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1.
Med. lab ; 26(1): 35-46, 2022. Grafs
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20235630

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 es una enfermedad infecciosa respiratoria aguda, causada por el SARS-CoV-2, un nuevo coronavirus, que se extendió rápidamente por todo el mundo, dando como resultado una pandemia. Los pacientes presentan un amplio espectro de manifestaciones clínicas, entre ellas, la miocarditis, y de manera alterna, algunos pacientes sin síntomas de enfermedad cardíaca, tienen anomalías en las pruebas, como elevación de la troponina y arritmias cardíacas en el electrocardiograma, o anomalías en las imágenes cardíacas. La patogenia del compromiso miocárdico no es clara, pero las dos principales teorías prevén un papel directo de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2, que funciona como el receptor viral, y una respuesta hiperinmune, que también puede conducir a una presentación aislada. El estándar de oro del diagnóstico es la biopsia endomiocárdica, la cual no está disponible en la mayoría de los escenarios. En esta revisión, se pretende brindar al lector pautas para identificar las manifestaciones clínicas, ayudas diagnósticas y manejo de los pacientes con sospecha de miocarditis por COVID-19


COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 virus, that spread rapidly around the world, resulting in a pandemic. Patients present with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including myocarditis, and alternately, some patients without symptoms of heart disease have abnormalities in tests, such as elevated troponin, arrhythmias in the ECG orabnormalities in cardiac imaging testing. The pathogenesis of myocardial involvement is not completely clear, but the two main theories suggest a direct role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme, which functions as the virus receptor, and a hyperimmune response, which can also lead to an isolated presentation. The gold standard for the diagnosis is the endomyocardial biopsy, which is not available in most settings. In this review, we intend to provide the reader with guidelines to identify the clinical manifestations, diagnostic tools, and management of patients with suspected COVID-19 myocarditis


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biopsy , Echocardiography , SARS-CoV-2 , Myocarditis , Myocardium
2.
Eur Heart J ; 44(24): 2234-2243, 2023 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234164

ABSTRACT

AIMS: A comprehensive nationwide study on the incidence and outcomes of COVID-19 vaccination-related myocarditis (VRM) is in need. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 44 276 704 individuals with at least 1 dose of COVID-19 vaccination, the incidence and clinical courses of VRM cases confirmed by the Expert Adjudication Committee of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency were analyzed. COVID-19 VRM was confirmed in 480 cases (1.08 cases per 100 000 persons). Vaccination-related myocarditis incidence was significantly higher in men than in women (1.35 vs. 0.82 per 100 000 persons, P < 0.001) and in mRNA vaccines than in other vaccines (1.46 vs. 0.14 per 100 000 persons, P < 0.001). Vaccination-related myocarditis incidence was highest in males between the ages of 12 and 17 years (5.29 cases per 100 000 persons) and lowest in females over 70 years (0.16 cases per 100 000 persons). Severe VRM was identified in 95 cases (19.8% of total VRM, 0.22 per 100 000 vaccinated persons), 85 intensive care unit admission (17.7%), 36 fulminant myocarditis (7.5%), 21 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (4.4%), 21 deaths (4.4%), and 1 heart transplantation (0.2%). Eight out of 21 deaths were sudden cardiac death (SCD) attributable to VRM proved by an autopsy, and all cases of SCD attributable to VRM were aged under 45 years and received mRNA vaccines. CONCLUSION: Although COVID-19 VRM was rare and showed relatively favorable clinical courses, severe VRM was found in 19.8% of all VRM cases. Moreover, SCD should be closely monitored as a potentially fatal complication of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , mRNA Vaccines , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
3.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 21(6): 437-451, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239452

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune myocarditis may develop due to heterogeneous causes. Myocarditis is often caused by viral infections, but it can also be caused by systemic autoimmune diseases. Immune checkpoint inhibitors and virus vaccines induce immune activation, and they can cause the development of myocarditis, as well as several immune-related adverse events. The development of myocarditis is dependent on the genetic factors of the host, and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may be an important determinant of the type and severity of the disease. However, non-MHC immunoregulatory genes may also play a role in determining susceptibility. AREA COVERED: This review summarizes the current knowledge of the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune myocarditis with a particular focus on viral infection, autoimmunity, and biomarkers of myocarditis. EXPERT OPINION: An endomyocardial biopsy may not be the gold standard for the diagnosis of myocarditis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is useful in diagnosing autoimmune myocarditis. Recently identified biomarkers of inflammation and myocyte injury are promising for the diagnosis of myocarditis when measured simultaneously. Future treatments should focus on the appropriate diagnosis of the etiologic agent, as well as on the specific stage of the evolution of immune and inflammatory processes.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Autoimmunity , Inflammation , Biopsy , Biomarkers
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8926, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237910

ABSTRACT

After the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, a novel mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) was developed at an unprecedented speed. Although most countries have achieved widespread immunity from vaccines and infections, yet people, even who have recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection, are recommended to receive vaccination due to their effectiveness in lowering the risk of recurrent infection. However, the BNT162b2 vaccine has been reported to increase the risk of myocarditis. To our knowledge, for the first time in this study, we tracked changes in the chromatin dynamics of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the patient who underwent myocarditis after BNT162b2 vaccination. A longitudinal study of chromatin accessibility using concurrent analysis of single-cell assays for transposase-accessible chromatin with sequencing and single-cell RNA sequencing showed downregulation of interferon signaling and upregulated RUNX2/3 activity in PBMCs. Considering BNT162b2 vaccination increases the level of interferon-α/γ in serum, our data highlight the immune responses different from the conventional responses to the vaccination, which is possibly the key to understanding the side effects of BNT162b2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Humans , Myocarditis/etiology , BNT162 Vaccine , Epigenomics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Chromatin , Interferon-alpha , Interferon-gamma , Antibodies, Viral
7.
Int Heart J ; 64(3): 374-385, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235045

ABSTRACT

Acute viral myocarditis is a serious complication of viral infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To better understand the pathogenesis of acute viral myocarditis, we retrospectively analyzed the incidence and prognostic significance of hypocalcemia among patients with acute myocarditis, most of whom were considered to have acute viral myocarditis. We retrospectively reviewed the demographic and clinical data of patients with clinically confirmed acute myocarditis treated in our hospital over a 13-year period from 2006 to 2019, including laboratory results, cardiac imaging findings, and clinical outcomes. These data were compared between lower, middle, and higher calcium groups depending on the minimum calcium level measured during hospitalization. Among the 288 patients with acute myocarditis included, the hypocalcemia group (lower calcium group) had poorer clinical and laboratory results, received more medications and device support, and experienced poorer outcomes, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and death. Specifically, the left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower, and the length of hospital stay was significantly longer in the hypocalcemia group than in the other two groups. Furthermore, the incidence rates of atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation, cardiogenic shock, and mortality were significantly higher in the hypocalcemia group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified hypocalcemia as an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocarditis. In conclusion, the clinical evidence provided by the present study indicates that hypocalcemia is a risk factor for poorer outcomes in patients with acute myocarditis that should be considered carefully in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypocalcemia , Myocarditis , Humans , Stroke Volume , Hypocalcemia/epidemiology , Hypocalcemia/complications , Calcium , Ventricular Function, Left , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Prognosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Ventricular Fibrillation , Acute Disease
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1191936, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244447

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota plays an important role in the development and treatment of different cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, evidence from recent studies has shown that gut microbiota contributes to the development of myocarditis. Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease that often results in myocardial damage. Myocarditis is a common cause of sudden cardiac death in young adults. The incidence of myocarditis and its associated dilated cardiomyopathy has been increasing yearly. Myocarditis has gained significant attention on social media due to its association with both COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccinations. However, the current therapeutic options for myocarditis are limited. In addition, little is known about the potential therapeutic targets of myocarditis. In this study, we review (1) the evidence on the gut-heart axis, (2) the crosslink between gut microbiota and the immune system, (3) the association between myocarditis and the immune system, (4) the impact of gut microbiota and its metabolites on myocarditis, (5) current strategies for modulating gut microbiota, (6) challenges and future directions for targeted gut microbiota in the treatment of myocarditis. The approach of targeting the gut microbiota in myocarditis is still in its infancy, and this is the study to explore the gut microbiota-immune system-myocarditis axis. Our findings are expected to pave the way for the use of gut microbiota as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Myocarditis , Young Adult , Humans , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocardium
9.
PLoS Med ; 20(6): e1004245, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increased risk of myocarditis or pericarditis after priming with mRNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines has been shown but information on the risk post-booster is limited. With the now high prevalence of prior Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we assessed the effect of prior infection on the vaccine risk and the risk from COVID-19 reinfection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a self-controlled case series analysis of hospital admissions for myocarditis or pericarditis in England between 22 February 2021 and 6 February 2022 in the 50 million individuals eligible to receive the adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1-S) for priming or an mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) for priming or boosting. Myocarditis and pericarditis admissions were extracted from the Secondary Uses Service (SUS) database in England and vaccination histories from the National Immunisation Management System (NIMS); prior infections were obtained from the UK Health Security Agency's Second-Generation Surveillance Systems. The relative incidence (RI) of admission within 0 to 6 and 7 to 14 days of vaccination compared with periods outside these risk windows stratified by age, dose, and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection for individuals aged 12 to 101 years was estimated. The RI within 27 days of an infection was assessed in the same model. There were 2,284 admissions for myocarditis and 1,651 for pericarditis in the study period. Elevated RIs were only observed in 16- to 39-year-olds 0 to 6 days postvaccination, mainly in males for myocarditis. Both mRNA vaccines showed elevated RIs after first, second, and third doses with the highest RIs after a second dose 5.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) [3.81, 7.48]; p < 0.001) for BNT162b2 and 56.48 (95% CI [33.95, 93.97]; p < 0.001) for mRNA-1273 compared with 4.38 (95% CI [2.59, 7.38]; p < 0.001) and 7.88 (95% CI [4.02, 15.44]; p < 0.001), respectively, after a third dose. For ChAdOx1-S, an elevated RI was only observed after a first dose, RI 5.23 (95% CI [2.48, 11.01]; p < 0.001). An elevated risk of admission for pericarditis was only observed 0 to 6 days after a second dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine in 16 to 39 year olds, RI 4.84 (95% CI [1.62, 14.01]; p = 0.004). RIs were lower in those with a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection than in those without, 2.47 (95% CI [1.32,4.63]; p = 0.005) versus 4.45 (95% [3.12, 6.34]; p = 0.001) after a second BNT162b2 dose, and 19.07 (95% CI [8.62, 42.19]; p < 0.001) versus 37.2 (95% CI [22.18, 62.38]; p < 0.001) for mRNA-1273 (myocarditis and pericarditis outcomes combined). RIs 1 to 27 days postinfection were elevated in all ages and were marginally lower for breakthrough infections, 2.33 (95% CI [1.96, 2.76]; p < 0.001) compared with 3.32 (95% CI [2.54, 4.33]; p < 0.001) in vaccine-naïve individuals respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an increased risk of myocarditis within the first week after priming and booster doses of mRNA vaccines, predominantly in males under 40 years with the highest risks after a second dose. The risk difference between the second and the third doses was particularly marked for the mRNA-1273 vaccine that contains half the amount of mRNA when used for boosting than priming. The lower risk in those with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, and lack of an enhanced effect post-booster, does not suggest a spike-directed immune mechanism. Research to understand the mechanism of vaccine-associated myocarditis and to document the risk with bivalent mRNA vaccines is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , England/epidemiology , mRNA Vaccines , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(6)2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241613

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against mRNA SARS-CoV-2 has been administered on a very large scale and various side effects have been described. The increased risk of myopericarditis is known, and only a few cases of shoulder capsulitis have been reported after vaccination. These two pathologies have never been reported in the same patient after vaccination. Our article presents the history of a man in his 40s who presented with myopericarditis a few days after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with mRNA(Messenger RNA) Moderna® vaccine and who at the same time developed shoulder capsulitis. His cardiovascular symptoms resolved rapidly, and his shoulder symptoms improved/resolved within 1 year. This case should make physicians aware of the possibility of several concomitant side effects following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Bursitis , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Male , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Shoulder , Pericarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 58-64, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2322597

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background In Brazil the factors involved in the risk of death in patients with COVID-19 have not been well established. Objective To analyze whether elevations of high-sensitivity troponin I (hTnI) levels influence the mortality of patients with COVID-19. Methods Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were collected upon hospital admission. Univariate and binary logistic regression analyzes were performed to assess the factors that influence mortality. P-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results This study analyzed192 patients who received hospital admission between March 16 and June 2, 2020 and who were discharged or died by July 2, 2020. The mean age was 70±15 years, 80 (41.7%) of whom were women. In comparison to those who were discharged, the 54 (28.1%) who died were older (79±12 vs 66±15years; P=0.004), and with a higher Charlson´s index (5±2 vs 3±2; P=0.027). More patients, aged≥60years (P <0.0001), Charlson´s index>1 (P=0.004), lung injury>50% in chest computed tomography (P=0.011), with previous coronary artery disease (P=0.037), hypertension (P=0.033), stroke (P=0.008), heart failure (P=0.002), lymphocytopenia (P=0.024), high D-dimer (P=0.024), high INR (P=0.003), hTnI (P<0.0001), high creatinine (P<0.0001), invasive mechanical ventilation (P<0.0001), renal replacement therapy (P<0.0001), vasoactive amine (P<0.0001), and transfer to the ICU (P=0.001), died when compared to those who were discharged. In logistic regression analysis, elevated hTnI levels (OR=9.504; 95% CI=1.281-70.528; P=0.028) upon admission, and the need for mechanical ventilation during hospitalization (OR=46.691; 95% CI=2.360-923.706; P=0.012) increased the chance of in-hospital mortality. Conclusion This study suggests that in COVID-19 disease, myocardial injury upon hospital admission is a harbinger of poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Troponin I/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Myocarditis/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/complications
14.
Herz ; 48(3): 195-205, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324676

ABSTRACT

The causes of cardiac inflammation during the COVID-19 pandemic are manifold and complex, and may have changed with different virus variants and vaccinations. The underlying viral etiology is self-evident, but its role in the pathogenic process is diverse. The view of many pathologists that myocyte necrosis and cellular infiltrates are indispensable for myocarditis does not suffice and contradicts the clinical criteria of myocarditis, i.e., a combination of serological evidence of necrosis based on troponins or MRI features of necrosis, edema, and inflammation based on prolonged T1 and T2 times and late gadolinium enhancement. The definition of myocarditis is still debated by pathologists and clinicians. We have learned that myocarditis and pericarditis can be induced by the virus via different pathways of action such as direct viral damage to the myocardium through the ACE2 receptor. Indirect damage occurs via immunological effector organs such as the innate immune system by macrophages and cytokines, and then later the acquired immune system via T cells, overactive proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac autoantibodies. Cardiovascular diseases lead to more severe courses of SARS-CoV­2 disease. Thus, heart failure patients have a double risk for complicated courses and lethal outcome. So do patients with diabetes, hypertension, and renal insufficiency. Independent of the definition, myocarditis patients benefitted from intensive hospital care, ventilation, if needed, and cortisone treatment. Postvaccination myocarditis and pericarditis affect primarily young male patients after the second RNA vaccine. Both are rare events but severe enough to deserve our full attention, because treatment according to current guidelines is available and necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoimmunity , Pandemics , Contrast Media , Gadolinium/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Pericarditis/therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Cytokines , Vaccination
15.
JAMA Pediatr ; 177(7): 710-717, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323675

ABSTRACT

Importance: Active monitoring of health outcomes after COVID-19 vaccination offers early detection of rare outcomes that may not be identified in prelicensure trials. Objective: To conduct near-real-time monitoring of health outcomes following BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination in the US pediatric population aged 5 to 17 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based study was conducted under a public health surveillance mandate from the US Food and Drug Administration. Participants aged 5 to 17 years were included if they received BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination through mid 2022 and had continuous enrollment in a medical health insurance plan from the start of an outcome-specific clean window until the COVID-19 vaccination. Surveillance of 20 prespecified health outcomes was conducted in near real time within a cohort of vaccinated individuals from the earliest Emergency Use Authorization date for the BNT162b2 vaccination (December 11, 2020) and was expanded as more pediatric age groups received authorization through May and June 2022. All 20 health outcomes were monitored descriptively, 13 of which additionally underwent sequential testing. For these 13 health outcomes, the increased risk of each outcome after vaccination was compared with a historical baseline with adjustments for repeated looks at the data as well as a claims processing delay. A sequential testing approach was used, which declared a safety signal when the log likelihood ratio comparing the observed rate ratio against the null hypothesis exceeded a critical value. Exposure: Exposure was defined as receipt of a BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine dose. The primary analysis assessed primary series doses together (dose 1 + dose 2), and dose-specific secondary analyses were conducted. Follow-up time was censored for death, disenrollment, end of the outcome-specific risk window, end of the study period, or a receipt of a subsequent vaccine dose. Main Outcomes: Twenty prespecified health outcomes: 13 were assessed using sequential testing and 7 were monitored descriptively because of a lack of historical comparator data. Results: This study included 3 017 352 enrollees aged 5 to 17 years. Of the enrollees across all 3 databases, 1 510 817 (50.1%) were males, 1 506 499 (49.9%) were females, and 2 867 436 (95.0%) lived in an urban area. In the primary sequential analyses, a safety signal was observed only for myocarditis or pericarditis after primary series vaccination with BNT162b2 in the age group 12 to 17 years across all 3 databases. No safety signals were observed for the 12 other outcomes assessed using sequential testing. Conclusions and Relevance: Among 20 health outcomes that were monitored in near real time, a safety signal was identified for only myocarditis or pericarditis. Consistent with other published reports, these results provide additional evidence that COVID-19 vaccines are safe in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Child , Female , Humans , Male , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
16.
Vaccine ; 41(28): 4067-4080, 2023 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of myopericarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination among adolescents aged 12-17 years remains unknown. Therefore, we conducted a study to pool the incidence of myopericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination in this age group. METHODS: We did a meta-analysis by searching 4 electronic databases until February 6, 2023. The following main keywords were used: "COVID-19", "vaccines", "myocarditis", "pericarditis", and "myopericarditis". Observational studies reporting on adolescents aged 12-17 years who had myopericarditis in temporal relation to receiving mRNA COVID-19 vaccines were included. The pooled incidence of myopericarditis and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a single-group meta-analysis. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included. The pooled incidences of myopericarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination among adolescents aged 12-17 years were 43.5 (95 % CI, 30.8-61.6) cases per million vaccine doses for both BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 (39 628 242 doses; 14 studies), and 41.8 (29.4-59.4) cases for BNT162b2 alone (38 756 553 doses; 13 studies). Myopericarditis was more common among males (66.0 [40.5-107.7] cases) than females (10.1 [6.0-17.0] cases) and among those receiving the second dose (60.4 [37.6-96.9] cases) than those receiving the first dose (16.6 [8.7-31.9] cases). The incidences of myopericarditis did not differ significantly when grouped by age, type of myopericarditis, country, and World Health Organization region. None of the incidences of myopericarditis pooled in the current study were higher than those after smallpox vaccinations and non-COVID-19 vaccinations, and all of them were significantly lower than those in adolescents aged 12-17 years after COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The incidences of myopericarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination among adolescents aged 12-17 years were very rare; they were not higher than other important reference incidences. These findings provide an important context for health policy makers and parents with vaccination hesitancy to weight the risks and benefits of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination among adolescents aged 12-17 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Incidence , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2314291, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325464

ABSTRACT

Importance: Cardiac dysfunction and myocarditis have emerged as serious complications of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Understanding the role of autoantibodies in these conditions is essential for guiding MIS-C management and vaccination strategies in children. Objective: To investigate the presence of anticardiac autoantibodies in MIS-C or COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This diagnostic study included children with acute MIS-C or acute vaccine myocarditis, adults with myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy, healthy children prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and healthy COVID-19 vaccinated adults. Participants were recruited into research studies in the US, United Kingdom, and Austria starting January 2021. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA anticardiac autoantibodies were identified with immunofluorescence staining of left ventricular myocardial tissue from 2 human donors treated with sera from patients and controls. Secondary antibodies were fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antihuman IgG, IgM, and IgA. Images were taken for detection of specific IgG, IgM, and IgA deposits and measurement of fluorescein isothiocyanate fluorescence intensity. Data were analyzed through March 10, 2023. Main Outcomes and Measures: IgG, IgM and IgA antibody binding to cardiac tissue. Results: By cohort, there were a total of 10 children with MIS-C (median [IQR] age, 10 [13-14] years; 6 male), 10 with vaccine myocarditis (median age, 15 [14-16] years; 10 male), 8 adults with myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy (median age, 55 [46-63] years; 6 male), 10 healthy pediatric controls (median age, 8 [13-14] years; 5 male), and 10 healthy vaccinated adults (all older than 21 years, 5 male). No antibody binding above background was observed in human cardiac tissue treated with sera from pediatric patients with MIS-C or vaccine myocarditis. One of the 8 adult patients with myocarditis or cardiomyopathy had positive IgG staining with raised fluorescence intensity (median [IQR] intensity, 11 060 [10 223-11 858] AU). There were no significant differences in median fluorescence intensity in all other patient cohorts compared with controls for IgG (MIS-C, 6033 [5834-6756] AU; vaccine myocarditis, 6392 [5710-6836] AU; adult myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy, 5688 [5277-5990] AU; healthy pediatric controls, 6235 [5924-6708] AU; healthy vaccinated adults, 7000 [6423-7739] AU), IgM (MIS-C, 3354 [3110-4043] AU; vaccine myocarditis, 3843 [3288-4748] AU; healthy pediatric controls, 3436 [3313-4237] AU; healthy vaccinated adults, 3543 [2997-4607] AU) and IgA (MIS-C, 3559 [2788-4466] AU; vaccine myocarditis, 4389 [2393-4780] AU; healthy pediatric controls, 3436 [2425-4077] AU; healthy vaccinated adults, 4561 [3164-6309] AU). Conclusions and Relevance: This etiological diagnostic study found no evidence of antibodies from MIS-C and COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis serum binding cardiac tissue, suggesting that the cardiac pathology in both conditions is unlikely to be driven by direct anticardiac antibody-mediated mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin A , Fluoresceins , Immunoglobulin M
18.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 36(2): 234-240, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316653

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical syndrome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Cardiac dysfunction is commonly seen in these patients, often presenting as clinical heart failure. Accordingly, we aim to provide a comprehensive review on COVID-19 myocarditis and its long-term heart failure sequelae. RECENT FINDINGS: Several suspected cases of COVID-19 myocarditis have been reported. It is often not clear if the acute myocardial dysfunction is caused by myocarditis or secondary to generalized inflammatory state of cytokine release or microvascular thrombotic angiopathy. Ischemia may also need to be ruled out. Regardless, myocardial dysfunction in these patients is associated with poor overall prognosis. Laboratory testing, echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and even endomyocardial biopsy may be needed for timely diagnosis. Several treatment strategies have been described, including both supportive and targeted therapies. SUMMARY: COVID-19 can cause a spectrum of ventricular dysfunction ranging from mild disease to fulminant myocarditis with hemodynamic instability. Future research is needed to understand the true prevalence of COVID-19 myocarditis, as well as to better define various diagnostic protocols and treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Myocarditis , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 14-24, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2318339

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The risk of sports-related sudden cardiac arrest after COVID-19 infection can be a serious problem. There is an urgent need for evidence-based criteria to ensure patient safety before resuming exercise. Objective: To estimate the pooled prevalence of acute myocardial injury caused by COVID-19 and to provide an easy-to-use cardiovascular risk assessment toolkit prior to resuming sports activities after COVID-19 infection. Methods: We searched the Medline and Cochrane databases for articles on the prevalence of acute myocardial injury associated with COVID-19 infection. The pooled prevalence of acute myocardial injury was calculated for hospitalized patients treated in different settings (non-intensive care unit [ICU], ICU, overall hospitalization, and non-survivors). Statistical significance was accepted for p values <0.05. We propose a practical flowchart to assess the cardiovascular risk of individuals who recovered from COVID-19 before resuming sports activities. Results: A total of 20 studies (6,573 patients) were included. The overall pooled prevalence of acute myocardial injury in hospitalized patients was 21.7% (95% CI 17.3-26.5%). The non-ICU setting had the lowest prevalence (9.5%, 95% CI 1.5-23.4%), followed by the ICU setting (44.9%, 95% CI 27.7-62.8%), and the cohort of non-survivors (57.7% with 95% CI 38.5-75.7%). We provide an approach to assess cardiovascular risk based on the prevalence of acute myocardial injury in each setting. Conclusions: Acute myocardial injury is frequent and associated with more severe disease and hospital admissions. Cardiac involvement could be a potential trigger for exercise-induced clinical complications after COVID-19 infection. We created a toolkit to assist with clinical decision-making prior to resuming sports activities after COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Sports , Heart Disease Risk Factors , COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Risk Assessment/methods , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Athletes
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