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2.
Malar J ; 21(1): 175, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The collection and utilization of surveillance data is essential in monitoring progress towards achieving malaria elimination, in the timely response to increases in malaria case numbers and in the assessment of programme functioning. This paper describes the surveillance activities used by the malaria elimination task force (METF) programme which operates in eastern Myanmar, and provides an analysis of data collected from weekly surveillance, case investigations, and monitoring and evaluation of programme performance. METHODS: This retrospective analysis was conducted using data collected from a network of 1250 malaria posts operational between 2014 and 2021. To investigate changes in data completeness, malaria post performance, malaria case numbers, and the demographic details of malaria cases, summary statistics were used to compare data collected over space and time. RESULTS: In the first 3 years of the METF programme, improvements in data transmission routes resulted in a 18.9% reduction in late reporting, allowing for near real-time analysis of data collected at the malaria posts. In 2020, travel restrictions were in place across Karen State in response to COVID-19, and from February 2021 the military coup in Myanmar resulted in widescale population displacement. However, over that period there has been no decline in malaria post attendance, and the majority of consultations continue to occur within 48 h of fever onset. Case investigations found that 43.8% of cases travelled away from their resident village in the 3 weeks prior to diagnosis and 36.3% reported never using a bed net whilst sleeping in their resident village, which increased to 72.2% when sleeping away from their resident village. Malaria post assessments performed in 82.3% of the METF malaria posts found malaria posts generally performed to a high standard. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance data collected by the METF programme demonstrate that despite significant changes in the context in which the programme operates, malaria posts have remained accessible and continue to provide early diagnosis and treatment contributing to an 89.3% decrease in Plasmodium falciparum incidence between 2014 and 2021.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Malaria , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Myanmar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
3.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268143, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The China-Myanmar border area is considered a hot spot of active HIV-1 recombination in Southeast Asia. To better understand the characteristics of HIV-1 transmission in this area, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological survey was conducted in Baoshan Prefecture of Yunnan Province. METHODS: In total, 708 newly reported HIV-1 cases in Baoshan Prefecture from 2019 to 2020 were included in this study. HIV-1 gag, pol and env genes were sequenced, and the spatial and demographic distributions of HIV-1 genotypes were analyzed. The characteristics of HIV-1 transmission were investigated using the HIV-1 molecular network method. RESULTS: In the 497 samples with genotyping results, 19 HIV-1 genotypes were found, with URFs being the predominant strains (30.2%, 150/497). The main circulating HIV-1 strains were mostly distributed in the northern area of Baoshan. URFs were more likely identified in Burmese individuals, intravenous drug users and those younger than 50 years old. CRF08_BC was more likely detected in farmers and those of Han ethnicity, CRF01_AE in the young and those of Han ethnicity, and CRF07_BC in the subpopulation with junior middle school education and higher. Moreover, CRF118_BC and CRF64_BC were more likely found in the subpopulation aged ≥40 years and ≥50 years, respectively. Among 480 individuals with pol sequence detection, 179 (37.3%) were grouped into 78 clusters, with Baoshan natives being more likely to be in the network. The proportion of the linked individuals showed significant differences when stratified by the regional origin, marital status, age and county of case reporting. In the molecular network, recent infections were more likely to occur among nonfarmers and individuals aged below 30 years. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 genetics has become complex in Baoshan. HIV-1 molecular network analysis provided transmission characteristics in the local area, and these findings provided information to prioritize transmission-reduction interventions.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Middle Aged , Myanmar/epidemiology , Phylogeny
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e059935, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832465

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global health problem, whose management in low-resource settings is hampered by fragile health systems and lack of access to specialist services. Improvement is complex, given the interaction of multiple people, processes and institutions. We aimed to develop a mixed-method approach to understand the TBI pathway based on the lived experience of local people, supported by quantitative methodologies and to determine potential improvement targets. DESIGN: We describe a systems approach based on narrative exploration, participatory diagramming, data collection and discrete event simulation (DES), conducted by an international research collaborative. SETTING: The study is set in the tertiary neurotrauma centre in Yangon General Hospital, Myanmar, in 2019-2020 (prior to the SARS-CoV2 pandemic). PARTICIPANTS: The qualitative work involved 40 workshop participants and 64 interviewees to explore the views of a wide range of stakeholders including staff, patients and relatives. The 1-month retrospective admission snapshot covered 85 surgical neurotrauma admissions. RESULTS: The TBI pathway was outlined, with system boundaries defined around the management of TBI once admitted to the neurosurgical unit. Retrospective data showed 18% mortality, 71% discharge to home and an 11% referral rate. DES was used to investigate the system, showing its vulnerability to small surges in patient numbers, with critical points being CT scanning and observation ward beds. This explorative model indicated that a modest expansion of observation ward beds to 30 would remove the flow-limitations and indicated possible consequences of changes. CONCLUSIONS: A systems approach to improving TBI care in resource-poor settings may be supported by simulation and informed by qualitative work to ground it in the direct experience of those involved. Narrative interviews, participatory diagramming and DES represent one possible suite of methods deliverable within an international partnership. Findings can support targeted improvement investments despite coexisting resource limitations while indicating concomitant risks.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic , COVID-19 , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Myanmar , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systems Analysis
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 854490, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785451

ABSTRACT

Background: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Global Mental Health research group at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health worked with three local partner organizations in Myanmar to develop a psychosocial support (PSS) program that could be delivered by community-based focal points in internally displaced persons camps. This PSS program was designed to be delivered in communities with limited access to regional mental health services due to pandemic travel restrictions. The content of the PSS program was based on materials from an ongoing Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) mental health program; CETA counselors based in the three partner organizations were available to provide telephone-based CETA counseling. In April 2020, the partners organizations recruited and trained PSS focal points in 25 IDP camps to establish a multi-tiered system of MHPSS supports. Implementation: The PSS program including psychoeducation handouts focused on stress and coping during COVID-19 and skills for cognitive restructuring (i.e., changing unhelpful thoughts) in simplified terms, audio recordings of the content of these handouts and referral opportunities for telephone-based services by CETA counselors located outside of the camps. PSS focal points distributed the handouts, had the recordings played via radio and loudspeaker, and were available to answer questions and provide access to a PSS program phones to connect with the CETA counselors. After 6 months of implementation, program monitoring logs were reviewed and a cross-sectional evaluation was conducted to assess the PSS program's reach, understanding, and perceived utility. Evaluation: Forty-one focal points implemented the PSS program in 25 IDP camps in Kachin and northern Shan States. From May to September 2020, the focal points distributed handouts to 5,725 households and reported 679 visits by IDPs, including facilitating 332 calls to a CETA counselor. Data from the program evaluation (n = 793 participants) found high levels of handout readership and perceived utility of the information, and good comprehension of the content and application of skills. Discussion: Findings suggest that provision of a multi-tiered MHPSS program, with PSS focal points providing direct information and linkages to further mental health services via telephone, was feasible despite the constraints of the pandemic. Utilizing camp-based focal points was acceptable and successful in delivering basic psychosocial supports to a broad population while serving as points of contact for individuals who wanted and needed telephone-based counseling services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inosine Diphosphate , Refugees , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Myanmar , Pandemics , Psychosocial Support Systems
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765708

ABSTRACT

Women of refugee background are subject to significant health inequity. Access to health information and a good level of health literacy are integral components to manage one's health needs. The aim of this study isto understand the experiences of women of refugee background from Myanmar seeking and accessing health information. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 women of refugee background from Myanmar resettled in Western Australia. Interpretative phenomenological analysis underpinned the study and was conducted on the interview data. Three superordinate themes and nine subordinate themes emerged from the analysis: (1) Seeking health information (Motivation and Sources), (2) Facilitators and Barriers (Communication, Navigating the system and Community) and (3) Seeking health information in the context of past experiences (Health information as a by-product of healthcare, Health professionals' provision of health information, Accessibility of healthcare and Expectations on resettlement). These themes provide insight into the challenges of accessing understandable and actionable health information and of promoting the health literacy of women of refugee background from Myanmar. Co-designed community-based and health service interventions should be trialled, including trauma-informed training for health professionals, health information apps and community health promotion programs. Community engagement, participation and evaluation are critical for determining the effective interventions to address the inequalities experienced by this population.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Refugees , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Myanmar , Qualitative Research , Western Australia
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are showing an increasing trend worldwide, and the COVID-19 pandemic may interrupt or delay NCD care, the leading cause of mortality in Thailand, which is hosting 2-3 million migrant workers. The transition of epidemiological risk factors, limited access to health-promoting activities, and pandemic containment measures may adversely impact NCD risks. Therefore, hypertension and associated risk factors were determined among registered Myanmar migrant workers in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with structured questionnaires was conducted in Thailand in 2017. Having hypertension was analyzed as a dependent variable, and the associated risk factors were explored by binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 414 participants with a mean age of 29.45 ± 9.03 years were included, and 27.8 percent of the study participants were hypertensive, which was a rate higher than that in their host country (24.7%) and country of origin (26.4%). An older age, being male, current alcohol drinking, and being overweight and obese with reference to the body mass index (BMI) were significantly associated with hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reaffirmed the idea that NCDs are important public health concerns, and a simple BMI measurement would be a valuable tool with which to determine hypertension risks. Targeted surveillance and an appropriate health policy are necessary for such a vulnerable population in Thailand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Transients and Migrants , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 20: 23259582211017742, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724379

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maintaining essential HIV services has being a Global challenge during the COVID-19 crises. Myanmar has 54 million inhabitants. Neighbor of China, Thailand, India and Bangladesh it was impacted by COVID-19, but came up with a comprehensive and effective response, following WHO recommendations. The HIV Prevalence is 0.58% and it is concentrated among key population. A HIV Contingency Plan was developed to face this challenge. METHODOLOGY: The programme-based cross-sectional descriptive study with analysis of routinely collected data from MoHS data system, between 2019 and 2020 was conducted, comparing first six months of 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: HIV outreach activities and HIV testing were slightly affected after detection of first COVID-19 case, till mid May 2020. After that, outreach activities resumed. Introduction of HIV self-testing was initiated. 72% of more than 21,000 PWID on MMT were receiving take home dose up to 14 days and 60% of ART patients were receiving 6 months ARV dispensing. CONCLUSION: Essential HIV services were maintained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Services/methods , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Plan Implementation , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Lancet ; 399(10325): 619, 2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676121
11.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662708

ABSTRACT

We aimed to analyze the situation of the first two epidemic waves in Myanmar using the publicly available daily situation of COVID-19 and whole-genome sequencing data of SARS-CoV-2. From March 23 to December 31, 2020, there were 33,917 confirmed cases and 741 deaths in Myanmar (case fatality rate of 2.18%). The first wave in Myanmar from March to July was linked to overseas travel, and then a second wave started from Rakhine State, a western border state, leading to the second wave spreading countrywide in Myanmar from August to December 2020. The estimated effective reproductive number (Rt) nationwide reached 6-8 at the beginning of each wave and gradually decreased as the epidemic spread to the community. The whole-genome analysis of 10 Myanmar SARS-CoV-2 strains together with 31 previously registered strains showed that the first wave was caused by GISAID clade O or PANGOLIN lineage B.6 and the second wave was changed to clade GH or lineage B.1.36.16 with a close genetic relationship with other South Asian strains. Constant monitoring of epidemiological situations combined with SARS-CoV-2 genome analysis is important for adjusting public health measures to mitigate the community transmissions of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Myanmar/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1365, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636519

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to estimate the cost of clinical management of COVID-19 infected patients based on their severity by exploring the resources used in health care provision in Myanmar. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective cost analysis of COVID-19 patients was performed using the micro-costing approach from the perspective of the health system. It covered two cost components, namely direct and indirect cost of treating a patient. Input data and their quantities were obtained from COVID-19 Standard Treatment Guidelines of Ministry of Health and Sports, and administrative and financial records of resource utilization of three designated health facilities in Yangon Region. Valuation of these resources was based on the price list from the Procurement Section of the Ministry. RESULTS: This study estimated the unit cost of clinical management of COVID-19 infected patients with no symptom to be 953,552 MMK(717 USD), with mild-moderate symptoms to be 1,155,222 MMK(869 USD) and with severe-critically ill conditions to be 5,705,052 MMK(4290 USD). Average cost for a patient par day was 86,687 MMK(65 USD) for asymptomatic patients, 105,020 MMK(79 USD) for mild-moderate patients and 283,252 MMK(214 USD) for severe-critically ill patients. Since the first case detected till December 31, 2020, COVID-19 clinical management cost was accounted for 139 Billion MMK (104 Million USD) for total 124,630 confirmed cases. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic has caused health systems to incur the significant health care expenses. Timely implementation of the sustainable, affordable and efficient policy for COVID-19 responses is of utmost important for every nation especially in the face of a pandemic. This study provides the fundamental inputs for strategic planning, for future economic evaluations of different policy interventions, and policy recommendations for health systems to remain resilient during and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Myanmar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Care Costs , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 153, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, policy-makers face challenges to using evidence in health decision-making, particularly lack of interaction between research and policy. Knowledge-brokering mechanisms can fill research-policy gaps and facilitate evidence-informed policy-making. In Myanmar, the need to promote evidence-informed policy is significant, and thus a mechanism was set up for this purpose. This paper discusses lessons learned from the development of the Knowledge Broker Group-Myanmar (KBG-M), supported by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Applied Mental Health Research Group (JHU) and Community Partners International (CPI). METHODS: Sixteen stakeholders were interviewed to explore challenges in formulating evidence-informed policy. Two workshops were held: the first to further understand the needs of policy-makers and discuss knowledge-brokering approaches, and the second to co-create the KBG-M structure and process. The KBG-M was then envisioned as an independent body, with former officials of the Ministry of Health and Sports (MoHS) and representatives from the nongovernmental sector actively engaging in the health sector, with an official collaboration with the MoHS. RESULTS: A development task force that served as an advisory committee was established. Then, steps were taken to establish the KBG-M and obtain official recognition from the MoHS. Finally, when the technical agreement with the MoHS was nearly complete, the process stopped because of the military coup on 1 February 2021, and is now on hold indefinitely. CONCLUSIONS: Learning from this process may be helpful for future or current knowledge-brokering efforts, particularly in fragile, conflict-affected settings. Experienced and committed advisory committee members enhanced stakeholder relationships. Responsive coordination mechanisms allowed for adjustments to a changing bureaucratic landscape. Coordination with similar initiatives avoided overlap and identified areas needing technical support. Recommendations to continue the work of the KBG-M itself or similar platforms include the following: increase resilience to contextual changes by ensuring diverse partnerships, maintain advisory committee members experienced and influential in the policy-making process, ensure strong organizational and funding support for effective functioning and sustainability, have budget and timeline flexibility to allow sufficient time and resources for establishment, organize ongoing needs assessments to identify areas needing technical support and to develop responsive corrective approaches, and conduct information sharing and collaboration between stakeholders to ensure alignment.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Policy Making , Administrative Personnel , Humans , Myanmar , Public Health
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(12)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has seriously disrupted health services in many countries including Bangladesh. This research aimed to explore whether Rohingya (forcefully displaced Myanmar nationals) older adults in Bangladesh faced difficulties accessing medicines and routine medical care services amid this pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 416 Rohingya older adults aged 60 years and above residing in Rohingya refugee camps situated in the Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh and was conducted in October 2020. A purposive sampling technique was followed, and participants' perceived difficulties in accessing medicines and routine medical care were noted through face-to-face interviews. Binary logistic regression models determined the association between outcome and explanatory variables. RESULTS: Overall, one-third of the participants reported difficulties in accessing medicines and routine medical care. Significant factors associated with facing difficulties accessing medicine included feelings of loneliness (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.54, 95% CI 1.93 to 6.48), perceptions that older adults were at the highest risk of COVID-19 (AOR 3.35, 95% CI 1.61 to 6.97) and required additional care during COVID-19 (AOR 6.89, 95% CI 3.62 to 13.13). Also, the notable factors associated with difficulties in receiving routine medical care included living more than 30 min walking distance from the health centre (AOR 3.57, 95% CI 1.95 to 6.56), feelings of loneliness (AOR 2.20, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.87), perception that older adults were at the highest risk of COVID-19 (AOR 2.85, 95% CI 1.36 to 5.99) and perception that they required additional care during the pandemic (AOR 4.55, 95% CI 2.48 to 8.35). CONCLUSION: Many Rohingya older adults faced difficulties in accessing medicines and routine medical care during this pandemic. This call for policy-makers and relevant stakeholders to re-assess emergency preparedness plans including strategies to provide continuing care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 92, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) is recognized as the most harmful air pollutant to the human health. The Yangon city indeed suffers much from PM-related air pollution. Recent research has interestingly been focused on the novel subject of changes in the air quality associated with the restrictive measures in place during the current coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The first case of COVID-19 in Myanmar was diagnosed on March 23, 2020. In this article, we report on our attempt to evaluate any effects of the COVID-19-restrictive measures on the ambient PM pollution in Yangon. METHODS: We measured the PM concentrations every second for 1 week on four occasions at three study sites with different characteristics; the first occasion was before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and the remaining three occasions were while the COVID-19-restrictive measures were in place, including Stay-At-Home and Work-From-Home orders. The Pocket PM2.5 Sensor [PRO] designed by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan, in cooperation with Yaguchi Electric Co., Ltd., (Miyagi, Japan) was used for the measurement of the ambient PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations. RESULTS: The results showed that there was a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in both the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations while the COVID-19-restrictive measures were in place as compared to the measured values prior to the pandemic. The city experienced a profound improvement in the PM-related air quality from the "unhealthy" category prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic to the "good" category during the pandemic, when the restrictive measures were in place. The percent changes in the PM concentrations varied among the three study sites, with the highest percent reduction noted in a semi-commercial crowded area (84.8% for PM2.5; 88.6% for PM10) and the lowest percent reduction noted in a residential quiet area (15.6% for PM2.5; 12.0% for PM10); the percent reductions also varied among the different occasions during the COVID-19 pandemic that the measurements were made. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the restrictive measures which were in effect to combat the COVID-19 pandemic had a positive impact on the ambient PM concentrations. The changes in the PM concentrations are considered to be largely attributable to reduction in anthropogenic emissions as a result of the restrictive measures, although seasonal influences could also have contributed in part. Thus, frequent, once- or twice-weekly Stay-At-Home or Telework campaigns, may be feasible measures to reduce PM-related air pollution. When devising such an action plan, it would be essential to raise the awareness of public about the health risks associated with air pollution and create a social environment in which Telework can be carried out, in order to ensure active compliance by the citizens.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480780

ABSTRACT

Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has a known negative effect on the community's health; therefore, assessment to monitor community health is essential to detect any issues and enable early treatment. Because ASGM-related health issues are complex and cannot be addressed effectively with a traditional one-time health assessment alone, both long-term and regular health assessments using a transdisciplinary approach should be considered. In response to this need, we designed an online health assessment tool as a reference for a future long-term health assessment system. An online video interview was conducted with 54 respondents living in the ASGM area of Chaung Gyi Village, Thabeikkyin Township, Mandalay Region, Myanmar, via a social networking service application. The tool was used to evaluate community health during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic, including mercury intoxication symptoms, mining-related diseases, and other diseases. Results show that persons working in mining versus non-mining occupations had a greater prevalence of pulmonary diseases, such as pulmonary tuberculosis, silicosis, and bronchial asthma, in addition to malaria. Based on these findings, online health assessment using a transdisciplinary approach can be recommended as an effective tool for sustainable and long-term health assessment of ASGM-related disease and should be performed regularly following physical health surveys.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gold , Humans , Mining , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e050700, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of the characteristics of health system resilience in Myanmar's response to Cyclone Nargis and to explore ways to improve resilience at the system level. DESIGN AND SETTING: This is an explanatory qualitative study exploring the institutional capacity of resilience in Myanmar's health system. Analysis proceeded using a data-driven thematic analysis closely following the framework method. This process enabled comparisons and contrasts of key emergent themes between the participants, which later generated key results describing the foundational assets, barriers and opportunities for achieving resilience in Myanmar. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised of 12 in-depth interviews conducted with representatives from international organisations and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The inclusion criteria to recruiting the participants were that they had directly been a part of the Cyclone Nargis response at the time. There was a balanced distribution of participants across UN, bilateral and NGOs, and most of them were either Myanmar citizens or expatriates with extensive working experience based in Myanmar. RESULTS: Key findings elucidate the characteristics of resilience that have been salient or absent in Myanmar's response to Cyclone Nargis. Strong social capital and motivation propelled by its deep-rooted culture and religion served as Myanmar's greatest assets that filled major gaps in the system. Meanwhile, its postcolonial and military legacy posed barriers towards investing in building its long-term foundations towards resilience. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that resilience in the health system can be built through strategic investments towards building the foundations of resilience to better prepare for future shocks. In the case of Myanmar, social capital and motivation, which surfaced as its foundational assets, can be channelled into opportunities that can help achieve its long-term health goals, accelerating its journey towards resilience in the health system.


Subject(s)
Cyclonic Storms , Government Programs , Humans , Myanmar , Qualitative Research
20.
Indian J Tuberc ; 68S: S93-S100, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373077

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoking is a significant risk factor for developing tuberculosis (TB), contributing to diagnostic delays, poor treatment outcomes and an increased risk of death and relapse. The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that TB rates could decline by as much as 20% if smoking were eliminated. Tobacco smoking was a risk factor in at least 860,000 TB cases in 2018, and has been documented as one of the leading contributors to TB in India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal and Philippines. METHODS: Joint External Monitoring Missions (JEMM) are arranged by WHO to review the progress, challenges and plans for national TB control programs and provide guidance for improvement of policies, planning and implementation. During May and June 2021, JEMM reports from five South-East Asian countries that had a JEMM in 2019 and early 2020 were reviewed. Reports reviewed from India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal and the Philippines. Any mention of the association of TB and smoking, TB and tobacco use, impact of tobacco use/smoking on TB outcomes, current practices and challenges of TB and tobacco in the TB control program and proposed actions were documented. RESULTS: Of the five country JEMM, Myanmar's did not recognise the impact of smoking tobacco on TB at all, and only one of the five countries, India, identified a very limited number of current TB-Tobacco practises including that a collaborative framework for TB/tobacco was in place. Nepal's 2019 JEMM acknowledged that there was no smoking cessation within the TB Control program and health providers were not aware about the brief advice and smoking cessation program. The Philippines and Myanmar reported neither current practices nor challenges in implementing tobacco intervention in TB control programs. CONCLUSION: Given the importance of tobacco smoking as a key risk factor for TB, assessing its burden on the national TB epidemic should be included as one of the key indicators in the JEMM framework. Key interventions include brief cessation support through regular TB services and the use of Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) and other medications as part of a comprehensive package of care for people with TB to improve the quality of the services they receive. Multisectoral efforts to stop smoking also contribute the non-communicable disease agenda as well as protecting against poor outcomes for COVID-19. The support of TB programs to integrate tobacco control is critical and will contribute to national TB control program targets that support WHO's End TB Strategy.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Smoking/adverse effects , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Indonesia/epidemiology , Myanmar/epidemiology , Nepal/epidemiology , Philippines/epidemiology , Risk Factors , World Health Organization
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