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1.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(5): 356-364, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483185

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular manifestations are frequent in COVID-19 infection and are predictive of adverse outcomes. Elevated cardiac biomarkers are common findings in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities and severe COVID-19 infection. Troponin, inflammatory and thrombotic markers may also improve risk prediction in COVID-19. In our comprehensive review, we provide an overview of the incidence, potential mechanisms and outcome of acute cardiac injury in COVID-19. Thereby, we discuss coagulation abnormalities in sepsis and altered immune response as contributing factors favoring myocardial injury. We further highlight the role of endothelial damage in the pathophysiological concepts. Finally, observational studies addressing the incidence of myocardial infarction during COVID-19 pandemic are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Heart Injuries/blood , Heart Injuries/mortality , Humans , Incidence , Models, Cardiovascular , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Troponin/blood
2.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 7(5): 438-446, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377964

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate the acute and chronic patterns of myocardial injury among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and their mid-term outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who had a hospital encounter within the Mount Sinai Health System (New York City) between 27 February 2020 and 15 October 2020 were evaluated for inclusion. Troponin levels assessed between 72 h before and 48 h after the COVID-19 diagnosis were used to stratify the study population by the presence of acute and chronic myocardial injury, as defined by the Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. Among 4695 patients, those with chronic myocardial injury (n = 319, 6.8%) had more comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease and heart failure, while acute myocardial injury (n = 1168, 24.9%) was more associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers. Both types of myocardial injury were strongly associated with impaired survival at 6 months [chronic: hazard ratio (HR) 4.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.44-5.06; acute: HR 4.72, 95% CI 4.14-5.36], even after excluding events occurring in the first 30 days (chronic: HR 3.97, 95% CI 2.15-7.33; acute: HR 4.13, 95% CI 2.75-6.21). The mortality risk was not significantly different in patients with acute as compared with chronic myocardial injury (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.94-1.36), except for a worse prognostic impact of acute myocardial injury in patients <65 years of age (P-interaction = 0.043) and in those without coronary artery disease (P-interaction = 0.041). CONCLUSION: Chronic and acute myocardial injury represent two distinctive patterns of cardiac involvement among COVID-19 patients. While both types of myocardial injury are associated with impaired survival at 6 months, mortality rates peak in the early phase of the infection but remain elevated even beyond 30 days during the convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Troponin/analysis , Acute Disease/epidemiology , Acute Disease/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , New York City/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Clin Chem ; 67(8): 1080-1089, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) for risk-stratification in COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, observational, US-based study of COVID-19 patients undergoing hs-cTnT. Outcomes included short-term mortality (in-hospital and 30-days post-discharge) and a composite of major adverse events, including respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, cardiac arrest, and shock within the index presentation and/or mortality during the index hospitalization or within 30-days post-discharge. RESULTS: Among 367 COVID-19 patients undergoing hs-cTnT, myocardial injury was identified in 46%. They had a higher risk for mortality (20% vs 12%, P < 0.0001; unadjusted HR 4.44, 95% CI 2.13-9.25, P < 0.001) and major adverse events (35% vs. 11%, P < 0.0001; unadjusted OR 4.29, 95% CI 2.50-7.40, P < 0.0001). Myocardial injury was associated with major adverse events (adjusted OR 3.84, 95% CI 2.00-7.36, P < 0.0001) but not mortality. Baseline (adjusted OR 1.003, 95% CI 1.00-1.007, P = 0.047) and maximum (adjusted OR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001-1.009, P = 0.0012) hs-cTnT were independent predictors of major adverse events. Most (95%) increases were due to myocardial injury, with 5% (n = 8) classified as type 1 or 2 myocardial infarction. A single hs-cTnT <6 ng/L identified 26% of patients without mortality, with a 94.9% (95% CI 87.5-98.6) negative predictive value and 93.1% sensitivity (95% CI 83.3-98.1) for major adverse events in those presenting to the ED. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial injury is frequent and prognostic in COVID-19. While most hs-cTnT increases are modest and due to myocardial injury, they have important prognostic implications. A single hs-cTnT <6 ng/L at presentation may facilitate the identification of patients with a favorable prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Troponin T/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiomyopathies/blood , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(4): e13471, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146517

ABSTRACT

The development of an obstructive luminal thrombus is pathological and considered a failure of endogenous fibrinolysis. The consequences may be fatal, or result in lasting downstream organ damage. Therefore, assessment of endogenous fibrinolytic status in an individual may identify those at risk of occlusive thrombus formation and provide prognostic information. Arterial thrombi are more platelet rich and more resistant to fibrinolysis than venous thrombi. Several recent studies using global tests of fibrinolysis in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have shown that despite dual antiplatelet therapy, patients with impaired fibrinolytic status have an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, compared with those with effective fibrinolytic function. Such data add significantly to the predictive value of established cardiovascular risk factors and conventional biomarkers. Most data reported have been obtained with the Global Thrombosis Test and the turbidimetric plasma clot lysis assay. A few small studies in patients with ischaemic stroke suggest a similar predictive role of fibrinolytic status assessment in these patients. Studies reporting an association between impaired fibrinolysis and future venous thrombotic events are limited, and in the form of case-control studies. Viscoelastic assays may have a role in the prediction of venous thromboembolic risk. Assays of fibrinolytic function should be used to obtain a more accurate risk of future thrombotic events, particularly in the setting of ACS. The availability of point-of-care tests helps facilitate this and should encourage future studies to assess personalised antithrombotic treatment combinations to optimise fibrinolytic status and reduce thrombosis risk.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/blood , Coronary Thrombosis/blood , Fibrin Clot Lysis Time , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Thrombelastography , Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Arteries , COVID-19/blood , Coronary Thrombosis/epidemiology , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
5.
Am J Cardiol ; 147: 129-136, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091966

ABSTRACT

Cardiac Troponin (hs-TnT) elevation has been reported in unselected patients hospitalized with COVID-19 however the mechanism and relationship with mortality remain unclear. Consecutive patients admitted to a high-volume intensive care unit (ICU) in London with severe COVID-19 pneumonitis were included if hs-TnT concentration at admission was known. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis performed, with cohorts classified a priori by multiples of the upper limit of normal (ULN). 277 patients were admitted during a 7-week period in 2020; 176 were included (90% received invasive ventilation). hs-TnT at admission was 16.5 (9.0 to 49.3) ng/L, 56% had concentrations >ULN. 56 patients (31.8%) died during the index admission. Admission hs-TnT level was lower in survivors (12.0 (8.0-27.8) vs 28.5 (14.0 to 81.0) ng/L, p = 0.001). Univariate predictors of mortality were age, APACHE-II Score and admission hs-TnT (HR 1.73, p = 0.007). By multivariate regression, only age (HR 1.33, CI: 1.16.to 1.51, p < 0.01) and admission hs-TnT (HR 1.94, CI: 1.22 to 3.10, p = 0.006) remained predictive. Survival was significantly lower when admission hs-TnT was >ULN (log-rank p-value<0.001). Peak hs-TnT was higher in those who died but was not predictive of death after adjustment for other factors. In conclusion, in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis, the hs-TnT level at admission is a powerful independent predictor of the likelihood of surviving to discharge from ICU. In most cases, hs-TnT elevation does not represent major myocardial injury but acts as a sensitive integrated biomarker of global stress. Whether stratification based on admission Troponin level could be used to guide prognostication and management warrants further evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Troponin T/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(1): 43-47, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965899

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 [SARS-CoV-2]), also known as COVID-19, is a single-stranded enveloped RNA virus that created a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020, with a global case burden of over 15 million in just 7 months. Infected patients develop a wide range of clinical manifestations-typically presenting with fever, cough, myalgia, and fatigue. Severely ill patients may fall victim to acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute heart injuries, neurological manifestations, or complications due to secondary infections. These critically ill patients are also found to have disrupted coagulation function, predisposing them to consumptive coagulopathies, and both venous and thromboembolic complications. Common laboratory findings include thrombocytopenia, elevated D-dimer, fibrin degradation products, and fibrinogen, all of which have been associated with greater disease severity. Many cases of pulmonary embolism have been noted, along with deep vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and systemic arterial embolism. The pathogenesis of coronavirus has not been completely elucidated, but the virus is known to cause excessive inflammation, endothelial injury, hypoxia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation, all of which contribute to thrombosis formation. These patients are also faced with prolonged immobilization while staying in the hospital or intensive care unit. It is important to have a high degree of suspicion for thrombotic complications as patients may rapidly deteriorate in severe cases. Evidence suggests that prophylaxis with anticoagulation may lead to a lower risk of mortality, although it does not eliminate the possibility. The risks and benefits of anticoagulation treatment should be considered in each case. Patients should be regularly evaluated for bleeding risks and thrombotic complications.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , COVID-19/blood , Embolism/blood , Thrombosis/blood , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/prevention & control , Embolism/etiology , Embolism/metabolism , Embolism/prevention & control , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Immobilization , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/metabolism
7.
Clin Chem ; 67(1): 70-78, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The primary role of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Committee on Clinical Application of Cardiac Bio-Markers (C-CB) is to provide educational materials about cardiac biomarker use, emphasizing high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays. CONTENT: This mini-review, regarding high-sensitivity cardiac and point-of-care troponin assays, addresses 1) new IFCC C-CB/AACC Academy laboratory practice recommendations; 2) new and updated concepts from the Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction; 3) the role of point-of-care assays in practice and research; 4) regulatory challenges concerning point-of-care assays; e) testing in the COVID-19 world. SUMMARY: Implementation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays makes a difference now and into the future in clinical practice and research. Providing point-of-care high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays and optimizing studies to allow clearance of these assays by regulatory agencies, in a timely fashion, may provide improved patient management and outcomes.


Subject(s)
Clinical Chemistry Tests , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Limit of Detection , Myocardial Infarction/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(3): 608-616, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808080

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with high incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic events. Currently, there are no markers to guide antithrombotic therapy in Covid-19. Immature platelets represent a population of hyper-reactive platelets associated with arterial events. This prospective study compared consecutive Covid-19 patients (n = 47, median age = 56 years) to patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, n = 100, median age = 59 years) and a group of stable patients with cardiovascular risk factors (n = 64, median age = 68 years). Immature platelet fraction (IPF) and immature platelet count (IPC) were determined by the Sysmex XN-3000 auto-analyzer on admission and at subsequent time-points. IPF% on admission was higher in Covid-19 than the stable group and similar to the AMI group (4.8% [IQR 3.4-6.9], 3.5% [2.7-5.1], 4.55% [3.0-6.75], respectively, p = 0.0053). IPC on admission was also higher in Covid-19 than the stable group and similar to the AMI group (10.8 × 109/L [8.3-18.1], 7.35 × 109/L [5.3-10.5], 10.7 × 109/L [7.7-16.8], respectively, P < 0.0001). The maximal IPF% among the Covid-19 group was higher than the stable group and similar to the AMI group. The maximal IPC in Covid-19 was higher than the maximal IPC in both the stable and AMI groups (COVID-19: 14.4 × 109/L [9.4-20.9], AMI: 10.9 × 109/L [7.6-15.2], P = 0.0035, Stable: 7.55 × 109/L [5.55-10.5], P < 0.0001). Patients with Covid-19 have increased immature platelets indices compared to stable patients with cardiovascular risk factors, and as the disease progresses also compared to AMI patients. The enhanced platelet turnover and reactivity may have a role in the development of thrombotic events in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/blood , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
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