNAP2, and PMut. Additionally, V160M, G181R, R240C, P335L, G432A, and D435Y variants showed a decrease in stability by at least 2 servers; G181R, G432A, and D435Y are highly conserved and identified posttranslational modifications sites (PTMs) for proteolytic cleavage and ADP-ribosylation using ConSurf and ModPred servers. The 3D structure of TMPRSS2 native and mutants was generated using 7 meq as a template from the SwissModeller group, refined by ModRefiner, and validated using the Ramachandran plot. Hence, this paper can be advantageous to understand the association between these missense variants rs12329760, rs781089181, rs762108701, rs1185182900, rs570454392, and rs867186402 and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Binding Sites , Computational Biology/methods , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Models, Molecular , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Conformation , Protein Stability , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(7): 1109-1114, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470152

ABSTRACT

Whether monoclonal antibodies are able to neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern has been investigated using pseudoviruses. In this study we show that bamlanivimab, casirivimab, and imdevimab efficiently neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2, including variant B.1.1.7 (alpha), but variants B.1.351 (beta) and P.2 (zeta) were resistant against bamlanivimab and partially resistant to casirivimab. Whether antibodies are able to neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variantshas been investigated using pseudoviruses. We show that authentic SARS-CoV-2 carrying E484K were resistant against bamlanivimab and less susceptible to casirivimab, convalescent and vaccine-elicited sera.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Substitution , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Mutation, Missense , Neutralization Tests
4.
J Autoimmun ; 124: 102715, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437496

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been rapidly evolving in the form of new variants. At least eleven known variants have been reported. The objective of this study was to delineate the differences in the mutational profile of Delta and Delta Plus variants. High-quality sequences (n = 1756) of Delta (B.1.617.2) and Delta Plus (AY.1 or B.1.617.2.1) variants were used to determine the prevalence of mutations (≥20 %) in the entire SARS-CoV-2 genome, their co-existence, and change in prevalence over a period of time. Structural analysis was conducted to get insights into the impact of mutations on antibody binding. A Sankey diagram was generated using phylogenetic analysis coupled with sequence-acquisition dates to infer the migration of the Delta Plus variant and its presence in the United States. The Delta Plus variant had a significant number of high-prevalence mutations (≥20 %) than in the Delta variant. Signature mutations in Spike (G142D, A222V, and T95I) existed at a more significant percentage in the Delta Plus variant than the Delta variant. Three mutations in Spike (K417N, V70F, and W258L) were exclusively present in the Delta Plus variant. A new mutation was identified in ORF1a (A1146T), which was only present in the Delta Plus variant with ~58 % prevalence. Furthermore, five key mutations (T95I, A222V, G142D, R158G, and K417N) were significantly more prevalent in the Delta Plus than in the Delta variant. Structural analyses revealed that mutations alter the sidechain conformation to weaken the interactions with antibodies. Delta Plus, which first emerged in India, reached the United States through England and Japan, followed by its spread to more than 20 the United States. Based on the results presented here, it is clear that the Delta and Delta Plus variants have unique mutation profiles, and the Delta Plus variant is not just a simple addition of K417N to the Delta variant. Highly correlated mutations may have emerged to keep the structural integrity of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Mutation, Missense , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 343, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415924

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 recognizes, via its spike receptor-binding domain (S-RBD), human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to initiate infection. Ecto-domain protein of ACE2 can therefore function as a decoy. Here we show that mutations of S19W, T27W, and N330Y in ACE2 could individually enhance SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD binding. Y330 could be synergistically combined with either W19 or W27, whereas W19 and W27 are mutually unbeneficial. The structures of SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD bound to the ACE2 mutants reveal that the enhanced binding is mainly contributed by the van der Waals interactions mediated by the aromatic side-chains from W19, W27, and Y330. While Y330 and W19/W27 are distantly located and devoid of any steric interference, W19 and W27 are shown to orient their side-chains toward each other and to cause steric conflicts, explaining their incompatibility. Finally, using pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viruses, we demonstrate that these residue substitutions are associated with dramatically improved entry-inhibition efficacy toward both wild-type and antibody-resistant viruses. Taken together, our biochemical and structural data have delineated the basis for the elevated S-RBD binding associated with S19W, T27W, and N330Y mutations in ACE2, paving the way for potential application of these mutants in clinical treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409703

ABSTRACT

Recently, inhibitors of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (Mpro) have been proposed as potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19. Studying effects of amino acid mutations in the conformation of drug targets is necessary for anticipating drug resistance. In this study, with the structure of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro complexed with a non-covalent inhibitor, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine the conformation of the complex when single amino acid residue in the active site is mutated. As a model of amino acid mutation, we constructed mutant proteins with one residue in the active site mutated to alanine. This method is called virtual alanine scan. The results of the MD simulations showed that the conformation and configuration of the ligand was changed for mutants H163A and E166A, although the structure of the whole protein and of the catalytic dyad did not change significantly, suggesting that mutations in His163 and Glu166 may be linked to drug resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2 , Alanine , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/genetics , Catalytic Domain/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18126, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406407

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has emerged as global pandemic with largest damage to the public health, economy and human psyche.The genome sequence data obtained during the ongoing pandemic are valuable to understand the virus evolutionary patterns and spread across the globe. Increased availability of genome information of circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains in India will enable the scientific community to understand the emergence of new variants and their impact on human health. The first case of COVID-19 was detected in Chambal region of Madhya Pradesh state in mid of March 2020 followed by multiple introduction events and expansion of cases within next three months. More than 5000 COVID-19 suspected samples referred to Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh were analyzed during the nation -wide lockdown and unlock period. A total of 136 cases were found positive over a span of three months that included virus introduction to the region and its further spread. Whole genome sequences employing Oxford nanopore technology were generated for 26 SARS-CoV-2 circulating in 10 different districts in Madhya Pradesh state of India. This period witnessed index cases with multiple travel histories responsible for introduction of COVID-19 followed by remarkable expansion of virus. The genome wide substitutions including in important viral proteins were identified. The detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed the circulating SARS-CoV-2 clustered in multiple clades including A2a, A4 and B. The cluster-wise segregation was observed, suggesting multiple introduction links and subsequent evolution of virus in the region. This is the first comprehensive whole genome sequence analysis from central India, which revealed the emergence and evolution of SARS-CoV-2 during thenation-wide lockdown and unlock.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , India , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 10, 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study describes the occurrence of a silent mutation in the RNA binding domain of nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N protein) coding gene from SARS-CoV-2 that may consequence to a missense mutation by onset of another single nucleotide mutation. RESULTS: In the DNA sequence isolated from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) in Iran, a coding sequence for the RNA binding domain of N protein was detected. The comparison of Chinese and Iranian DNA sequences displayed that a thymine (T) was mutated to cytosine (C), so "TTG" from China was changed to "CTG" in Iran. Both DNA sequences from Iran and China have been encoded for leucine. In addition, the second T in "CTG" in the DNA or uracil (U) in "CUG" in the RNA sequences from Iran can be mutated to another C by a missense mutation resulting from thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) of human and base excision repair mechanism to produce "CCG" encoding for proline, which consequently may increase the affinity of the RNA binding domain of N protein to viral RNA and improve the transcription rate, pathogenicity, evasion from human immunity system, spreading in the human body, and risk of human-to-human transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Binding Motifs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , China , Databases, Genetic , Humans , Iran , Mutation, Missense , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Silent Mutation
9.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(5): 1966-1979, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387957

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 epidemics quickly propagated worldwide, sorting virus genomic variants in newly established propagules of infections. Stochasticity in transmission within and between countries or an actual selective advantage could explain the global high frequency reached by some genomic variants. Using statistical analyses, demographic reconstructions, and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the globally invasive G614 spike variant 1) underwent a significant demographic expansion in most countries explained neither by stochastic effects nor by overrepresentation in clinical samples, 2) increases the spike S1/S2 furin-like site conformational plasticity (short-range effect), and 3) modifies the internal motion of the receptor-binding domain affecting its cross-connection with other functional domains (long-range effect). Our results support the hypothesis of a selective advantage at the basis of the spread of the G614 variant, which we suggest may be due to structural modification of the spike protein at the S1/S2 proteolytic site, and provide structural information to guide the design of variant-specific drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Selection, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans
10.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(4): 1537-1543, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387956

ABSTRACT

The rooting of the SARS-CoV-2 phylogeny is important for understanding the origin and early spread of the virus. Previously published phylogenies have used different rootings that do not always provide consistent results. We investigate several different strategies for rooting the SARS-CoV-2 tree and provide measures of statistical uncertainty for all methods. We show that methods based on the molecular clock tend to place the root in the B clade, whereas methods based on outgroup rooting tend to place the root in the A clade. The results from the two approaches are statistically incompatible, possibly as a consequence of deviations from a molecular clock or excess back-mutations. We also show that none of the methods provide strong statistical support for the placement of the root in any particular edge of the tree. These results suggest that phylogenetic evidence alone is unlikely to identify the origin of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and we caution against strong inferences regarding the early spread of the virus based solely on such evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Algorithms , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Markov Chains , Models, Genetic , Models, Statistical , Monte Carlo Method , Mutation, Missense , RNA, Viral/genetics , Uncertainty
13.
Biomolecules ; 11(9)2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374290

ABSTRACT

The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mediates the viral-host interaction and is a target for most neutralizing antibodies. Nevertheless, SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutations pose a threat due to their role in host cell entry via the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor that might strengthen SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, viral load, or resistance against neutralizing antibodies. To understand the molecular structural link between RBD mutations and infectivity, the top five mutant RBDs (i.e., N501Y, E484K L452R, S477N, and N439K) were selected based on their recorded case numbers. These mutants along with wild-type (WT) RBD were studied through all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 100 ns. The principal component analysis and the free energy landscape were used too. Interestingly, N501Y, N439K, and E484K mutations were observed to increase the rigidity in some RBD regions while increasing the flexibility of the receptor-binding motif (RBM) region, suggesting a compensation of the entropy penalty. However, S477N and L452R RBDs were observed to increase the flexibility of the RBM region while maintaining similar flexibility in other RBD regions in comparison to WT RBD. Therefore, both mutations (especially S477N) might destabilize the RBD structure, as loose conformation compactness was observed. The destabilizing effect of S477N RBD was consistent with previous work on S477N mutation. Finally, the free energy landscape results showed that mutations changed WT RBD conformation while local minima were maintained for all mutant RBDs. In conclusion, RBD mutations definitely impact the WT RBD structure and conformation as well as increase the binding affinity to angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19 , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Amino Acid Motifs , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
Genome Biol Evol ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370777

ABSTRACT

Owing to a lag between a deleterious mutation's appearance and its selective removal, gold-standard methods for mutation rate estimation assume no meaningful loss of mutations between parents and offspring. Indeed, from analysis of closely related lineages, in SARS-CoV-2, the Ka/Ks ratio was previously estimated as 1.008, suggesting no within-host selection. By contrast, we find a higher number of observed SNPs at 4-fold degenerate sites than elsewhere and, allowing for the virus's complex mutational and compositional biases, estimate that the mutation rate is at least 49-67% higher than would be estimated based on the rate of appearance of variants in sampled genomes. Given the high Ka/Ks one might assume that the majority of such intrahost selection is the purging of nonsense mutations. However, we estimate that selection against nonsense mutations accounts for only ∼10% of all the "missing" mutations. Instead, classical protein-level selective filters (against chemically disparate amino acids and those predicted to disrupt protein functionality) account for many missing mutations. It is less obvious why for an intracellular parasite, amino acid cost parameters, notably amino acid decay rate, is also significant. Perhaps most surprisingly, we also find evidence for real-time selection against synonymous mutations that move codon usage away from that of humans. We conclude that there is common intrahost selection on SARS-CoV-2 that acts on nonsense, missense, and possibly synonymous mutations. This has implications for methods of mutation rate estimation, for determining times to common ancestry and the potential for intrahost evolution including vaccine escape.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Codon Usage , Codon, Nonsense , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Models, Genetic , Mutation Rate , Mutation, Missense , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Selection, Genetic , Silent Mutation
15.
Science ; 373(6557): 918-922, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367378

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic avian influenza A virus (IAV) infections are rare. Sustained transmission of these IAVs between humans has not been observed, suggesting a role for host genes. We used whole-genome sequencing to compare avian IAV H7N9 patients with healthy controls and observed a strong association between H7N9 infection and rare, heterozygous single-nucleotide variants in the MX1 gene. MX1 codes for myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), an interferon-induced antiviral guanosine triphosphatase known to control IAV infections in transgenic mice. Most of the MxA variants identified lost the ability to inhibit avian IAVs, including H7N9, in transfected human cell lines. Nearly all of the inactive MxA variants exerted a dominant-negative effect on the antiviral function of wild-type MxA, suggesting an MxA null phenotype in heterozygous carriers. Our study provides genetic evidence for a crucial role of the MX1-based antiviral defense in controlling zoonotic IAV infections in humans.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/genetics , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/genetics , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/virology , Animals , Cell Line , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetic Variation , Heterozygote , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A virus/physiology , Mutation, Missense , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/chemistry , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/metabolism , Poultry , Viral Zoonoses , Whole Genome Sequencing
16.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1239-1253, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352106

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the binding to the permissive cells. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 S protein directly interacts with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the host cell membrane. In this study, we used computational saturation mutagenesis approaches, including structure-based energy calculations and sequence-based pathogenicity predictions, to quantify the systemic effects of missense mutations on SARS-CoV-2 S protein structure and function. A total of 18 354 mutations in S protein were analyzed, and we discovered that most of these mutations could destabilize the entire S protein and its RBD. Specifically, residues G431 and S514 in SARS-CoV-2 RBD are important for S protein stability. We analyzed 384 experimentally verified S missense variations and revealed that the dominant pandemic form, D614G, can stabilize the entire S protein. Moreover, many mutations in N-linked glycosylation sites can increase the stability of the S protein. In addition, we investigated 3705 mutations in SARS-CoV-2 RBD and 11 324 mutations in human ACE2 and found that SARS-CoV-2 neighbor residues G496 and F497 and ACE2 residues D355 and Y41 are critical for the RBD-ACE2 interaction. The findings comprehensively provide potential target sites in the development of drugs and vaccines against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Mutation, Missense , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thermodynamics
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 719115, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348490

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Loss-of-function TLR7 variants have been recently reported in a small number of males to underlie strong predisposition to severe COVID-19. We aimed to determine the presence of these rare variants in young men with severe COVID-19. Methods: We prospectively studied males between 18 and 50 years-old without predisposing comorbidities that required at least high-flow nasal oxygen to treat COVID-19. The coding region of TLR7 was sequenced to assess the presence of potentially deleterious variants. Results: TLR7 missense variants were identified in two out of 14 patients (14.3%). Overall, the median age was 38 (IQR 30-45) years. Both variants were not previously reported in population control databases and were predicted to be damaging by in silico predictors. In a 30-year-old patient a maternally inherited variant [c.644A>G; p.(Asn215Ser)] was identified, co-segregating in his 27-year-old brother who also contracted severe COVID-19. A second variant [c.2797T>C; p.(Trp933Arg)] was found in a 28-year-old patient, co-segregating in his 24-year-old brother who developed mild COVID-19. Functional testing of this variant revealed decreased type I and II interferon responses in peripheral mononuclear blood cells upon stimulation with the TLR7 agonist imiquimod, confirming a loss-of-function effect. Conclusions: This study supports a rationale for the genetic screening for TLR7 variants in young men with severe COVID-19 in the absence of other relevant risk factors. A diagnosis of TLR7 deficiency could not only inform on treatment options for the patient, but also enables pre-symptomatic testing of at-risk male relatives with the possibility of instituting early preventive and therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , Adult , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Genetic Testing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Toll-Like Receptor 7/immunology
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009715, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315897

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 encode spike proteins that bind human ACE2 on the cell surface to enter target cells during infection. A small fraction of humans encode variants of ACE2, thus altering the biochemical properties at the protein interaction interface. These and other ACE2 coding mutants can reveal how the spike proteins of each virus may differentially engage the ACE2 protein surface during infection. We created an engineered HEK 293T cell line for facile stable transgenic modification, and expressed the major human ACE2 allele or 28 of its missense mutants, 24 of which are possible through single nucleotide changes from the human reference sequence. Infection with SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped lentiviruses revealed that high ACE2 cell-surface expression could mask the effects of impaired binding during infection. Drastically reducing ACE2 cell surface expression revealed a range of infection efficiencies across the panel of mutants. Our infection results revealed a non-linear relationship between soluble SARS-CoV-2 RBD binding to ACE2 and pseudovirus infection, supporting a major role for binding avidity during entry. While ACE2 mutants D355N, R357A, and R357T abrogated entry by both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, the Y41A mutant inhibited SARS-CoV entry much more than SARS-CoV-2, suggesting differential utilization of the ACE2 side-chains within the largely overlapping interaction surfaces utilized by the two CoV spike proteins. These effects correlated well with cytopathic effects observed during SARS-CoV-2 replication in ACE2-mutant cells. The panel of ACE2 mutants also revealed altered ACE2 surface dependencies by the N501Y spike variant, including a near-complete utilization of the K353D ACE2 variant, despite decreased infection mediated by the parental SARS-CoV-2 spike. Our results clarify the relationship between ACE2 abundance, binding, and infection, for various SARS-like coronavirus spike proteins and their mutants, and inform our understanding for how changes to ACE2 sequence may correspond with different susceptibilities to infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/etiology , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/etiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mutation, Missense , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
20.
J Virol ; 95(15): e0076621, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305511

ABSTRACT

All coronaviruses (CoVs) contain a macrodomain, also termed Mac1, in nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) that binds and hydrolyzes mono-ADP-ribose (MAR) covalently attached to proteins. Despite several reports demonstrating that Mac1 is a prominent virulence factor, there is still a limited understanding of its cellular roles during infection. Currently, most of the information regarding the role of CoV Mac1 during infection is based on a single point mutation of a highly conserved asparagine residue, which makes contact with the distal ribose of ADP-ribose. To determine if additional Mac1 activities contribute to CoV replication, we compared the replication of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) Mac1 mutants, D1329A and N1465A, to the previously mentioned asparagine mutant, N1347A. These residues contact the adenine and proximal ribose in ADP-ribose, respectively. N1465A had no effect on MHV replication or pathogenesis, while D1329A and N1347A both replicated poorly in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), were inhibited by PARP enzymes, and were highly attenuated in vivo. Interestingly, D1329A was also significantly more attenuated than N1347A in all cell lines tested. Conversely, D1329A retained some ability to block beta interferon (IFN-ß) transcript accumulation compared to N1347A, indicating that these mutations have different effects on Mac1 functions. Combining these two mutations resulted in a virus that was unrecoverable, suggesting that the combined activities of Mac1 are essential for MHV replication. We conclude that Mac1 has multiple functions that promote the replication of MHV, and that these results provide further evidence that Mac1 is a prominent target for anti-CoV therapeutics. IMPORTANCE In the wake of the COVID-19 epidemic, there has been a surge to better understand how CoVs replicate and to identify potential therapeutic targets that could mitigate disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 and other prominent CoVs. The highly conserved macrodomain, also termed Mac1, is a small domain within nonstructural protein 3. It has received significant attention as a potential drug target, as previous studies demonstrated that it is essential for CoV pathogenesis in multiple animal models of infection. However, the functions of Mac1 during infection remain largely unknown. Here, using targeted mutations in different regions of Mac1, we found that Mac1 has multiple functions that promote the replication of MHV, a model CoV, and, therefore, is more important for MHV replication than previously appreciated. These results will help guide the discovery of these novel functions of Mac1 and the development of inhibitory compounds targeting this domain.


Subject(s)
Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Mutation, Missense , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Virus Replication/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , HeLa Cells , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Mice , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
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