Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 90
Filter
1.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(4): 385-388, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030597

ABSTRACT

For a while, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been a major global pandemic. It primarily affects the respiratory system but has extrapulmonary manifestations such as gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms. Data on myasthenia gravis (MG), as a complication of COVID-19, are limited. We herein report the manifestation of ocular MG as an initial symptom of COVID-19. In November 2020, a 31-year-old healthy woman was referred to Firoozgar Hospital (Tehran, Iran) with left upper eyelid ptosis and diplopia as well as general weakness, myalgia, fever, and nasal congestion for four days prior to admission. Although the acetylcholine receptor antibody in her serum was negative, increased jitter in several muscles led to the diagnosis of ocular MG. Nasal swab reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest revealed bilateral ground-glass opacities and some foci of consolidation formation, but the thymus was normal. The patient was successfully treated with remdesivir and dexamethasone. The patient was eventually discharged in good condition and with improved neurological symptoms. A limited number of studies have suggested a possible association between MG and COVID-19. Therefore, further data are required to substantiate the proposed association. Clinicians should be aware of ocular MG during the COVID-19 pandemic to better diagnose and manage patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Iran , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(4)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) after immunosuppressive therapies is scarce. Our aim is to determine whether the mRNA-1273 vaccine is safe and able to induce humoral and cellular responses in patients with MG. METHODS: We performed an observational, longitudinal, prospective study including 100 patients with MG of a referral center for MG in our country, conducted from April 2021 to November 2021 during the vaccination campaign. The mRNA-1273 vaccine was scheduled for all participants. Blood samples were collected before vaccination and 3 months after a second dose. Clinical changes in MG were measured using the MG activities of daily life score at baseline and 1 week after the first and second doses. A surveillance of all symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was conducted throughout the study. Humoral and cellular immune responses after vaccination were assessed using a spike-antibody ELISA and interferon gamma release assay in plasma. The primary outcomes were clinically significant changes in MG symptoms after vaccination, adverse events (AEs), and seroconversion and T-cell immune response rates. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients completed the full vaccination schedule, and 98 had 2 blood samples taken. A statistically significant worsening of symptoms was identified after the first and second doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, but this was not clinically relevant. Mild AEs occurred in 14 patients after the first dose and in 21 patients after the second dose. Eighty-seven patients developed a humoral response and 72 patients showed a T-cell response after vaccination. A combined therapy with prednisone and other immunosuppressive drugs correlated with a lower seroconversion ratio (OR = 5.97, 95% CI 1.46-24.09, p = 0.015) and a lower T-cell response ratio (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.13-7.13, p = 0.024). DISCUSSION: Our findings indicate that the mRNA vaccination against COVID-19 is safe in patients with MG and show no negative impact on the disease course. Patients achieved high humoral and cellular immune response levels. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that patients with MG receiving the mRNA-1273 vaccine did not show clinical worsening after vaccination and that most of the patients achieved high cellular or immune response levels.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Longitudinal Studies , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
3.
J Neurol ; 269(8): 3965-3981, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941614

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease, for which the risk of exacerbation after vaccines is debated. The aim of this study is to review the available literature concerning safety and efficacy of vaccines in MG. In addition, we also conducted a retrospective research of MG exacerbations and new onset MG after anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: A study of the available literature regarding vaccines and MG was carried out through research in the online database "Pubmed". We also retrospectively collected data from 80 MG patients, who were followed at the Treviso Hospital and completed an anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination cycle. For each patient, we recorded MG exacerbations between first and second doses and within a window period of 1 day - 6 weeks after the second dose. RESULTS: We found 26 relevant articles about influenza, SARS-CoV-2 and other vaccines. No clear associations between most vaccines and MG exacerbations were found. Moreover, cases of new onset post-vaccine MG are mostly anecdotal, except for Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine. Concerning our cohort, 4/80 (5%) MG patients experienced an exacerbation within the post-vaccine window period. In addition, we report a case of new onset post-vaccine MG. DISCUSSION: Inactivated and subunit vaccines are safe and effective in MG. Although some of them, such as anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, might uncommonly cause MG exacerbations, data from our review suggest that benefits still outweigh by far the potential risks, thus they should be recommended to these patients. Nevertheless, large prospective studies are needed for further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 23(4): 189-200, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860946

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This update covers a number of treatment topics starting with Fc receptor inhibitors and the Federal Drug Administration approval of efgartigimod. Some uncertainties regarding the use of corticosteroids are addressed, namely the risk of exacerbation with initiation of treatment and how to taper. The presence and potential importance of antibody overshoot following plasmapheresis is noted and the evolving increase in usefulness of acetylcholine receptor antibodies in diagnosing ocular myasthenia. Several recent series and case reports regarding coronavirus 2019 and myasthenia gravis are reviewed. The topics of myasthenia gravis and pregnancy, and another look at thymectomy in MG are provided. Finally, a couple of case reports on Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome concentrate on the ice pack test and an autoantibody association with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome in the same patient.


Subject(s)
Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome , Myasthenia Gravis , Autoantibodies , Humans , Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome/diagnosis , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/diagnosis , Myasthenia Gravis/therapy , Neuromuscular Junction , Receptors, Cholinergic
5.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(8): 2505-2510, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, myasthenia gravis (MG) patients have been identified as subjects at high risk of developing severe COVID-19, and thus were offered vaccination with priority. The lack of direct data on the safety and tolerability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in MG have contributed to vaccine hesitancy. To address this issue, the safety and tolerability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were assessed in a large cohort of MG patients from two referral centers. METHODS: Patients with confirmed MG diagnosis, consecutively seen between October and December 2021 at two MG centers, were enrolled. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and information regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection/vaccination were extracted from medical reports and/or collected throughout telephonic or in-person interviews. RESULTS: Ninety-eight (94.2%) of 104 patients included were administered at least two vaccine doses 4 weeks before the interview or earlier, and among them, 63 of 98 (64.2%) have already received the "booster" dose. The most frequently used vaccines were BNT162b2-Pfizer-BioNTech and mRNA-1273-Moderna. Overall, only minor side effects were reported, most commonly local pain and fever. MG worsening after vaccination was observed in eight of 104 (7.7%) cases. The frequency of worsening among muscle-specific tyrosine kinase MG cases (3/9, 33.3%) was significantly higher compared to other serological subgroups. Spontaneous symptom regression was observed in six of eight cases. Twelve of 104 (11.5%) patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection, and none of the SARS-CoV-2-infected MG patients worsened after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the safety and tolerability of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, which should be strongly recommended in MG patients, who could be at higher risk of complications if exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Neurol Sci ; 43(7): 4081-4083, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777738

ABSTRACT

Eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is a complement inhibitor indicated for refractory generalized myasthenia gravis (MG). However, there are limited data on the safety of eculizumab for MG during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. We report a case in which eculizumab was continued for MG after contracting COVID-19, followed by a favorable outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(10): e50, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771025

ABSTRACT

As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide, the rate of COVID-19 vaccination uptake is encouraging. Neurological complications associated with COVID-19 vaccines such as stroke, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and Bell's palsy have been reported. Recently, late-onset myasthenia gravis (MG) following COVID-19 vaccination has been reported. To date, however, there has been no evidence of increased risk of early-onset MG following COVID-19. Here, we report a case of a patient with new-onset MG that arose after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. A 33-year-old woman suddenly experienced generalized weakness and diplopia on the evening she had received the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The temporal relationship suggests that this new-onset MG is related to the vaccination. It also implies that COVID-19 vaccination could trigger early-onset MG symptoms in patients at risk of MG.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Myasthenia Gravis/etiology , Adult , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Myasthenia Gravis/diagnosis , Myasthenia Gravis/physiopathology , Neostigmine/pharmacology , Republic of Korea , Time Factors
11.
Acta Clin Croat ; 60(3): 496-509, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727116

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the late 2019 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causes a respiratory disease which could put myasthenia gravis (MG) patients at a greater risk of developing severe disease course, since infections and some drugs are a well-recognized trigger of symptom exacerbation in MG patients. Out of ten most commonly used past and present drugs used in COVID-19 treatment, two (quinolone derivatives and azithromycin) are known to worsen MG symptoms, whereas another two (tocilizumab and eculizumab) might have positive effect on MG symptoms. Colchicine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir and favipiravir seem to be safe to use, while data are insufficient for bamlanivimab, although it is also probably safe to use. Considering MG treatment options in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, acetylcholine esterase inhibitors are generally safe to use with some preliminary studies even demonstrating therapeutic properties in regard to COVID-19. Corticosteroids are in general safe to use, even recommended in specific circumstances, whereas other immunosuppressive medications (mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, cyclosporine, methotrexate) are probably safe to use. The only exception is rituximab since the resulting B cell depletion can lead to more severe COVID-19 disease. Concerning plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulins, both can be used in COVID-19 while taking into consideration thromboembolic properties of the former and hemodynamic disturbances of the latter. As current data suggest, all known COVID-19 vaccines are safe to use in MG patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Neurol Sci ; 43(7): 4503-4509, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712252

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to validate the Myasthenia Gravis TeleScore (MGTS), a scale for the evaluation of MG patients in telemedicine. INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic has boosted telemedicine in clinical practice. It could be crucial in the care of neurological patients with chronic disease. However, there is a lack of validated disease-specific tools to evaluate MG patients in telemedicine. METHODS: The MGTS included ten items divided in four districts: ocular, generalized muscular strength, bulbar, and respiratory. Patients were assessed with two different scales: the MGTS and the INCB-MG chosen as a reference from which MGTS was partially derived. Visit in presence with INCB-MG and televisit with MGTS were performed consecutively. Televisit was conducted by another neurologist between two rooms. A blind method was adopted. The strength of correlation was determined by the correlation coefficient (r); analysis of covariance (ANOVA-Kruskal-Wallis test) was used to compare subgroups. Significance was set to p < 0.05. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-one patients were included in the study, 71 females and 60 males. The Spearman correlation coefficient between the INCB-MG scale and the MGTS was 0.825 (p < 0.001), indicating a very strong correlation between them. Different items showed different correlations from low to high (0.32 to 0.80). As expected, correlation was lower between items with different evaluation modality (anamnestic vs clinical). DISCUSSION: The MGTS demonstrated a good correlation with INCB-MG, reliability and construct validity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , Female , Humans , Male , Myasthenia Gravis/diagnosis , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results
13.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 32(3): 230-235, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665320

ABSTRACT

Although the COVID-19 vaccines are currently recommended for people with myasthenia gravis (MG), there is no data regarding the safety of the vaccines in this population. In order to investigate the real-life safety data of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine in people with MG, an anonymous survey was distributed to 142 MG patients. Fifty-six MG patients completed the questionnaire. The median age was 53 years (range 23-83 years); 35 (62.5%) were males, and 25 (44.6%) had associated comorbidities. Thirty-seven participants (66.1%) were treated with immunotherapies. Fifty-five participants (98.2% of the responders) received the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. Of these, 32 (58.2%) were < 55 years old, and 23 (41.8%) were > 55 years old. Adverse events were more common in patients younger than 55 years old (46.9% Vs. 17.4%; p = 0.0428). Eight participants (14.5%) reported worsening neurological symptoms following the vaccination. Three of those who reported worsening of neurological symptoms (37.5%) required additional treatment. Most events occurred within the first few days after vaccination and resolved within a few weeks. This survey indicates an overall favorable safety and tolerability profile of the BNT162b2 vaccine in people with MG. Additional prospective, large-scale studies are warranted to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 213: 107140, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654200

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that the clinical course and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and myasthenia gravis (MG) are highly variable. We performed a systematic review of the relevant literature with a key aim to assess the outcomes of invasive ventilation, mortality, and hospital length of stay (HLoS) for patients presenting with MG and COVID-19. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and MedRxiv databases for original articles that reported patients with MG and COVID-19. We included all clinical studies that reported MG in patients with confirmed COVID-19 cases via RT-PCR tests. We collected data on patient background characteristics, symptoms, time between MG and COVID-19 diagnosis, MG and COVID-19 treatments, HLoS, and mortality at last available follow-up. We reported summary statistics as counts and percentages or mean±SD. When necessary, inverse variance weighting was used to aggregate patient-level data and summary statistics. RESULTS: Nineteen studies with 152 patients (mean age 54.4 ± 12.7 years; 79/152 [52.0%] female) were included. Hypertension (62/141, 44.0%) and diabetes (30/141, 21.3%) were the most common comorbidities. The mean time between the diagnosis of MG and COVID-19 was7.0 ± 6.3 years. Diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed in all patients via RT-PCR tests. Fever (40/59, 67.8%) and ptosis (9/55, 16.4%) were the most frequent COVID-19 and MG symptoms, respectively. Azithromycin and ceftriaxone were the most common COVID-19 treatments, while prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin were the most common MG treatments. Invasive ventilation treatment was required for 25/59 (42.4%) of patients. The mean HLoS was 18.2 ± 9.9 days. The mortality rate was 18/152 (11.8%). CONCLUSION: This report provides an overview of the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of MG in COVID-19 patients. Although COVID-19 may exaggerate the neurological symptoms and worsens the outcome in MG patients, we did not find enough evidence to support this notion. Further studies with larger numbers of patients with MG and COVID-19 are needed to better assess the clinical outcomes in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myasthenia Gravis/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Rate , Young Adult
15.
Neurol Sci ; 43(4): 2271-2276, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction that can be exacerbated by many viral infections, including COVID-19. The management of MG exacerbations is challenging in this scenario. We report 8 cases of MG exacerbation or myasthenic crisis associated with COVID-19 and discuss prognosis and treatment based on a literature review. RESULTS: Most patients were female (7/8), with an average age of 47.1 years. Treatment was immunoglobulin (IVIG) in 3 patients, plasma exchange (PLEX) in 2 patients, and adjustment of baseline drugs in 3. In-hospital mortality was 25% and 37.5% in 2-month follow-up. DISCUSSION: This is the largest case series of MG exacerbation or myasthenic crisis due to COVID-19 to this date. Mortality was considerably higher than in myasthenic crisis of other etiologies. Previous treatment for MG or acute exacerbation treatment did not seem to interfere with prognosis, although sample size was too small to draw definitive conclusions. Further studies are needed to understand the safety and effectiveness of interventions in this setting, particularly of PLEX, IVIG, rituximab, and tocilizumab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/therapy , Plasma Exchange , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Muscle Nerve ; 65(4): 447-452, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626917

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) may have a more severe course in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). We aimed to assess severity of the infection and factors contributing to its severity in a group of MG patients, most of whom were not hospitalized. METHODS: One hundred forty outpatients with MG followed between March 2020 and April 2021 were included in our study. Patients were asked to respond to a brief questionnaire in person, by telemedicine, or through electronic messages. RESULTS: Nineteen patients tested positive for COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction. Two were asymptomatic. Of the 17 symptomatic patients, 11 had mild symptoms. They either had no treatment or received antivirals, antibiotics, and anticoagulants. Their myasthenia was well-controlled before infection and was unaffected by COVID-19. Three patients with moderate COVID-19 required hospitalization, but not intensive care, and had full recovery. Three other patients, the oldest in the cohort, had severe disease: One patient with a postsurgery myasthenic exacerbation before the infection needed intensive care without intubation, but recovered completely; two morbidly obese patients with comorbidities required intubation and died. Corticosteroids were increased in four of the six moderate/severely affected patients. Immunosuppressive (IS) agents were generally continued. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for COVID-19 was used in one patient. DISCUSSION: Most patients had mild COVID-19 and all but two patients recovered. The design of the study made it possible to capture mild cases. Having well-controlled MG before infection and absence of comorbidities likely affected the course of the infection favorably. IS did not influence the progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , Obesity, Morbid , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Humans , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/epidemiology , Myasthenia Gravis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
Lancet Neurol ; 21(2): 189-202, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625864

ABSTRACT

Myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome are antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases of the neuromuscular junction that usually present with weakness in ocular muscles and in proximal muscles of the limb and trunk. Prognosis regarding muscle strength, functional abilities, quality of life, and survival is generally good. However, some patients do not respond to treatment. Symptomatic drugs, corticosteroids, and steroid-sparing immunosuppressive drugs remain the cornerstone of treatment. In the past few years, new biological agents against complement, the FcRn receptor, or B-cell antigens have been tested in clinical trials. These new therapies extend the possibilities for targeted immunotherapies and promise exciting new options with a relatively rapid mode of action. Challenges in their use might occur, with barriers due to an increase in cost of care and additional considerations in the choice of drugs, and potential consequences of infection and vaccination due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Neuromuscular Junction Diseases , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Humans , Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome/immunology , Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome/therapy , Myasthenia Gravis/immunology , Myasthenia Gravis/therapy , Neuromuscular Junction Diseases/immunology , Neuromuscular Junction Diseases/therapy
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(2)2022 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613828

ABSTRACT

The appearance of the SARS-CoV-2 virus initiated many studies on the effects of the virus on the human body. So far, its negative influence on the functioning of many morphological and physiological units, including the nervous system, has been demonstrated. Consequently, research has been conducted on the changes that SARS-CoV-2 may cause in the cholinergic system. The aim of this study is to review the latest research from the years 2020/2021 regarding disorders in the cholinergic system caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. As a result of the research, it was found that the presence of the COVID-19 virus disrupts the activity of the cholinergic system, for example, causing the development of myasthenia gravis or a change in acetylcholine activity. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has a sequence similar to neurotoxins, capable of binding nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). This may be proof that SARS-CoV-2 can bind nAChR. Nicotine and caffeine have similar structures to antiviral drugs, capable of binding angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) epitopes that are recognized by SARS-CoV-2, with the potential to inhibit the formation of the ACE 2/SARS-CoV-2 complex. The blocking is enhanced when nicotine and caffeine are used together with antiviral drugs. This is proof that nAChR agonists can be used along with antiviral drugs in COVID-19 therapy. As a result, it is possible to develop COVID-19 therapies that use these compounds to reduce cytokine production. Another promising therapy is non-invasive stimulation of the vagus nerve, which soothes the body's cytokine storm. Research on the influence of COVID-19 on the cholinergic system is an area that should continue to be developed as there is a need for further research. It can be firmly stated that COVID-19 causes a dysregulation of the cholinergic system, which leads to a need for further research, because there are many promising therapies that will prevent the SARS-CoV-2 virus from binding to the nicotinic receptor. There is a need for further research, both in vitro and in vivo. It should be noted that in the functioning of the cholinergic system and its connection with the activity of the COVID-19 virus, there might be many promising dependencies and solutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cholinergic Neurons/virology , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Animals , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Myasthenia Gravis/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Vagus Nerve/drug effects , Vagus Nerve/virology
19.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3418-3425, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) patients could be a vulnerable group in the pandemic era of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) mainly due to respiratory muscle weakness, older age and long-term immunosuppressive treatment. We aimed to define factors predicting the severity of COVID-19 in MG patients and risk of MG exacerbation during COVID-19. METHODS: We evaluated clinical features and outcomes after COVID-19 in 93 MG patients. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients (38%) had severe pneumonia and we recorded 10 deaths (11%) due to COVID-19. Higher forced vital capacity (FVC) values tested before COVID-19 were shown to be protective against severe infection (95% CI 0.934-0.98) as well as good control of MG measured by the quantified myasthenia gravis score (95% CI 1.047-1.232). Long-term chronic corticosteroid treatment worsened the course of COVID-19 in MG patients (95% CI 1.784-111.43) and this impact was positively associated with dosage (p = 0.005). Treatment using azathioprine (95% CI 0.448-2.935), mycophenolate mofetil (95% CI 0.91-12.515) and ciclosporin (95% CI 0.029-2.212) did not influence the course of COVID-19. MG patients treated with rituximab had a high risk of death caused by COVID-19 (95% CI 3.216-383.971). Exacerbation of MG during infection was relatively rare (15%) and was not caused by remdesivir, convalescent plasma or favipiravir (95% CI 0.885-10.87). CONCLUSIONS: As the most important predictors of severe COVID-19 in MG patients we identified unsatisfied condition of MG with lower FVC, previous long-term corticosteroid treatment especially in higher doses, older age, the presence of cancer, and recent rituximab treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Myasthenia Gravis , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy , Myasthenia Gravis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Neurol India ; 69(6): 1772-1776, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606774

ABSTRACT

This report describes a patient with thymomatous myasthenia gravis (MG) with aplastic anemia in pharmacological remission and COVID-19 who developed respiratory failure in the course of the disease and reviews the published literature on this topic. Analysis of the clinical characteristics of the eight patients with MG including our patient suggests two possible mechanisms for respiratory failure: myasthenic crisis (MC) or pulmonary complications of COVID-19. Patients with MC were young women in high-grade MGFA Class whereas patients with respiratory failure due to pulmonary complications of COVID-19 were elderly men in pharmacological remission or MGFA Class I. These observations suggest that COVID-19, like other infections, may precipitate MC in patients with severe grade MG before COVID-19. The only differentiating feature between the two types of failure was severity myasthenic weakness. This clinical distinction has management implications. These observations need to be validated in a larger sample.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Muscle Weakness , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL