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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(4): 311-323, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, the number of patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) has reduced, whereas increased mortality was reported. A plausible explanation for increased mortality was prehospital delay because of patients' reticence of their symptoms. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between prehospital delay and clinical outcomes in patients with NSTEMI METHODS: Among 13,104 patients from the Korea-Acute-Myocardial-Infarction-Registry-National Institutes of Health, the authors evaluated 6,544 patients with NSTEMI. Study patients were categorized into 2 groups according to symptom-to-door (StD) time (<24 or ≥24 hours). The primary outcome was 3-year all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcome was 3-year composite of all-cause mortality, recurrent MI, and hospitalization for heart failure. RESULTS: Overall, 1,827 (27.9%) patients were classified into the StD time ≥24 hours group. The StD time ≥24 hours group had higher all-cause mortality (17.0% vs 10.5%; P < 0.001) and incidence of secondary outcomes (23.3% vs 15.7%; P < 0.001) than the StD time <24 hours group. The higher all-cause mortality in the StD time ≥24 hours group was observed consistently in the subgroup analysis regarding age, sex, atypical chest pain, dyspnea, Q-wave in electrocardiogram, use of emergency medical services, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, left ventricle dysfunction, TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) flow, and the GRACE risk score. In the multivariable analysis, independent predictors of prehospital delay were the elderly, women, nonspecific symptoms such as atypical chest pain or dyspnea, diabetes, and no use of emergency medical services. CONCLUSIONS: Prehospital delay is associated with an increased risk of 3-year all-cause mortality in patients with NSTEMI. (iCReaT Study No. C110016).


Subject(s)
Hospitalization , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Aged , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Revascularization , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/complications , Registries , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Symptom Assessment
2.
Kardiologiia ; 61(12): 4-15, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in Russian, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1644025

ABSTRACT

Aim    To analyze the number of cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) [ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (nSTEACS)] and results of myocardial revascularization for ACS as a part of the monitoring performed by the Ministry of Health Care of Russia*. This analysis allows, on one hand, providing control of morbidity and mortality of patients with socially significant pathologies and, on the other hand, monitoring the effectivity of treatments to identify and correct their shortcomings. Time-related changes in results of myocardial revascularization performed for ACS patients in the Russian Federation in 2020 were analyzed and compared with the values of 2016-2019 based on data of the Russian Ministry of Health Care monitoring.Material and methods    Yearly absolute, relative, and calculated indices of revascularization for ACS were analyzed and compared based on data of the Russian Ministry of Health Care monitoring in 2016-2020.Results    In the Russian Federation in 2020, the lowest number of hospitalizations for ACS (403, 931) was recorded with an unprecedented ratio of 1 / 1.8 for STEMI/nSTEACS, respectively. In Russia in 2020, the proportion of primary percutaneous coronary interventions (pPCI) for STEMI continued growing; it reached 44% and peaked to the maximum for 2016-2020. At the same time, the thrombolytic therapy (TLT) remained essential in the structure of reperfusion strategies during those years (24.0-27.3 % of all STEMI cases). Total death rate of admitted patients with STEMI in Russia was stable at the level of 13.1-14.6 %. In 2020, there were no significant differences in quality indexes of the treatment for STEMI from the previous period (2016-2019). A yearly relative increase in the number of PCIs for STEACS (from 16 % in 2016 to 30 % in 2020 and from 30% to 46% for high-risk nSTEACS) was observed. In 2020, a significant increase in death rate was observed for nSTEACS as a whole (to 4.1 %) and for individual subgroups (high-risk nSTEACS, to 4.5 %; after PCI for nSTEACS, to 1.8 %; and after PCI for high-risk nSTEACS, to 2.8 %) whereas mean death rate values in these subgroups in 2016-2019 were 2.75 %, 3.45 %, 1.5 %, and 2.3 %, respectively.Conclusion    The analysis of revascularization indexes in ACS patients based on the Ministry of Health Care of Russia monitoring performed in 2016-2020 showed a number of positive trends, including an increase in the total number of revascularization procedures; a decrease in the time from the disease onset to the endovascular treatment; an increase in the availability of stenting for severe ACS; and general stabilization of the mortality. On the other hand, the Russian Federation is considerably behind European countries in several qualitative and quantitative parameters of health care in ACS, such as pPCI availability, symptom-to-balloon time, total mortality of all hospitalized STEMI patients, and revascularization for nSTEACS. Despite the gradual improvement of relative quantitative indexes of myocardial revascularization for ACS, negative changes in the absolute number of myocardial revascularizations for various forms of ACS and a notable increase in the death rate in nSTEACS were observed in 2020, including patients after PCI. There is no doubt that the negative results of myocardial revascularization in Russia in 2020 were due to the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic.* monitoring of measures to reduce the mortality from ischemic heart disease (letters of the Ministry of Health Care of the Russian Federation of 13.03.2015 # 17-6 /10 / 1-177 and of 24.07.2015 # 17-9 / 10 / 2-4128), which includes monthly collection of data on the Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics portal, the Automated System for Monitoring of Medical Statistics, at http://asmms.mednet.ru.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/surgery , Humans , Myocardial Revascularization , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int Heart J ; 62(2): 274-281, 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136336

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic severely disrupted cardiovascular care during the spring of 2020 in Europe. Our study analyzed the clinical profile, COVID-19 impact, and 30-day prognosis of invasively managed patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared to a historical cohort.All invasively managed ACS patients from March 1st to April 30th, 2020 were compared to a cohort from the same timeframe of 2019 (n = 316). COVID-19 confirmed cases were defined by a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test (CoV+). The primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality and multivariable predictors of this outcome.A 40.4% reduction in ACS patients was noted (198 cases in 2019 to 118 in 2020), and 11% of 2020 ACS patients were CoV+. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. There were significantly more in-hospital patients with ACS (15.3% versus 6.1%, P = 0.007), and fewer patients were found to have a culprit lesion (58.5% versus 74.2%, P = 0.004) in 2020 compared to 2019. Thirty-day mortality in 2020 (7%) was not different from that in 2019 (4.2%), P = 0.294, but it was significantly higher in CoV+ patients (23.1%) compared to that in negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR test (CoV-) patients (5%), P = 0.047, in the 2020 group. In the multivariate analysis, CoV+ was an independent mortality predictor (OR = 9.8, 95% CI = 1.48-64.78), along with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.86-0.97), P = 0.0006.This study found increased 30-day mortality of invasively managed CoV+ ACS patients compared to that of CoV- patients during the 2020 COVID-19 spring outbreak. In the multivariable analysis, a SARS-CoV-2 positive test was independently associated with 30-day mortality. Further investigations of the underlying physiopathological relations between COVID-19 and ACS are warranted.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Revascularization , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prognosis , Spain , Stroke Volume , Survival Rate
5.
Am J Cardiol ; 147: 16-22, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095811

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the way patients seek medical attention and how medical services are provided. We sought to compare characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes of patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during the pandemic compared with before it. This is a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of consecutive COVID-19 negative patients with AMI in Lithuania from March 11, 2020 to April 20, 2020 compared with patients admitted with the same diagnosis during the same period in 2019. All patients underwent angiography. Six-month follow-up was obtained for all patients. A total of 269 patients were included in this study, 107 (40.8%) of whom presented during the pandemic. Median pain-to-door times were significantly longer (858 [quartile 1=360, quartile 3 = 2,600] vs 385.5 [200, 745] minutes, p <0.0001) and post-revascularization ejection fractions were significantly lower (35 [30, 45] vs 45 [40, 50], p <0.0001) for patients presenting during vs. prior to the pandemic. While the in-hospital mortality rate did not differ, we observed a higher rate of six-month major adverse cardiovascular events for patients who presented during versus prior to the pandemic (30.8% vs 13.6%, p = 0.0006). In conclusion, 34% fewer patients with AMI presented to the hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic, and those who did waited longer to present and experienced more 6-month major adverse cardiovascular events compared with patients admitted before the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
6.
Circulation ; 142(24): 2299-2311, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) treat an expanding range of cancers. Consistent basic data suggest that these same checkpoints are critical negative regulators of atherosclerosis. Therefore, our objectives were to test whether ICIs were associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and a higher risk of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events. METHODS: The study was situated in a single academic medical center. The primary analysis evaluated whether exposure to an ICI was associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in 2842 patients and 2842 controls matched by age, a history of cardiovascular events, and cancer type. In a second design, a case-crossover analysis was performed with an at-risk period defined as the 2-year period after and the control period as the 2-year period before treatment. The primary outcome was a composite of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and ischemic stroke). Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome. In addition, in an imaging substudy (n=40), the rate of atherosclerotic plaque progression was compared from before to after the ICI was started. All study measures and outcomes were blindly adjudicated. RESULTS: In the matched cohort study, there was a 3-fold higher risk for cardiovascular events after starting an ICI (hazard ratio, 3.3 [95% CI, 2.0-5.5]; P<0.001). There was a similar increase in each of the individual components of the primary outcome. In the case-crossover, there was also an increase in cardiovascular events from 1.37 to 6.55 per 100 person-years at 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.8 [95% CI, 3.5-6.5]; P<0.001). In the imaging study, the rate of progression of total aortic plaque volume was >3-fold higher with ICIs (from 2.1%/y before 6.7%/y after). This association between ICI use and increased atherosclerotic plaque progression was attenuated with concomitant use of statins or corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular events were higher after initiation of ICIs, potentially mediated by accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. Optimization of cardiovascular risk factors and increased awareness of cardiovascular risk before, during, and after treatment should be considered among patients on an ICI.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Academic Medical Centers , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Boston/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Revascularization , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
7.
Indian Heart J ; 72(6): 623-624, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912232

ABSTRACT

The International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) study was published recently demonstrating that over a period of 3.3 years a routine invasive approach along with optimised medical therapy (OMT) was not superior to OMT alone in patients with stable coronary artery disease and at least moderate to severe ischemia. Considerable interest and discussion have emerged over the applicability of the trial to real-world settings and the limitations of the trial. Given the fact that no clinical trial will ever be designed that will be perfect, it is important to prise out the pearls that the findings reveal and not interpret the findings as either positive or negative towards one approach or the other.


Subject(s)
Myocardial Ischemia/surgery , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Global Health , Humans , Morbidity/trends , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology
8.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(6): 887-894, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Left main coronary arterial (LMCA) atresia is a rare coronary arterial anomaly with extremely limited data on the optimal management. We aimed to report our single-surgeon experience of the ostioplasty in patients with LMCA atresia. METHODS: From July 2018 to December 2019, pediatric patients who presented with LMCA atresia and subsequently underwent surgical coronary ostioplasty were recruited into this retrospective study. Concomitant mitral repair was applied when the regurgitation was moderate or more severe. RESULTS: A total of 9 patients diagnosed with LMCA atresia were included. Mitral regurgitation was found in all of them, including 6 (66.7%) severe, 1 (11.1%) moderate, and 2 (22.2%) mild. In addition to ischemic lesions, which were found in 7 (77.8%) patients, structural mitral problems were also common (presented in 7 [77.8%] patients). All the patients underwent coronary ostioplasty with autologous pulmonary arterial patch augmenting the anterior wall of the neo-ostium. Mean aortic cross clamp time and cardiopulmonary bypass time was 88.1 ± 18.9 and 124.6 ± 23.6 minutes, respectively. During a median of 10.9 (range: 3.3 to 17.2) months' follow-up, there was only 1 death at 5 months after surgery. All survivors were recovered uneventfully with normal left-ventricular function; however, with 4 (50.0%) having significant recurrence of mitral regurgitation. CONCLUSIONS: With favourable surgical outcomes, coronary ostioplasty for LMCA atresia may be an option of revascularization. Structural mitral problems presented in majority patients, resulting in the requirement of concomitant mitral repair. However, the optimal technique of mitral repair remains unclear.


Subject(s)
Angioplasty/methods , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessel Anomalies , Mitral Valve Annuloplasty , Mitral Valve Insufficiency , Pulmonary Artery/transplantation , Aorta, Thoracic/surgery , Child, Preschool , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/congenital , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/complications , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/diagnosis , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/surgery , Female , Humans , Male , Mitral Valve Annuloplasty/adverse effects , Mitral Valve Annuloplasty/methods , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/complications , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Operative Time , Recurrence , Transplantation, Autologous/methods , Treatment Outcome
11.
Lancet ; 396(10248): 381-389, 2020 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic have reported a substantial drop in the number of patients attending the emergency department with acute coronary syndromes and a reduced number of cardiac procedures. We aimed to understand the scale, nature, and duration of changes to admissions for different types of acute coronary syndrome in England and to evaluate whether in-hospital management of patients has been affected as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data on hospital admissions in England for types of acute coronary syndrome from Jan 1, 2019, to May 24, 2020, that were recorded in the Secondary Uses Service Admitted Patient Care database. Admissions were classified as ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI), myocardial infarction of unknown type, or other acute coronary syndromes (including unstable angina). We identified revascularisation procedures undertaken during these admissions (ie, coronary angiography without percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], PCI, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery). We calculated the numbers of weekly admissions and procedures undertaken; percentage reductions in weekly admissions and across subgroups were also calculated, with 95% CIs. FINDINGS: Hospital admissions for acute coronary syndrome declined from mid-February, 2020, falling from a 2019 baseline rate of 3017 admissions per week to 1813 per week by the end of March, 2020, a reduction of 40% (95% CI 37-43). This decline was partly reversed during April and May, 2020, such that by the last week of May, 2020, there were 2522 admissions, representing a 16% (95% CI 13-20) reduction from baseline. During the period of declining admissions, there were reductions in the numbers of admissions for all types of acute coronary syndrome, including both STEMI and NSTEMI, but relative and absolute reductions were larger for NSTEMI, with 1267 admissions per week in 2019 and 733 per week by the end of March, 2020, a percent reduction of 42% (95% CI 38-46). In parallel, reductions were recorded in the number of PCI procedures for patients with both STEMI (438 PCI procedures per week in 2019 vs 346 by the end of March, 2020; percent reduction 21%, 95% CI 12-29) and NSTEMI (383 PCI procedures per week in 2019 vs 240 by the end of March, 2020; percent reduction 37%, 29-45). The median length of stay among patients with acute coronary syndrome fell from 4 days (IQR 2-9) in 2019 to 3 days (1-5) by the end of March, 2020. INTERPRETATION: Compared with the weekly average in 2019, there was a substantial reduction in the weekly numbers of patients with acute coronary syndrome who were admitted to hospital in England by the end of March, 2020, which had been partly reversed by the end of May, 2020. The reduced number of admissions during this period is likely to have resulted in increases in out-of-hospital deaths and long-term complications of myocardial infarction and missed opportunities to offer secondary prevention treatment for patients with coronary heart disease. The full extent of the effect of COVID-19 on the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome will continue to be assessed by updating these analyses. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, Public Health England, Health Data Research UK, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angina, Unstable/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , England/epidemiology , Facilities and Services Utilization , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Revascularization , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
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