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1.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(5): 372-378, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483189

ABSTRACT

Since the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic spread unrelentingly all over the world, millions of cases have been reported. Despite a high number of asymptomatic cases, the course of the disease can be serious or even fatal. The affection of the myocardium, called myocardial injury, is caused by multiple triggers. The occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients with myocardial involvement and a critical course is common. In this review, potential mechanisms, incidence, and treatment options for cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients will be provided by performing a literature research in MESH database and the National Library of Medicine. Common cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients were sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation (AF), ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), atrioventricular block, sinusoidal block or QTc prolongation. AF was the most common heart rhythm disorder. About 10% of COVID-19 patients develop new-onset AF and 23 to 33% showed recurrence of AF in patients with known AF. One retrospective trial revealed the incidence of VT or VF to be 5.9% in hospitalized patients. Both AF and VT are clearly associated with worse outcome. Several mechanisms such as hypoxia, myocarditis, myocardial ischemia, or abnormal host immune response, which induce cardiac arrhythmias, have been described. The effect of QT-prolonging drugs in inducing cardiac arrhythmias has become mitigated as these medications are no longer recommended. Acute management of cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients is affected by the reduction of exposure of health care personnel. More prospective data are desirable to better understand pathophysiology and consecutively adapt management.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/etiology
2.
Tex Heart Inst J ; 48(3)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357674

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), a persistently obscure dysfunctional condition of the left ventricle, is uniquely transient but nevertheless dangerous. It features variable ventricular patterns and is predominant in women. For 30 years, pathophysiologic investigations have progressed only slowly and with inadequate focus. It was initially proposed that sudden-onset spastic obliteration of coronary flow induced myocardial ischemia with residual stunning and thus TTC. Later, it was generally accepted without proof that, in the presence of pain or emotional stress, the dominant mechanism for TTC onset was a catecholamine surge that had a direct, toxic myocardial effect. We think that the manifestations of TTC are more dynamic and complex than can be assumed from catecholamine effects alone. In addition, after reviewing the recent medical literature and considering our own clinical observations, especially on spasm, we theorize that atherosclerotic coronary artery disease modulates and physically opposes obstruction during spasm. This phenomenon may explain the midventricular variant of TTC and the lower incidence of TTC in men. We continue to recommend and perform acetylcholine testing to reproduce TTC and to confirm our theory that coronary spasm is its initial pathophysiologic factor. An improved understanding of TTC is especially important because of the condition's markedly increased incidence during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Vasospasm , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Catecholamines/metabolism , Coronary Vasospasm/physiopathology , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/epidemiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/metabolism , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology
3.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(8): 1260-1262, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252584

ABSTRACT

It is now widely recognized that COVID-19 illness can be associated with significant intermediate and potentially longer-term physical limitations. The term, "long COVID-19" is used to define any patient with persistent symptoms after acute COVID-19 infection (ie, after 4 weeks). It is postulated that cardiac injury might be linked to symptoms that persist after resolution of acute infection, as part of this syndrome. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Rapid Response Team has generated this document to provide guidance to health care providers on the optimal management of patients with suspected cardiac complications of long COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Myocarditis/therapy , Patient Care Management , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Canada , Cardiology/methods , Cardiology/trends , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/therapy , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/virology , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Patient Care Team/organization & administration
4.
Crit Care Med ; 49(9): 1558-1566, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 binds and inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. The frequency of acute cardiac injury in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is unknown. The objective was to compare the rates of cardiac injury by angiotensin-converting enzyme-2-binding viruses from viruses that do not bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic review of coronavirus disease 2019 literature on PubMed and EMBASE. STUDY SELECTION: We included studies with ten or more hospitalized adults with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 or other viral pathogens that described the occurrence of acute cardiac injury. This was defined by the original publication authors or by: 1) myocardial ischemia, 2) new cardiac arrhythmia on echocardiogram, or 3) new or worsening heart failure on echocardiogram. DATA EXTRACTION: We compared the rates of cardiac injury among patients with respiratory infections with viruses that down-regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, including H1N1, H5N1, H7N9, and severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-1, to those with respiratory infections from other influenza viruses that do not bind angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, including Influenza H3N2 and influenza B. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 57 studies including 34,072 patients, acute cardiac injury occurred in 50% (95% CI, 44-57%) of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019. The overall risk of acute cardiac injury was 21% (95% CI, 18-26%) among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019. In comparison, 37% (95% CI, 26-49%) of critically ill patients with other respiratory viruses that bind angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (p = 0.061) and 12% (95% CI, 7-22%) of critically ill patients with other respiratory viruses that do not bind angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (p < 0.001) experienced a cardiac injury. CONCLUSIONS: Acute cardiac injury may be associated with whether the virus binds angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. Acute cardiac injury occurs in half of critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients, but only 12% of patients infected by viruses that do not bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Influenza, Human/complications , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Acute Disease , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Down-Regulation , Humans , Influenza A virus/metabolism , Influenza B virus/metabolism
5.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 18, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175699

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of SARS-COV 2 infection (Covid-19) is challenging health systems and communities worldwide. At the individual level, the main biological system involved in Covid-19 is the respiratory system. Respiratory complications range from mild flu-like illness symptoms to a fatal respiratory distress syndrome or a severe and fulminant pneumonia. Critically, the presence of a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or its risk factors, such as hypertension or type II diabetes mellitus, increases the chance of having severe complications (including death) if infected by the virus. In addition, the infection can worsen an existing cardiovascular disease or precipitate new ones. This paper presents a contemporary review of cardiovascular complications of Covid-19. It also specifically examines the impact of the disease on those already vulnerable and on the poorly resourced health systems of Africa as well as the potential broader consequences on the socio-economic health of this region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/economics , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Africa , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/economics , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/economics , Cardiovascular Diseases/economics , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Economic Factors , Economic Recession , Gross Domestic Product , Health Resources/economics , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Heart Failure/economics , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Inflammation , Myocardial Ischemia/economics , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocarditis/economics , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Socioeconomic Factors , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/economics , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology
8.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 97(2): 120-125, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, low dose radiotherapy delivered to the whole lung has been proposed as treatment for the pneumonia due to COVID-19. Although there is biological plausibility for its use, the evidence supporting its effectiveness is scarce, and the risks associated with it may be significant. Thus, based on a virtual case simulation, we estimated the risks of radiation-induced cancer (RIC) and cardiac disease. METHODS: Lifetime attributable risks (LAR) of RIC were calculated for the lung, liver, esophagus, and breast of female patients. The cardiovascular risk of exposure-induced death (REID) due to ischemic heart disease was also calculated. The doses received by the organs involved in the treatment were obtained from a simulation of conformal radiotherapy (RT) treatment, delivering a dose of 0.5 Gy-1.5 Gy to the lungs. We considered a LAR and REID <1% as acceptable, 1-2% cautionary, and >2% unacceptable. RESULTS: The lung was at the highest risk for RIC (absolute LAR below 5200 cases/100,000 and 2250 cases/100,000 for women and men, respectively). For women, the breast had the second-highest LAR, especially for young women. The liver and esophagus had LARs below 700/100,000 for both sexes, with a higher incidence of esophageal cancer in women and liver cancer in men. Regarding the LAR cutoff, we observed an unacceptable or cautionary LAR for lung cancer in all women and men <60 years with an RT dose >1 Gy. LAR for lung cancer with an RT dose of 1 Gy was cautionary for women >60 years of age and men <40 years of age. No LAR estimation was unacceptable for the RT dose ≤0.7 Gy in all groups irrespective of sex or age at exposure. Only 0.5 Gy had an acceptable REID. CONCLUSIONS: A RT dose ≤0.5 Gy provides an acceptable LAR estimate (≤1%) for RIC and REID, irrespective of sex and age. The current ongoing trials should initially use doses ≤0.5 Gy to maintain the risks at an acceptable level and include only patients who fail or do not have any other treatment option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Lung/radiation effects , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced/etiology , Radiation Dosage , Female , Humans , Organs at Risk/radiation effects , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiotherapy, Conformal/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , User-Computer Interface
9.
J Card Surg ; 36(1): 82-88, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effect of myocardial injury on the prognosis of patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Between February 10, 2020 and March 31, 2020, data of severe and critical COVID-19 patients were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Admission data included age, heart rates, mean arterial pressure, and myocardial injury markers including creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), myoglobin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and interleukin-6. The endpoints included mortality, the incidence of malignant arrhythmia, and mechanical ventilation time. Univariate regression analysis, multivariate linear regression analysis, and binary logistic analysis were performed to develop the risk predictors in myocardial injury to the prognosis of severe and critical COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Seventy-four COVID-19 patients were included (mean age of 67.2 ± 14.6 years, male of 66.2%), including 42 severe and 32 critical cases. The mortality was 62.2% (n = 46). CK-MB (odds ratio = 5.895, p < .001, 95% confidence interval: 3.097-8.692) and interleukin-6 (odds ratio = 0.379; p = .005; 95% confidence interval: 1.051-1.769) were independent risk factors of increased mechanical ventilation time; myoglobin (odds ratio = 7.710; p = .045; 95% confidence interval: 1.051-56.571) were the independent predictor of incidence of malignant arrhythmia; age (odds ratio = 1.077; p = .009; 95% confidence interval: 1.019-1.139), myoglobin (odds ratio = 9.480; p = .032; 95% confidence interval: 1.211-78.188), and NT-proBNP (odds ratio = 4.852; p = .047; 95% confidence interval: 0.956-24.627) were the independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In severe and critical COVID-19 patients, the obvious myocardial injury was observed. Increases of CK-MB, myoglobin, NT-proBNP, interleukin-6, and age were independently associated with poor prognosis including increased ventilation duration, the incidence of malignant arrhythmia, and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardium/metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin I/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/blood , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Protein Precursors , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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