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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788928

ABSTRACT

Post myocardial ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is one of the most fatal complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in spite of percutaneous and surgical closure. With the advancement of percutaneous coronary interventions in a timely manner, incidence of post MI VSR has declined remarkably. However, the COVID-19) pandemic-related late hospital presentations with AMI increases the possibilities of a potential upward shift in the incidence of post MI VSR. This case report aimed to increase awareness of negative contributions of the current pandemic to AMI and its fatal complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Ventricular Septal Rupture , COVID-19/complications , Fear , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Shock, Cardiogenic/complications , Ventricular Septal Rupture/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Septal Rupture/etiology , Ventricular Septal Rupture/surgery
2.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(3): 190-199, 2022 Mar.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765603

ABSTRACT

Post-infarction mechanical complications include left ventricular free-wall rupture, ventricular septal rupture, and papillary muscle rupture. With the advent of early reperfusion strategies, including thrombolysis and percutaneous coronary intervention, these events now occur in fewer than 0.3% of patients following acute myocardial infarction. However, unfortunately, there has been no parallel decrease in associated mortality rates over the past two decades. Moreover, during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic the incidence of mechanical complications resulting from ST-elevation myocardial infarction has possibly risen. Early diagnosis and prompt management are crucial to improving outcomes. Although some percutaneous device repair approaches are available, surgical treatment remains the gold standard for these catastrophic post-infarction complications. The timing of surgery, also related to the type of complication and patient's clinical conditions, and the possible role of mechanical circulatory supports before and after surgery, represent main topics of debate that still need to be fully addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/complications , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0010134, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) infection may be associated with increased risks of major adverse cardiovascular effect (MACE), but a large-scale study evaluating the association between DENV infection and MACEs is still lacking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All laboratory confirmed dengue cases in Taiwan during 2009 and 2015 were included by CDC notifiable database. The self-controlled case-series design was used to evaluate the association between DENV infection and MACE (including acute myocardial infarction [AMI], heart failure and stroke). The "risk interval" was defined as the first 7 days after the diagnosis of DENV infection and the "control interval" as 1 year before and 1 year after the risk interval. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for MACE were estimated by conditional Poisson regression. Finally, the primary outcome of the incidence of MACEs within one year of dengue was observed in 1,247 patients. The IRR of MACEs was 17.9 (95% CI 15.80-20.37) during the first week after the onset of DENV infection observed from 1,244 eligible patients. IRR were significantly higher for hemorrhagic stroke (10.9, 95% CI 6.80-17.49), ischemic stroke (15.56, 95% CI 12.44-19.47), AMI (13.53, 95% CI 10.13-18.06), and heart failure (27.24, 95% CI 22.67-32.73). No increased IRR was observed after day 14. CONCLUSIONS: The risks for MACEs are significantly higher in the immediate time period after dengue infection. Since dengue infection is potentially preventable by early recognition and vaccination, the dengue-associated MACE should be taken into consideration when making public health management policies.


Subject(s)
Dengue/complications , Heart Failure/complications , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Stroke/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology
4.
J Card Surg ; 37(6): 1759-1763, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752614

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is one of the mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction (MI), whose incidence has been decreasing throughout the years because of the emergence of different reperfusion therapy strategies. METHODS: We present a series of seven patients who underwent surgery for post-MI VSD repair in our institution in the period between March 2020 and June 2021. DISCUSSION: During the recent SARS-COV2 pandemic, time to hospital admission increased due to patients being overcautious out of fear of exposing themselves to COVID-19. The increased time to hospital admission, with associated late reperfusion therapy and delayed PCI, is closely related to an augmented incidence of post-myocardial infarction mechanical complications such as ventricular septal defects. For this reason, we witnessed an increase in the incidence of post-MI VSD. CONCLUSION: Fear of exposure to SARS-COV2 in the medical environment was a major source of concern for all our patients. The target of hospital policy should be to reassure patients of freedom from COVID in the emergency department and cardiac wards in order to prevent such dreadful complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/complications , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/surgery , Humans , Incidence , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
Kardiologiia ; 61(11): 104-107, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1558967

ABSTRACT

The conditions of the pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) are associated with overloading intensive care units, conversion of hospitals, and changes in routing of patients with acute cardiovascular pathology. At the same time, medical practice is still challenged to provide medical care to patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients with COVID-19 and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at a higher risk of death while the incidence of this combination of diseases will be growing. This article describes a case of diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in a 69-year-old patient who was urgently hospitalized with cardiogenic shock associated with ACS, electrocardiographic signs of complete left bundle branch block, and left ventricular ejection fraction of 19 %. Coronary angiography with stenting was successfully performed in the conditions of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The patient received long-term intensive therapy in the intensive care unit followed by symptomatic treatment in the cardiac surgery unit. The patient's condition gradually improved and he was discharged from the hospital on the 56th day. The strategy of intensive care and active follow-up helped saving life of the patient with COVID-19 and AMI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Aged , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
8.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(242): 1048-1051, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547958

ABSTRACT

Silent myocardial infarction or unrecognized myocardial infarction has increased prevalence in elderly population with increased cardiovascular risk factors. However, its prevalence in COVID-19 patients is not well-known. A 77-year-old Caucasian male with COVID-19 pneumonia, presented with silent ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, diabetic ketoacidosis and multiorgan failure. He underwent cardiac catheterization and drug eluting stent placement in the ostial right coronary artery with safety protocol. He was discharged to extended-care-facility in stable condition. This is a first case report of silent ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient presenting with COVID-19. In patients with COVID-19, acute myocardial infarction should be ruled out even when asymptomatic, especially in older patients. Prompt intervention using safety protocol is life-saving.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Eluting Stents , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Aged , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Treatment Outcome
9.
N Engl J Med ; 385(20): 1845-1855, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with symptomatic heart failure, sacubitril-valsartan has been found to reduce the risk of hospitalization and death from cardiovascular causes more effectively than an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. Trials comparing the effects of these drugs in patients with acute myocardial infarction have been lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with myocardial infarction complicated by a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary congestion, or both to receive either sacubitril-valsartan (97 mg of sacubitril and 103 mg of valsartan twice daily) or ramipril (5 mg twice daily) in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure (outpatient symptomatic heart failure or heart failure leading to hospitalization), whichever occurred first. RESULTS: A total of 5661 patients underwent randomization; 2830 were assigned to receive sacubitril-valsartan and 2831 to receive ramipril. Over a median of 22 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 338 patients (11.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 373 patients (13.2%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.04; P = 0.17). Death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 308 patients (10.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 335 patients (11.8%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.07); death from cardiovascular causes in 168 (5.9%) and 191 (6.7%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.08); and death from any cause in 213 (7.5%) and 242 (8.5%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.05). Treatment was discontinued because of an adverse event in 357 patients (12.6%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 379 patients (13.4%) in the ramipril group. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan was not associated with a significantly lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure than ramipril among patients with acute myocardial infarction. (Funded by Novartis; PARADISE-MI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02924727.).


Subject(s)
Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Ramipril/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Aged , Aminobutyrates/adverse effects , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Biphenyl Compounds/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypotension/chemically induced , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Ramipril/adverse effects , Stroke Volume , Valsartan/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
11.
Am J Cardiol ; 160: 106-111, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450050

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of venous thromboembolisms in patients with COVID-19 has been established. We sought to evaluate the clinical impact of thrombosis in patients with COVID-19 over the span of the pandemic to date. We analyzed patients with COVID-19 with a diagnosis of thrombosis who presented to the MedStar Health system (11 hospitals in Washington, District of Columbia, and Maryland) during the pandemic (March 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021). We compared the clinical course and outcomes based on the presence or absence of thrombosis and then, specifically, the presence of cardiac thrombosis. The cohort included 11,537 patients who were admitted for COVID-19. Of these patients, 1,248 had noncardiac thrombotic events and 1,009 had cardiac thrombosis (myocardial infarction) during their hospital admission. Of the noncardiac thrombotic events, 562 (45.0%) were pulmonary embolisms, 480 (38.5%) were deep venous thromboembolisms, and 347 (27.8%) were strokes. In the thrombosis arm, the mean age of the cohort was 64.5 ± 15.3 years, 53.3% were men, and the majority were African-American (64.9%). Patients with thrombosis tended to be older with more co-morbidities. The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher (16.0%) in patients with COVID-19 with concomitant non-cardiac thrombosis than in those without thrombosis (7.9%, p <0.001) but lower than in patients with COVID-19 with cardiac thrombosis (24.7%, p <0.001). In conclusion, patients with COVID-19 with thrombosis, especially cardiac thrombosis, are at higher risk for in-hospital mortality. However, this prognosis is not as grim as for patients with COVID-19 and cardiac thrombosis. Efforts should be focused on early recognition, evaluation, and intensifying antithrombotic management for these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Thrombosis/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Venous Thrombosis/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Coronary Thrombosis/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Venous Thrombosis/complications
13.
Stroke ; 52(11): e706-e709, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371922
14.
Indian Heart J ; 73(5): 565-571, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and impact of respiratory infections in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI-CS). METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample (2000-2017), this study identified adult (≥18 years) admitted with AMI-CS complicated by respiratory infections. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality of AMI-CS admissions with and without respiratory infections, hospitalization costs, hospital length of stay, and discharge disposition. Temporal trends of prevalence, in-hospital mortality and cardiac procedures were evaluated. RESULTS: Among 557,974 AMI-CS admissions, concomitant respiratory infections were identified in 84,684 (15.2%). Temporal trends revealed a relatively stable trend in prevalence of respiratory infections over the 18-year period. Admissions with respiratory infections were on average older, less likely to be female, with greater comorbidity, had significantly higher rates of NSTEMI presentation, and acute non-cardiac organ failure compared to those without respiratory infections (all p < 0.001). These admissions received lower rates of coronary angiography (66.8% vs 69.4%, p < 0.001) and percutaneous coronary interventions (44.8% vs 49.5%, p < 0.001), with higher rates of mechanical circulatory support, pulmonary artery catheterization, and invasive mechanical ventilation compared to AMI-CS admissions without respiratory infections (all p < 0.001). The in-hospital mortality was lower among AMI-CS admissions with respiratory infections (31.6% vs 38.4%, adjusted OR 0.58 [95% CI 0.57-0.59], p < 0.001). Admissions with respiratory infections had longer lengths of hospital stay (127-20 vs 63-11 days, p < 0.001), higher hospitalization costs and less frequent discharges to home (27.1% vs 44.7%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory infections in AMI-CS admissions were associated with higher resource utilization but lower in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253434, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Descriptive analyses of 2009-2016 were performed using the data of the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) which covers nearly 70 percent of the Thai population. The analyses described the time and geographical trends of nationwide admission rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular diseases, retinopathy, cataract, and diabetic foot amputation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The database of T2DM patients aged 15-100 years who were admitted between 2009 and 2016 under the UCS and that of the UCS population were retrieved for the analyses. The admitted cases of T2DM were extracted from the database using disease codes of principal and secondary diagnoses defined by the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th Revisions. The T2DM admission rates in 2009-2016 were the number of admissions divided by the number of the UCS population. The standardized admission rates (SARs)were further estimated in contrast to the expected number of admissions considering age and sex composition of the UCS population in each region. A linearly increased trend was found in T2DM admission rates from 2009 to 2016. Female admission rates were persistently higher than that of males. In 2016, an increase in the T2DM admission rates was observed among the older ages relative to that in 2009. Although the SARs of T2DM were generally higher in Bangkok and central regions in 2009, except that with CKD and foot amputation which had higher trends in northeastern regions, the geographical inequalities were fairly reduced by 2016. CONCLUSION: Admission rates of T2DM and its major complications increased in Thailand from 2009 to 2016. Although the overall geographical inequalities in the SARs of T2DM were reduced in the country, further efforts are required to improve the health system and policies focusing on risk factors and regions to manage the increasing T2DM.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Patient Admission/trends , Universal Health Insurance/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cataract/complications , Cataract/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetic Foot/complications , Diabetic Foot/surgery , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Thailand , Young Adult
16.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 49(4): 293-302, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262652

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acute ischemic cardiac events can complicate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We report the in-hospital characteristics of patients with acute myocardial infarction and concomitant COVID-19. METHODS: This was a registry-based retrospective analysis of patients admitted with positive COVID-19 tests who suffered acute myocardial infarction either before or during hospitalization; from 1 March 2020 to 1 April 2020 in a tertiary cardiovascular center-Tehran Heart Center. We performed an exploratory analysis to compare the clinical characteristics of patients who died during hospitalization or were discharged alive. RESULTS: In March 2020, 57 patients who had acute myocardial infarction and a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in the study. During hospitalization, 13 patients (22.8%) died after a mean hospital stay of 8.4 days. The deceased were older than the survivors. No significant association between mortality and sex or length of hospital stay was observed. Hypertensive individuals were more likely to have a fatal outcome. Previously receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers did not show any association with mortality. Regarding the laboratory data during hospitalization, higher cardiac troponin T, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, urea, and blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio were observed in the mortality group. The deceased had a lower lymphocyte count than the survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Markers of worsening renal function and immune system disturbance seem to be associated with mortality in concurrent acute myocardial infarction and COVID-19. Optimizing the management of acute coronary syndrome complicating COVID-19 requires addressing such potential contributors to mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Retrospective Studies
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9959, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225515

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic impacting nearly 170 countries/regions and millions of patients worldwide. Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) still need to be treated at percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centers with relevant safety measures. This retrospective study was conducted to assess the therapeutic outcomes of PCI performed under the safety measures and normal conditions. AMI patients undergoing PCI between January 24 to April 30, 2020 were performed under safety measures for COVID-19. Patients received pulmonary computed tomography (CT) and underwent PCI in negative pressure ICU. Cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) staff and physicians worked with level III personal protection. Demographic and clinical data, such as door-to-balloon (DTB) time, operation time, complications for patients in this period (COVID-19 group) and the same period in 2019 (2019 group) were retrieved and analyzed. COVID-19 and 2019 groups had 37 and 96 patients, respectively. There was no significant difference in age, gender, BMI and comorbidity between the two groups. DTB time and operation time were similar between the two groups (60.0 ± 12.39 vs 58.83 ± 12.85 min, p = 0.636; 61.46 ± 9.91 vs 62.55 ± 10.72 min, p = 0.592). Hospital stay time in COVID-19 group was significantly shorter (6.78 ± 2.14 vs 8.85 ± 2.64 days, p < 0.001). The incidences of malignant arrhythmia and Takotsubo Syndrome in COVID-19 group were higher than 2019 group significantly (16.22% vs 5.21%, p = 0.039; 10.81% vs 1.04% p = 0.008). During hospitalization and 3-month follow-up, the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in the two groups were statistically similar (35.13% vs 14.58%, p = 0.094; 16.22% vs 8.33%, p = 0.184). The risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) was associated with cardiogenic shock (OR, 11.53; 95% CI, 2.888-46.036; p = 0.001), malignant arrhythmias (OR, 7.176; 95% CI, 1.893-27.203; p = 0.004) and advanced age (≥ 75 years) (OR, 6.718; 95% CI, 1.738-25.964; p = 0.006). Cardiogenic shock (OR, 17.663; 95% CI, 5.5-56.762; p < 0.001) and malignant arrhythmias (OR, 4.659; 95% CI, 1.481-14.653; p = 0.008) were also associated with death of 3 months. Our analysis showed that safety measures undertaken in this hospital, including screening of COVID-19 infection and use of personal protection equipment for conducting PCI did not compromise the surgical outcome as compared with PCI under normal condition, although there were slight increases in incidence of malignant arrhythmia and Takotsubo Syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Treatment Outcome , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/epidemiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219151

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 57-year-old man who presented overnight to a district general hospital as a primary percutaneous coronary intervention alert for an inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction. On presentation to cardiac catheterisation lab, he had ongoing chest pain but began to complain of left-sided limb weakness and pain in his right leg. He was found to have dense hemiparesis on examination with an National Institute of Health Stroke Scale of 8 and an absent right femoral pulse. During the procedure, his common iliac arteries were imaged showing a complete occlusion of his right common iliac. After stenting the culprit lesion in his right coronary artery, he was transferred to a different hospital within the trust where he could receive thrombolysis for his stroke. Unfortunately, after thrombolysis, he went on to develop haemorrhagic transformation of his stroke and an upper gastrointestinal bleed with prolonged recovery of his neurological symptoms after a 27-day hospital stay; but CT arterial imaging showed resolution of right common iliac occlusion predischarge. Here, we discuss the best possible approach to management with simultaneous thrombotic events.


Subject(s)
Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , Coronary Vessels , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology
19.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 96(2): 336-345, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730300

ABSTRACT

The worldwide pandemic caused by the novel acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has resulted in a new and lethal disease termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although there is an association between cardiovascular disease and COVID-19, the majority of patients who need cardiovascular care for the management of ischemic heart disease may not be infected with this novel coronavirus. The objective of this document is to provide recommendations for a systematic approach for the care of patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a recognition of two major challenges in providing recommendations for AMI care in the COVID-19 era. Cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 are complex with patients presenting with AMI, myocarditis simulating an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) presentation, stress cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, coronary spasm, or nonspecific myocardial injury, and the prevalence of COVID-19 disease in the US population remains unknown with risk of asymptomatic spread. This document addresses the care of these patients focusing on (a) varied clinical presentations; (b) appropriate personal protection equipment (PPE) for health care workers; (c) the roles of the emergency department, emergency medical system, and the cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL); and (4) regional STEMI systems of care. During the COVID-19 pandemic, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains the standard of care for STEMI patients at PCI-capable hospitals when it can be provided in a timely manner, with an expert team outfitted with PPE in a dedicated CCL room. A fibrinolysis-based strategy may be entertained at non-PCI-capable referral hospitals or in specific situations where primary PCI cannot be executed or is not deemed the best option.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiology , Consensus , Coronary Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Electrocardiography , Humans , Incidence , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Survival Rate/trends , United States/epidemiology
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1793, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065942

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other respiratory viral (non-CoV-2-RV) infections are associated with thrombotic complications. The differences in prothrombotic potential between SARS-CoV-2 and non-CoV-2-RV have not been well characterised. We compared the thrombotic rates between these two groups of patients directly and further delved into their coagulation profiles. In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, all consecutive COVID-19 and non-CoV-2-RV patients admitted between January 15th and April 10th 2020 were included. Coagulation parameters studied were prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time and its associated clot waveform analysis (CWA) parameter, min1, min2 and max2. In the COVID-19 (n = 181) group there were two (1.0 event/1000-hospital-days) myocardial infarction events while one (1.8 event/1000-hospital-day) was reported in the non-CoV-2-RV (n = 165) group. These events occurred in patients who were severely ill. There were no venous thrombotic events. Coagulation parameters did not differ throughout the course of mild COVID-19. However, CWA parameters were significantly higher in severe COVID-19 compared with mild disease, suggesting hypercoagulability (min1: 6.48%/s vs 5.05%/s, P < 0.001; min2: 0.92%/s2 vs 0.74%/s2, P = 0.033). In conclusion, the thrombotic rates were low and did not differ between COVID-19 and non-CoV-2-RV patients. The hypercoagulability in COVID-19 is a highly dynamic process with the highest risk occurring when patients were most severely ill. Such changes in haemostasis could be detected by CWA. In our population, a more individualized thromboprophylaxis approach, considering clinical and laboratory factors, is preferred over universal pharmacological thromboprophylaxis for all hospitalized COVID-19 patients and such personalized approach warrants further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/complications , Virus Diseases/complications
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