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Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 10(1)2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140267


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acute inflammatory CNS diseases include neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD). Both MOGAD and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have been reported after vaccination. Consequently, the mass SARS-CoV-2 vaccination program could result in increased rates of these conditions. We described the features of patients presenting with new acute CNS demyelination resembling NMOSDs or MOGAD within 8 weeks of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: The study included a prospective case series of patients referred to highly specialized NMOSD services in the UK from the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination program up to May 2022. Twenty-five patients presented with new optic neuritis (ON) and/or transverse myelitis (TM) ± other CNS inflammation within 8 weeks of vaccination with either AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1S) or Pfizer (BNT162b2) vaccines. Their clinical records and paraclinical investigations including MRI scans were reviewed. Serologic testing for antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) was performed using live cell-based assays. Patients' outcomes were graded good, moderate, or poor based on the last clinical assessment. RESULTS: Of 25 patients identified (median age 38 years, 14 female), 12 (48%) had MOG antibodies (MOGIgG+), 2 (8%) had aquaporin 4 antibodies (AQP4IgG+), and 11 (44%) had neither. Twelve of 14 (86%) antibody-positive patients received the ChAdOx1S vaccine. MOGIgG+ patients presented most commonly with TM (10/12, 83%), frequently in combination with ADEM-like brain/brainstem lesions (6/12, 50%). Transverse myelitis was longitudinally extensive in 7 of the 10 patients. A peak in new MOGAD cases in Spring 2021 was attributable to postvaccine cases. Both AQP4IgG+ patients presented with brain lesions and TM. Four of 6 (67%) seronegative ChAdOx1S recipients experienced longitudinally extensive TM (LETM) compared with 1 of 5 (20%) of the BNT162b2 group, and facial nerve inflammation was reported only in ChAdOx1S recipients (2/5, 40%). Guillain-Barre syndrome was confirmed in 1 seronegative ChAdOx1S recipient and suspected in another. DISCUSSION: ChAdOx1S was associated with 12/14 antibody-positive cases, the majority MOGAD. MOGAD patients presented atypically, only 2 with isolated ON (1 after BNT162b2 vaccine) but with frequent ADEM-like brain lesions and LETM. Within the seronegative group, phenotypic differences were observed between ChAdOx1S and BNT162b2 recipients. These observations might support a causative role of the ChAdOx1S vaccine in inflammatory CNS disease and particularly MOGAD. Further study of this cohort could provide insights into vaccine-associated immunopathology.

COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Myelitis, Transverse , Neuromyelitis Optica , Optic Neuritis , Female , Humans , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein , Aquaporin 4 , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Central Nervous System , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Inflammation
J Spinal Cord Med ; 45(5): 765-768, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050940


CONTEXT: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), acute cerebellitis and transverse myelitis are rare complications of COVID-19 infection separately. The combination of these three, however, has not yet been reported. FINDINGS: We present an atypical case (42-year-old man) that developed acute ascending flaccid paraparesis, ataxia and urinary retention two weeks after COVID-19 infection. Neurological examination revealed distal and proximal weakness (4/5) on lower extremities, decreased tendon reflexes, sixth cranial nerve palsy and dysmetria without sensory disturbance. His cranial MRI showed cerebellitis whereas the spinal MRI showed transverse myelitis at the T11/12 level. Albuminocytologic dissociation was present in the cerebrospinal fluid. The nerve conduction study was concordant with early findings of GBS. He recovered well after corticosteroid treatment without needing any immunotherapy. On day seven of hospitalization, the modified Rankin Scale score was 0. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection may present with a combination of neurological manifestations such as cerebellitis, transverse myelitis and GBS. This patient presented significant functional recovery after treatment with corticosteroid without immunotherapy.

COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Myelitis, Transverse , Spinal Cord Injuries , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology
Ann Neurol ; 92(6): 1080-1089, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013340


BACKGROUND: Transverse myelitis (TM) has recently been associated by health authorities with Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson), one of the 5 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or European Medicines Agency (EMA) labeled severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines. It is unknown whether a similar association exists for the other FDA or EMA labeled SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (BNT162b2 [Pfizer/BioNTech], mRNA-1273 [Moderna], ChAdOx1nCov-19 [Oxford-AstraZeneca], and NVX-CoV2373 [Novavax]). This study aimed to evaluate the association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccine class and TM. METHODS: This observational, cross-sectional, pharmacovigilance cohort study examined individual case safety reports from VigiBase, the World Health Organization's pharmacovigilance database. We first conducted a disproportionality analysis with the information component (IC) using the reports of TM that occurred within 28 days following exposure to the FDA or EMA labeled SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, from December 1, 2020 (first adverse event related to a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine) to March 27, 2022. Second, we analyzed the clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-associated TM cases reported in VigiBase. RESULTS: TM was significantly associated both with the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)-based (n = 364; IC025  = 0.62) and vector-based (n = 136; IC025  = 0.52) SARS-CoV-2 vaccines that are authorized by the FDA or the EMA. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this observational, cross-sectional pharmacovigilance study showed that mRNA-based and vector-based FDA/EMA labeled SARS-CoV-2 vaccines can be associated with TM. However, because TM remains a rare event, with a previously reported rate of 0.28 cases per 1 million vaccine doses, the risk-benefit ratio in favor of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 virus remains unchallenged. Rather, this study suggests that clinicians should consider the diagnosis of TM in patients presenting with early signs of spinal cord dysfunction after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. ANN NEUROL 2022;92:1080-1089.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myelitis, Transverse , Humans , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Myelitis, Transverse/epidemiology , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines , World Health Organization
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 185, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951107


BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and development of new vaccines, the issue of post-vaccination exacerbation or manifestation of demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) disorders has gained increasing attention. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 68-year-old woman previously diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) since the 1980s who suffered a rapidly progressive severe sensorimotor paraparesis with loss of bladder and bowel control due to an acute longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) after immunization with the mRNA Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Detection of Aquaporin-4-antibodies (AQP4) in both serum and CSF led to diagnosis of AQP4-antibody positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Treatment with intravenous corticosteroids and plasmapheresis led to a slight improvement of the patient's symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Pathogenic mechanisms of post-vaccination occurrence of NMOSD are still unknown. However, cases like this should make aware of rare neurological disorders manifesting after vaccination and potentially contribute to improvement of management of vaccinating patients with inflammatory CNS disorders in the future. So far two cases of AQP4-antibody positive NMOSD have been reported in association with viral vector COVID-19 vaccines. To our knowledge, we report the first case of AQP4-antibody positive NMOSD after immunization with an mRNA COVID-19-vaccine.

BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Myelitis, Transverse , Neuromyelitis Optica , Aged , Aquaporin 4/blood , Aquaporin 4/cerebrospinal fluid , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/cerebrospinal fluid , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/blood , Multiple Sclerosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Myelitis, Transverse/chemically induced , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Neuromyelitis Optica/blood , Neuromyelitis Optica/cerebrospinal fluid , Neuromyelitis Optica/diagnosis , Neuromyelitis Optica/etiology , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685520


Neurological manifestations are common in SARS-CoV-2 infection, including life-threatening acute muscle weakness, due to neuromuscular disorders such as acute transverse myelitis (TM) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). These syndromes can rarely coexist and present as an overlap syndrome. Here, we report a patient who developed acute symmetrical proximal lower limb weakness 5 days after diagnosis of COVID-19. GBS was diagnosed due to the presence of motor signs, albumin-cytological dissociation in cerebrospinal fluid examination and axonal damage according to nerve condition tests. However, abnormal areas on MRI of the thoracic spine and lack of improvement with intravenous immunoglobulin supported a diagnosis of TM. Therefore, a possible overlap between GBS and TM was established. To our knowledge, this is the third case report of GBS/TM overlap syndrome after COVID-19. The patient's full and rapid recovery with intravenous corticosteroids and plasmapheresis supports our diagnosis.

Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Myelitis, Transverse , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis , Myelitis, Transverse/drug therapy , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 9-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697107


BACKGROUND: Albeit primarily a disease of respiratory tract, the 2019 coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) has been found to have causal association with a plethora of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological effects. This review aims to analyze them with a discussion of evolving therapeutic recommendations. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020 with the following key terms: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "pandemic", "neuro-COVID", "stroke-COVID", "epilepsy-COVID", "COVID-encephalopathy", "SARS-CoV-2-encephalitis", "SARS-CoV-2-rhabdomyolysis", "COVID-demyelinating disease", "neurological manifestations", "psychosocial manifestations", "treatment recommendations", "COVID-19 and therapeutic changes", "psychiatry", "marginalised", "telemedicine", "mental health", "quarantine", "infodemic" and "social media". A few newspaper reports related to COVID-19 and psychosocial impacts have also been added as per context. RESULTS: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are abundant. Clinical features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement are evident. These have been categorically analyzed briefly with literature support. Most of the psychological effects are secondary to pandemic-associated regulatory, socioeconomic and psychosocial changes. CONCLUSION: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of this disease are only beginning to unravel. This demands a wide index of suspicion for prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to prevent further complications and mortality.

Les impacts neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques d'une infection à la COVID-19. CONTEXTE: Bien qu'il s'agisse principalement d'une maladie des voies respiratoires, la maladie infectieuse à coronavirus apparue en 2019 (COVID-19) s'est avérée avoir un lien de causalité avec une pléthore d'impacts d'ordre neurologique, neuropsychiatrique et psychologique. Cette étude entend donc analyser ces impacts tout en discutant l'évolution des recommandations thérapeutiques se rapportant à cette maladie. MÉTHODES: Les bases de données PubMed et Google Scholar ont été interrogées entre les 1er janvier et 30 mai 2020. Les termes clés suivants ont été utilisés : « COVID-19 ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ¼, « Pandémie ¼, « Neuro ­ COVID ¼, « AVC ­ COVID ¼, « Épilepsie ­ COVID ¼, « COVID ­ encéphalopathie ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ encéphalite ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ rhabdomyolyse ¼, « COVID ­ maladie démyélinisante ¼, « Manifestations neurologiques ¼, « Manifestations psychosociales ¼, « Recommandations thérapeutiques ¼, « COVID-19 et changement thérapeutiques ¼, « Psychiatrie ¼, « Marginalisés ¼, « Télémédecine ¼, « Santé mentale ¼, « Quarantaine ¼, « Infodémique ¼ et « Médias sociaux ¼. De plus, quelques articles de journaux relatifs à la pandémie de COVID-19 et à ses impacts psychosociaux ont également été ajoutés en fonction du contexte. RÉSULTATS: Il appert que les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques des infections à la COVID-19 sont nombreuses. Les caractéristiques cliniques d'une implication des systèmes nerveux central et périphérique sautent désormais aux yeux. Ces caractéristiques ont fait l'objet d'une brève analyse systématique à l'aide de publications scientifiques. En outre, la plupart des impacts d'ordre psychologique de cette pandémie se sont révélés moins apparents que les changements réglementaires, socioéconomiques et psychosociaux. CONCLUSION: Les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques de cette maladie ne font que commencer à être élucidées. Cela exige donc une capacité accrue de vigilance en vue d'un diagnostic rapide, et ce, afin de prévenir des complications additionnelles et une mortalité accrue.

COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Brain Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebellar Ataxia/etiology , Cerebellar Ataxia/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Demyelinating Diseases/therapy , Disease Management , Dizziness/etiology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Epilepsy/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Meningoencephalitis/etiology , Meningoencephalitis/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/physiopathology , Myoclonus/etiology , Myoclonus/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Viral Tropism