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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2068338, 2022 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819752

ABSTRACT

Individuals who experience severe COVID-19-vaccine-related adverse reactions such as transverse myelitis may be precluded from receiving further vaccination to protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although the mechanism of autoimmune spinal cord inflammation resulting in transverse myelitis is unclear, it may be safe to administer antibody therapy for preventing COVID-19. Recently, Evusheld, tixagevimab with cilgavimab, two spike-protein directed monoclonal antibodies were authorized by the U.S. FDA and U.K. MHRA for administration to individuals when vaccination is not recommended. We report the safe administration of Evusheld to a patient who experienced transverse myelitis 11 months previously as a result of receiving the Moderna mRNA vaccine. This patient has experienced no adverse events to Evusheld. Additional experience and data collection are warranted to determine the safety of this prophylactic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myelitis, Transverse , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
2.
Turk J Pediatr ; 64(1): 133-137, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) includes a wide range of diseases with varying pathophysiology in children and adults. Although the disease mainly affects the respiratory tract, neurological involvement is also reported in the literature. The most common neurological complaints due to COVID-19 are headache, dizziness and anosmia. Acute necrotizing myelitis, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM), acute axonal neuropathy, acute transverse myelitis, and Guillian-Barre syndrome have been reported as neurological dysfunctions associated with COVID-19. CASE: A ten-year-old male patient presented with complaints of fever, headache and generalized muscle pain. The patient developed inability to walk and significant muscle weakness during the disease course, and he was diagnosed with ADEM and transverse myelitis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As the etiological agent, COVID-19 was detected in both the respiratory panel sample and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Pulse steroid, IVIG, and plasmapheresis treatment were administered. He started to stand with support during follow-up. CONCLUSION: We presented a case of COVID-19 related ADEM and transverse myelitis who responded to pulse steroid, IVIG, and plasmapheresis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis , Myelitis, Transverse , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Encephalomyelitis/complications , Encephalomyelitis/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis/therapy , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/therapy
3.
Am J Emerg Med ; 56: 391.e1-391.e3, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702213

ABSTRACT

As of January 2022, there have been over 350 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the world. The most common symptoms in those infected are fever, cough, malaise, and myalgia, however pulmonary, hematologic, gastrointestinal, renal, and neurologic complications have also been reported. Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an uncommon neurological syndrome characterized by acute or subacute spinal cord dysfunction that can lead to paresthesias, sensory and autonomic impairment, and even paralysis. Etiologies are often unclear; however, potential causes include infection, neoplastic, drug or toxin induced, autoimmune, and acquired. Treatment for ATM primarily consists of steroids and plasmapheresis, which often reverses any neurologic symptoms. ATM has rarely been reported as a complication of COVID-19 infections. A 43-year-old female presented to the emergency department for evaluation of progressive numbness and tingling in her legs ten days after developing upper respiratory symptoms from a COVID-19 infection. Physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a diagnosis of ATM. During her hospital course, she experienced rapid progression of her paresthesias and developed complete loss of motor function in her upper and lower extremities. Within 48 hours after emergency department arrival, she required intubation due to worsening diaphragmatic and chest wall paralysis. Her treatment included a long-term steroid regimen and plasmapheresis, and unfortunately, she did not have any neurologic recovery. We present a very rare case of ATM progressing to complete quadriplegia following COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myelitis, Transverse , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/therapy , Paresthesia/complications , Quadriplegia/etiology
4.
J Neurovirol ; 27(2): 354-358, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111383

ABSTRACT

A 63-year-old Caucasian male, known case of controlled type 2 diabetes, chronic renal failure, and ischemic heart disease, was presented with weakness and loss of movement in lower limbs, an absent sensation from the chest below, constipation, and urinary retention. About 4 days before these symptoms, he experienced a flu-like syndrome. Suspicious for COVID-19, his nasopharyngeal specimen's reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) resulted positive. Chest X-ray and HRCT demonstrated severe pulmonary involvement. Immediately, he was admitted to the emergency ward, and the treatment was started according to the national COVID-19 treatment protocol. Subsequently, diagnostic measures were taken to investigate the patient's non-heterogeneous peripheral (spinal) neuromuscular manifestations. Brain CT scan and MRI were normal, but spinal MRI with gadolinium contrast showed extensive increased T2 signal involving central gray matter and dorsal columns, extended from C7 to T12 with linear enhancement in the sagittal plane, posteriorly within the mid and lower thoracic cord. The CSF specimen demonstrated pleocytosis, positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, and elevated IgG index. Clinical presentation, MRI, CSF, and laboratory findings prioritized the acute transverse myelitis (ATM) as a probable complication of COVID-19 infection over other differential diagnoses. Intravenous methylprednisolone and, subsequently, IV human immunoglobulin were added to the treatment regimen. In the end, the complete resolution of dysesthesia, urinary retention, and constipation were achieved. After continuous and extended respiratory and motor rehabilitation programs, he was discharged asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myelitis, Transverse/virology , Paraplegia/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myelitis, Transverse/therapy , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Neuroimmunol ; 353: 577521, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serious neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 are increasingly being recognized. CASE: We report a novel case of HHV6 myelitis with parainfectious MOG-IgG in the setting of COVID-19-induced lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia. The patient experienced complete neurological recovery with gancyclovir, high dose corticosteroids, and plasma exchange. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HHV6 reactivation in the central nervous system in the setting of COVID19 infection and the first case of MOG-IgG myelitis in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 and HHV6 coinfection. CONCLUSION: Patients with neurological manifestations in the setting of COVID19-related immunodeficiency should be tested for opportunistic infections including HHV6. Viral infection is a known trigger for MOG-IgG and therefore this antibody should be checked in patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated demyelination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Lymphopenia/virology , Myelitis, Transverse/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoantigens/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Myelitis, Transverse/immunology , Myelitis, Transverse/therapy , Plasma Exchange/methods , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Activation/immunology
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