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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(21): e167, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been known that the fear of contagion during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) creates time delays with subsequent impact on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, difference of time delay and clinical outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI between the COVID-19 pandemic and pre-pandemic era has not been fully investigated yet in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on time delays and clinical outcome in patients with STEMI or non-STEMI compared to the same period years prior. METHODS: A total of 598 patients with STEMI (n = 195) or non-STEMI (n = 403) who underwent coronary angiography during the COVID-19 pandemic (February 1 to April 30, 2020) and pre-pandemic era (February 1 to April 30, 2017, 2018, and 2019) were analyzed in this study. Main outcomes were the incidence of time delay, cardiac arrest, and in-hospital death. RESULTS: There was 13.5% reduction in the number of patients hospitalized with AMI during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic era. In patients with STEMI, door to balloon time tended to be longer during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic era (55.7 ± 12.6 minutes vs. 60.8 ± 13.0 minutes, P = 0.08). There were no significant differences in cardiac arrest (15.6% vs. 10.4%, P = 0.397) and in-hospital mortality (15.6% vs. 10.4%, P = 0.397) between pre-pandemic and the pandemic era. In patients with non-STEMI, symptom to door time was significantly longer (310.0 ± 346.2 minutes vs. 511.5 ± 635.7 minutes, P = 0.038) and the incidence of cardiac arrest (0.9% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.017) and in-hospital mortality (0.3% vs. 2.3%, P = 0.045) was significantly greater during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic era. Among medications, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin type 2 receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARBs) were underused in STEMI (64.6% vs. 45.8%, P = 0.021) and non-STEMI (67.8% vs. 57.0%, P = 0.061) during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a considerable reduction in hospital admissions for AMI, time delay, and underuse of ACE-I/ARBs for the management of AMI, and this might be closely associated with the excess death in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Arrest , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
5.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 194, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 affects healthcare resource allocation, which could lead to treatment delay and poor outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on AMI outcomes. METHODS: We compared outcomes of patients admitted for acute ST-elevation MI (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) during a non-COVID-19 pandemic period (January-February 2019; Group 1, n = 254) and a COVID-19 pandemic period (January-February 2020; Group 2, n = 124). RESULTS: For STEMI patients, the median of first medical contact (FMC) time, door-to-balloon time, and total myocardial ischemia time were significantly longer in Group 2 patients (all p < 0.05). Primary percutaneous intervention was performed significantly more often in Group 1 patients than in Group 2 patients, whereas thrombolytic therapy was used significantly more often in Group 2 patients than in Group 1 patients (all p < 0.05). However, the rates of and all-cause 30-day mortality and major adverse cardiac event (MACE) were not significantly different in the two periods (all p > 0.05). For NSTEMI patients, Group 2 patients had a higher rate of conservative therapy, a lower rate of reperfusion therapy, and longer FMC times (all p < 0.05). All-cause 30-day mortality and MACE were only higher in NSTEMI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic period (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic causes treatment delay in AMI patients and potentially leads to poor clinical outcome in NSTEMI patients. Thrombolytic therapy should be initiated without delay for STEMI when coronary intervention is not readily available; for NSTEMI patients, outcomes of invasive reperfusion were better than medical treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 57: 91-97, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814024

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a global pandemic; COVID-19 has resulted in significant challenges in the delivery of healthcare, including emergency management of multiple diagnoses, such as stroke and ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to identify the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on emergency department care of stroke and STEMI patients. In this study a review of the available literature was performed using pre-defined search terms, inclusion criteria, and exclusion criteria. Our analysis, using a narrative review format, indicates that there was not a significant change in time required for key interventions for stroke and STEMI emergent management, including imaging (door-to-CT), tPA administration (door-to-needle), angiographic reperfusion (door-to-puncture), and percutaneous coronary intervention (door-to-balloon). Potential future areas of investigation include how emergency department (ED) stroke and STEMI care has adapted in response to different COVID-19 variants and stages of the pandemic, as well as identifying strategies used by EDs that were successful in providing effective emergency care in the face of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(9): e024451, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807755

ABSTRACT

Background Early reports from the COVID-19 pandemic identified coronary thrombosis leading to ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as a complication of COVID-19 infection. However, the epidemiology of STEMI in patients with COVID-19 is not well characterized. We sought to determine the incidence, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and outcomes in STEMI patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Methods and Results Patients with data on presentation ECG and in-hospital myocardial infarction were identified from January 14, 2020 to November 30, 2020, from 105 sites participating in the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry. Patient characteristics, resource use, and clinical outcomes were summarized and compared based on the presence or absence of STEMI. Among 15 621 COVID-19 hospitalizations, 54 (0.35%) patients experienced in-hospital STEMI. Among patients with STEMI, the majority (n=40, 74%) underwent transthoracic echocardiography, but only half (n=27, 50%) underwent coronary angiography. Half of all patients with COVID-19 and STEMI (n=27, 50%) did not undergo any form of primary reperfusion therapy. Rates of all-cause shock (47% versus 14%), cardiac arrest (22% versus 4.8%), new heart failure (17% versus 1.4%), and need for new renal replacement therapy (11% versus 4.3%) were multifold higher in patients with STEMI compared with those without STEMI (P<0.050 for all). Rates of in-hospital death were 41% in patients with STEMI, compared with 16% in those without STEMI (P<0.001). Conclusions STEMI in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is rare but associated with poor in-hospital outcomes. Rates of coronary angiography and primary reperfusion were low in this population of patients with STEMI and COVID-19. Adaptations of systems of care to ensure timely contemporary treatment for this population are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , American Heart Association , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pandemics , Registries , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , United States/epidemiology
9.
Vaccine ; 40(24): 3305-3312, 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Background incidence rates are critical in pharmacovigilance to facilitate identification of vaccine safety signals. We estimated background incidence rates of 11 adverse events of special interest related to COVID-19 vaccines in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective observational study using linked health administrative databases for hospitalizations and emergency department visits among Ontario residents. We estimated incidence rates of Bell's palsy, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, febrile convulsions, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, Kawasaki disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, acute myocardial infarction, and anaphylaxis during five pre-pandemic years (2015-2019) and 2020. RESULTS: The average annual population was 14 million across all age groups with 51% female. The pre-pandemic mean annual rates per 100,000 population during 2015-2019 were 191 for acute myocardial infarction, 43.9 for idiopathic thrombocytopenia, 28.8 for anaphylaxis, 27.8 for Bell's palsy, 25.0 for febrile convulsions, 22.8 for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 11.3 for myocarditis/pericarditis, 8.7 for pericarditis, 2.9 for myocarditis, 2.0 for Kawasaki disease, 1.9 for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and 1.7 for transverse myelitis. Females had higher rates of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis and anaphylaxis while males had higher rates of myocarditis, pericarditis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Bell's palsy, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome increased with age. The mean rates of myocarditis and/or pericarditis increased with age up to 79 years; males had higher rates than females: from 12 to 59 years for myocarditis and ≥12 years for pericarditis. Febrile convulsions and Kawasaki disease were predominantly childhood diseases and generally decreased with age. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimated background rates will permit estimating numbers of expected events for these conditions and facilitate detection of potential safety signals following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Bell Palsy/chemically induced , Bell Palsy/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/chemically induced , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/epidemiology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/chemically induced , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/chemically induced , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Myelitis, Transverse/chemically induced , Myelitis, Transverse/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Ontario/epidemiology , Pericarditis/chemically induced , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies , Seizures, Febrile/chemically induced , Seizures, Febrile/epidemiology
11.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(8): 21, 2022 04.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800278
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788928

ABSTRACT

Post myocardial ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is one of the most fatal complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in spite of percutaneous and surgical closure. With the advancement of percutaneous coronary interventions in a timely manner, incidence of post MI VSR has declined remarkably. However, the COVID-19) pandemic-related late hospital presentations with AMI increases the possibilities of a potential upward shift in the incidence of post MI VSR. This case report aimed to increase awareness of negative contributions of the current pandemic to AMI and its fatal complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Ventricular Septal Rupture , COVID-19/complications , Fear , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Shock, Cardiogenic/complications , Ventricular Septal Rupture/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Septal Rupture/etiology , Ventricular Septal Rupture/surgery
13.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(2): 6658, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786553

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Evidence on the association of socioeconomic deprivation with occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is available from international studies and urban settings in western Germany. This study aimed to assess this association based on small geographical areas in a rural setting in eastern Germany. METHODS: This study used routine data of all patients with AMI who were treated in the Hospital Brandenburg in the city of Brandenburg, Germany, between May 2019 and May 2020. Hospitalisation rates of AMI were calculated for postal code regions that were located within the catchment area of the Hospital Brandenburg. Poisson regression was used to compare hospitalisation rates in areas with medium socioeconomic deprivation to areas with high deprivation, controlling for age group, sex and period (before or during COVID-19 pandemic). Publicly available social, infrastructure and healthcare-related features were mapped to characterise the study region. RESULTS: In total, 265 cases of AMI were registered in the study area, which comprised 116,126 inhabitants. The city of Brandenburg was characterised by the highest level of socioeconomic deprivation, while neighbouring areas showed a rural settlement structure and medium levels of deprivation. The number of general practitioners per 10 000 inhabitants did not differ between both areas. The adjusted rate ratio comparing hospitalisations due to AMI in areas with medium socioeconomic deprivation to areas with high socioeconomic deprivation was 0.71 (95%CI 0.56-0.91, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: This study adds evidence about the association of socioeconomic deprivation and AMI occurrence from a rural area in eastern Germany. Further research about the relationship of socioeconomic deprivation and cardiovascular health is needed from heterogeneous contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Cells ; 11(7)2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785536

ABSTRACT

The use of cannabis preparations has steadily increased. Although cannabis was traditionally assumed to only have mild vegetative side effects, it has become evident in recent years that severe cardiovascular complications can occur. Cannabis use has recently even been added to the risk factors for myocardial infarction. This review is dedicated to pathogenetic factors contributing to cannabis-related myocardial infarction. Tachycardia is highly important in this respect, and we provide evidence that activation of CB1 receptors in brain regions important for cardiovascular regulation and of presynaptic CB1 receptors on sympathetic and/or parasympathetic nerve fibers are involved. The prototypical factors for myocardial infarction, i.e., thrombus formation and coronary constriction, have also been considered, but there is little evidence that they play a decisive role. On the other hand, an increase in the formation of carboxyhemoglobin, impaired mitochondrial respiration, cardiotoxic reactions and tachyarrhythmias associated with the increased sympathetic tone are factors possibly intensifying myocardial infarction. A particularly important factor is that cannabis use is frequently accompanied by tobacco smoking. In conclusion, additional research is warranted to decipher the mechanisms involved, since cannabis use is being legalized increasingly and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its synthetic analogue nabilone are indicated for the treatment of various disease states.


Subject(s)
Cannabinoids , Cannabis , Myocardial Infarction , Adolescent , Analgesics , Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists , Cannabinoids/adverse effects , Cannabis/adverse effects , Heart , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy
15.
J Investig Med ; 70(4): 892-898, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784873

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of ST-segment re-elevation episodes registered with telemetric ECG monitoring in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with thrombolytic therapy (TLT). The study included 117 patients with STEMI following effective TLT. The elective coronary angiography followed by percutaneous coronary interventions was performed in the interval from 3 to 24 hours after a successful systemic TLT. Before and after cardiac catheterization, the telemetric ECG monitoring was performed using AstroCard Telemetry system (Meditec, Russia). During the study, two groups of patients were formed. Group 1 included 85 patients (72.6%) without new ST-segment deviations on telemetry. 77 patients (90.6%) had no recurrent coronary artery thrombosis at angiography. Eight patients (9.4%) from group 1 were diagnosed with thrombosis of the infarct-related coronary artery. Group 2 included 32 patients (27.4%) who underwent TLT and then had ST-segment re-elevation episodes of 1 mV or more in the infarct-related leads, lasting for at least 1 minute. In group 2, in 27 of 32 patients (84.4%), thrombosis of the infarct-related coronary artery was confirmed (p<0.01 compared with group 1). In 71.9% cases, the recurrent ischemic episodes were asymptomatic ('painless myocardial ischemia') (p<0.01). Thus, in patients with STEMI and successful TLT, re-elevation of ST-segment during remote ECG monitoring is strongly related to angiographically documented coronary artery thrombotic reocclusion. The absence of chest pain during recurrent myocardial ischemia requires continuous ECG telemetry to select patients for the rescue percutaneous coronary interventions at an earlier stage.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Ischemia , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Electrocardiography , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects
16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 187: 109872, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783279

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the impact of diabetes and COVID-19 on all-cause-mortality and first hospitalizations for cardiovascular events (CVE): myocardial infarction or stroke, within six months after being tested positive and having recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Resident population in Tuscany, Italy of age 45-94 yr without prior hospitalization for CVE, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by March 1st, 2020 and afterwards recovering from COVID-19 was compared with age, gender and diabetes matched controls without infection, for incidence rate ratio (IRR) of all-cause-deaths or first CVE at six months follow up. RESULTS: 46,152 subjects of whom 4,597 with diabetes, tested positive and recovered from SARS-CoV-2 were compared with 1:1 age, gender and diabetes matched controls without infection. COVID-19 was associated with higher all-cause-mortality: IRR:1.92(95 %CI:1.63-2.25) while diabetes with increased risk of first CVE hospitalizations: IRR:2.24(2.18-4.25). Co-presence of COVID-19 and diabetes didn't add any additional excess risk. Being women and statins' use significantly reduced death risk. CONCLUSIONS: After recovery from COVID-19, independently of diabetes, all-cause-mortality risk at six months was twofold increased, while risk of first CVE hospitalization remained unmodified. Diabetes, independently of prior COVID-19, resulted in higher six-months risk of first CVE not of death. Female gender and statins' use reduced both excess risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Myocardial Infarction , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 711222, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775827

ABSTRACT

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) occurs frequently and requires considerable health care resources. It is important to ensure that the treatments which are provided are both clinically effective and economically justifiable. Based on recent new evidence, routine oxygen therapy is no longer recommended in MI patients without hypoxemia. By using data from a nationwide randomized clinical trial, we estimated oxygen therapy related cost savings in this important clinical setting. Methods: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction (DETO2X-AMI) trial randomized 6,629 patients from 35 hospitals across Sweden to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6-12 h or ambient air. Costs for drug and medical supplies, and labor were calculated per patient, for the whole study population, and for the total annual care episodes for MI in Sweden (N = 16,100) with 10 million inhabitants. Results: Per patient, costs were estimated to 36 USD, summing up to a total cost of 119,832 USD for the whole study population allocated to oxygen treatment. Applied to the annual care episodes for MI in Sweden, costs sum up to between 514,060 and 604,777 USD. In the trial, 62 (2%) patients assigned to oxygen and 254 (8%) patients assigned to ambient air developed hypoxemia. A threshold analysis suggested that up to a cut-off of 624 USD spent for hypoxemia treatment related costs per patient, avoiding routine oxygen therapy remains cost saving. Conclusions: Avoiding routine oxygen therapy in patients with suspected or confirmed MI without hypoxemia at baseline saves significant expenditure for the health care system both with regards to medical and human resources. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01787110.


Subject(s)
Myocardial Infarction , Health Expenditures , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Oxygen , Treatment Outcome
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(6): e022625, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770080

ABSTRACT

Background Excess mortality from cardiovascular disease during the COVID-19 pandemic has been reported. The mechanism is unclear but may include delay or deferral of care, or differential treatment during hospitalization because of strains on hospital capacity. Methods and Results We used emergency department and inpatient data from a 12-hospital health system to examine changes in volume, patient age and comorbidities, treatment (right- and left-heart catheterization), and outcomes for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with pre-COVID-19 (2018 and 2019), controlling for seasonal variation. We analyzed 27 427 emergency department visits or hospitalizations. Patient volume decreased during COVID-19 for both HF and AMI, but age, race, sex, and medical comorbidities were similar before and during COVID-19 for both groups. Acuity increased for AMI as measured by the proportion of patients with ST-segment elevation. There were no differences in right-heart catheterization for patients with HF or in left heart catheterization for patients with AMI. In-hospital mortality increased for AMI during COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.21-1.76), particularly among the ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction subgroup (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 2.24-2.96), but was unchanged for HF (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.89-1.16). Conclusions Cardiovascular volume decreased during COVID-19. Despite similar patient age and comorbidities and in-hospital treatments during COVID-19, mortality increased for patients with AMI but not patients with HF. Given that AMI is a time-sensitive condition, delay or deferral of care rather than changes in hospital care delivery may have led to worse cardiovascular outcomes during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Missouri , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
19.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 9713326, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770053

ABSTRACT

The use of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays has become part of the daily practice in most of the laboratories worldwide in the initial evaluation of the typical chest pain. Due to their early surge, the use of hs-cTn may reduce the time needed to recognise myocardial infarctions (MI), which is vital for the patients presenting in the emergency departments for chest pain. The latest European Society of Cardiology Guidelines did not only recognise their central role in the diagnosis algorithm but also recommended their use for rapid rule-in/rule-out of MI. High-sensitivity cardiac troponins are also powerful prognostic markers for long-term events and mortality, not only in a wide spectrum of other cardiovascular diseases (CVD) but also in several non-CVD pathologies. Moreover, these biomarkers became a powerful tool in special populations, such as paediatric patients and, most recently, COVID-19 patients. Although highly investigated, the assessment and interpretation of the hs-cTn changes are still challenging in the patients with basal elevation such as CKD or critically ill patients. Moreover, there are still various analytical characteristics not completely understood, such as circadian or sex variability, with major clinical implications. In this context, the present review focuses on summarizing the most recent research in the current use of hs-cTn, with a main consideration for its role in the diagnosis of MI but also its prognostic value. We have also carefully selected the most important studies regarding the challenges faced by clinicians from different specialties in the correct interpretation of this biomarker. Moreover, future perspectives have been proposed and analysed, as more research and cross-disciplinary collaboration are necessary to improve their performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chest Pain , Child , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Troponin
20.
Laeknabladid ; 108(4): 182-188, 2022 Apr.
Article in Icelandic | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766223

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTON: Nonpharmaceutical interventions to contain the spread of COVID-19 infections in Iceland in 2020 were successful, but the effects of these measures on incidence and diagnosis of other diseases is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) and selected infections with different transmission routes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Health records of individuals 18 years or older who were admitted to Landspitali University Hospital (LUH) in 2016-2020 with pneumonia or MI were extracted from the hospital registry. We acquired data from the clinical laboratories regarding diagnostic testing for Chlamydia trachomatis, influenza, HIV and blood cultures positive for Enterobacterales species. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for 2020 was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) and compared to 2016-2019. RESULTS: Discharge diagnoses due to pneumonia decreased by 31% in 2020, excluding COVID-19 pneumonia (SIR 0.69 (95%CI 0.64-0.75)). Discharge diagnoses of MI decreased by 18% (SIR 0.82 (95%CI 0.75-0.90)), and emergency cardiac catheterizations due to acute coronary syndrome by 23% (SIR 0.77 (95%CI 0.71-0.83)), while there was a 15% increase in blood stream infections for Enterobacterales species (SIR 1.15 (95%CI 1.04-1.28)). Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis decreased by 14.8% and positive tests decreased by 16.3%. Tests for HIV were reduced by 10.9%, while samples positive for influenza decreased by 23.6% despite doubling of tests being performed. CONCLUSION: The number of pneumonia cases of other causes than COVID-19 requiring admission dropped by a quarter in 2020. MI, chlamydia and influensa diagnoses decreased notably. These results likely reflect a true decrease, probably due to altered behaviour during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Incidence , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
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