Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 529
Filter
1.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 218(4): 651-657, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. A possible association has been reported between COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination and myocarditis. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to describe cardiac MRI findings in patients with myocarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. METHODS. This retrospective study included patients without known prior SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent cardiac MRI between May 14, 2021, and June 14, 2021, for suspected myocarditis within 2 weeks of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Information regarding clinical presentation, hospital course, and events after hospital discharge were recorded. A cardiothoracic imaging fellow and cardiothoracic radiologist reviewed cardiac MRI examinations in consensus. Data were summarized descriptively. RESULTS. Of 52 patients without known prior SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent cardiac MRI during the study period, five underwent MRI for suspected myocarditis after recent COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. All five patients were male patients ranging in age from 16 to 19 years (mean, 17.2 ± 1.0 [SD] years) who presented within 4 days of receiving the second dose of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Troponin levels were elevated in all patients (mean peak troponin I value, 6.82 ± 4.13 ng/mL). Alternate possible causes of myocarditis were deemed clinically unlikely on the basis of medical history, physical examination findings, myocarditis viral panel, and toxicology screening. Cardiac MRI findings were consistent with myocarditis in all five patients on the basis of the Lake Louise criteria, including early gadolinium enhancement and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in all patients and corresponding myocardial edema in four patients. All five patients had a favorable hospital course and were discharged from the hospital in stable condition with improved or resolved symptoms after hospitalization (mean length of hospital stay, 4.8 days). Two patients underwent repeat cardiac MRI that showed persistent, although decreased, LGE. Three patients reported mild intermittent self-resolving chest pain after hospital discharge, and two patients had no recurrent symptoms after discharge. CONCLUSION. In this small case series, all patients with myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination were male adolescents and had a favorable initial clinical course. All patients showed cardiac MRI findings typical of myocarditis from other causes. LGE persisted in two patients who underwent repeat MRI. These observations do not establish causality. CLINICAL IMPACT. Radiologists should be aware of a possible association of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and myocarditis and recognize the role of cardiac MRI in the assessment of suspected myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic , Young Adult
2.
Circulation ; 145(5): 345-356, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the clinical course and short-term outcomes of suspected myocarditis after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has important public health implications in the decision to vaccinate youth. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on patients <21 years old presenting before July 4, 2021, with suspected myocarditis within 30 days of COVID-19 vaccination. Lake Louise criteria were used for cardiac MRI findings. Myocarditis cases were classified as confirmed or probable on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. RESULTS: We report on 139 adolescents and young adults with 140 episodes of suspected myocarditis (49 confirmed, 91 probable) at 26 centers. Most patients were male (n=126, 90.6%) and White (n=92, 66.2%); 29 (20.9%) were Hispanic; and the median age was 15.8 years (range, 12.1-20.3; interquartile range [IQR], 14.5-17.0). Suspected myocarditis occurred in 136 patients (97.8%) after the mRNA vaccine, with 131 (94.2%) after the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; 128 (91.4%) occurred after the second dose. Symptoms started at a median of 2 days (range, 0-22; IQR, 1-3) after vaccination. The most common symptom was chest pain (99.3%). Patients were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (81.3%), intravenous immunoglobulin (21.6%), glucocorticoids (21.6%), colchicine (7.9%), or no anti-inflammatory therapies (8.6%). Twenty-six patients (18.7%) were in the intensive care unit, 2 were treated with inotropic/vasoactive support, and none required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or died. Median hospital stay was 2 days (range, 0-10; IQR, 2-3). All patients had elevated troponin I (n=111, 8.12 ng/mL; IQR, 3.50-15.90) or T (n=28, 0.61 ng/mL; IQR, 0.25-1.30); 69.8% had abnormal ECGs and arrhythmias (7 with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia); and 18.7% had left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram. Of 97 patients who underwent cardiac MRI at a median 5 days (range, 0-88; IQR, 3-17) from symptom onset, 75 (77.3%) had abnormal findings: 74 (76.3%) had late gadolinium enhancement, 54 (55.7%) had myocardial edema, and 49 (50.5%) met Lake Louise criteria. Among 26 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram, all with follow-up had normalized function (n=25). CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of suspected COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis occurring in persons <21 years have a mild clinical course with rapid resolution of symptoms. Abnormal findings on cardiac MRI were frequent. Future studies should evaluate risk factors, mechanisms, and long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Adolescent , Child , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
3.
Kardiologiia ; 62(3): 82-88, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789753

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on the pathogenesis, most common clinical manifestations, and methods for diagnosis of damages to the cardiovascular system in coronavirus infection. The search for studies to be reviewed included publications of Elsevier, PubMed, and Web of Science resources by the key words "COVID-19", "myocarditis", "coronavirus", and "myocardial injury". The clinical presentation of coronavirus infection can include acute heart failure, myocardial injury, arrhythmias, pericarditis, venous thromboembolism, and microcirculatory dysfunction. Since symptoms of this pathology are non-specific, it is important to pay attention to monitoring of clinical laboratory and instrumental indexes for early differential diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. In all cases of parameter deviation from the normal range, cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 should be suspected. Measures should be taken for specifying the occurrence and severity of cardiac and/or vascular injury, and approaches should be developed for comprehensive treatment or prevention of these conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Myocarditis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Humans , Microcirculation , Myocarditis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
4.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(7): 22-23, 2022 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782343

Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Humans , Vaccination
5.
Circulation ; 145(15): 1123-1139, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis (AM) is thought to be a rare cardiovascular complication of COVID-19, although minimal data are available beyond case reports. We aim to report the prevalence, baseline characteristics, in-hospital management, and outcomes for patients with COVID-19-associated AM on the basis of a retrospective cohort from 23 hospitals in the United States and Europe. METHODS: A total of 112 patients with suspected AM from 56 963 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were evaluated between February 1, 2020, and April 30, 2021. Inclusion criteria were hospitalization for COVID-19 and a diagnosis of AM on the basis of endomyocardial biopsy or increased troponin level plus typical signs of AM on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We identified 97 patients with possible AM, and among them, 54 patients with definite/probable AM supported by endomyocardial biopsy in 17 (31.5%) patients or magnetic resonance imaging in 50 (92.6%). We analyzed patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes among all COVID-19-associated AM. RESULTS: AM prevalence among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 2.4 per 1000 hospitalizations considering definite/probable and 4.1 per 1000 considering also possible AM. The median age of definite/probable cases was 38 years, and 38.9% were female. On admission, chest pain and dyspnea were the most frequent symptoms (55.5% and 53.7%, respectively). Thirty-one cases (57.4%) occurred in the absence of COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Twenty-one (38.9%) had a fulminant presentation requiring inotropic support or temporary mechanical circulatory support. The composite of in-hospital mortality or temporary mechanical circulatory support occurred in 20.4%. At 120 days, estimated mortality was 6.6%, 15.1% in patients with associated pneumonia versus 0% in patients without pneumonia (P=0.044). During hospitalization, left ventricular ejection fraction, assessed by echocardiography, improved from a median of 40% on admission to 55% at discharge (n=47; P<0.0001) similarly in patients with or without pneumonia. Corticosteroids were frequently administered (55.5%). CONCLUSIONS: AM occurrence is estimated between 2.4 and 4.1 out of 1000 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The majority of AM occurs in the absence of pneumonia and is often complicated by hemodynamic instability. AM is a rare complication in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, with an outcome that differs on the basis of the presence of concomitant pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
6.
BMJ ; 377: e068898, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784788

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk of acute and post-acute adverse events after SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents in Denmark and to evaluate the real world effectiveness of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) among adolescents. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide Danish healthcare registers. PARTICIPANTS: All Danish people younger than 18 years who were either tested for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or vaccinated with BNT162b2 to 1 October 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of hospital admissions (any hospital contact of ≥12 hours); intensive care unit (ICU) admissions; serious complications, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), myocarditis, and neuroimmune disorders; and initiating drug treatment and health service use up to six months after being tested. Vaccine effectiveness in vaccine recipients compared with unvaccinated peers was evaluated as one minus the risk ratio at 20 days after the first dose and 60 days after the second dose. RESULTS: Of 991 682 children and adolescents tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR in Denmark, 74 611 (7.5%) were positive. The risk of hospital admission with any variant for ≥12 hours was 0.49% (95% confidence interval 0.44% to 0.54%; 361/74 350), and 0.01% (0.01% to 0.03%; 10/73 187) of participants were admitted to an ICU within 30 days of testing positive. The risk of MIS-C within two months of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0.05% (0.03% to 0.06%; 32/70 666), whereas no participants had myocarditis outside of MIS-C or encephalitis and fewer than five had Guillain-Barré syndrome. In the post-acute phase (1-6 months after infection), participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 showed a 1.08-fold (95% confidence interval 1.06-fold to 1.10-fold) increase in rate of contacts with general practitioners compared with a reference cohort sampled among all children tested for SARS-CoV-2 during the study period. Overall, 278 649 adolescents received BNT162b2. Compared with unvaccinated adolescents, the estimated vaccine effectiveness among 229 799 adolescents vaccinated with one dose was 62% (95% confidence interval 59% to 65%) after 20 days, and among 175 176 vaccinated with two doses was 93% (92% to 94%) after 60 days during a period when delta was the dominant variant. CONCLUSIONS: The absolute risks of adverse events after SARS-CoV-2 infection were generally low in Danish children and adolescents, although MIS-C occurred in 0.05% (32/70 666) of participants with RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. In adjusted analyses, rates of general practitioner visits were slightly increased in SARS-CoV-2 positive children and adolescents, which could indicate persisting symptoms. BNT162b2 appeared to be effective in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection with the delta variant in adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vaccines, Synthetic
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(14): 517-523, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780340

ABSTRACT

Cardiac complications, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis, have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection (1-3) and mRNA COVID-19 vaccination (2-5). Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a rare but serious complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection with frequent cardiac involvement (6). Using electronic health record (EHR) data from 40 U.S. health care systems during January 1, 2021-January 31, 2022, investigators calculated incidences of cardiac outcomes (myocarditis; myocarditis or pericarditis; and myocarditis, pericarditis, or MIS) among persons aged ≥5 years who had SARS-CoV-2 infection, stratified by sex (male or female) and age group (5-11, 12-17, 18-29, and ≥30 years). Incidences of myocarditis and myocarditis or pericarditis were calculated after first, second, unspecified, or any (first, second, or unspecified) dose of mRNA COVID-19 (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) vaccines, stratified by sex and age group. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated to compare risk for cardiac outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection to that after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The incidence of cardiac outcomes after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was highest for males aged 12-17 years after the second vaccine dose; however, within this demographic group, the risk for cardiac outcomes was 1.8-5.6 times as high after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after the second vaccine dose. The risk for cardiac outcomes was likewise significantly higher after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after first, second, or unspecified dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination for all other groups by sex and age (RR 2.2-115.2). These findings support continued use of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines among all eligible persons aged ≥5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
9.
Cardiol Rev ; 30(3): 145-157, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778952

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, it caused a global pandemic with 212,324,054 confirmed cases and 4,440,840 deaths worldwide as of August 22, 2021. The disease spectrum of COVID-19 ranges from asymptomatic subclinical infection to clinical manifestations predominantly affecting the respiratory system. However, it is now evident that COVID-19 is a multiorgan disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations leading to multiple organ injuries including the cardiovascular system. We review studies that have shown that the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and COVID-19 is indeed bidirectional, implicating that preexisting cardiovascular comorbidities increase the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, and newly emerging cardiac injuries occur in the settings of acute COVID-19 in patients with no preexisting cardiovascular disease. We present the most up-to-date literature summary to explore the incidence of new-onset cardiac complications of coronavirus and their role in predicting the severity of COVID-19. We review the association of elevated troponin with the severity of COVID-19 disease, which includes mild compared to severe disease, in nonintensive care unit compared to intensive care unit patients and in those discharged from the hospital compared to those who die. The role of serum troponin levels in predicting prognosis are compared in survivors and non-survivors. The association between COVID-19 disease and myocarditis, heart failure and coagulopathy are reviewed. Finally, an update on beneficial treatments is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Diseases , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Troponin
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the event rates of myocarditis detected by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) in athletes who recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies reporting abnormal CMR findings in athletes who recovered from COVID-19. Secondary analyses were performed considering increased serum high sensitivity troponin (hs-Tn) levels and electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic (ECHO) abnormalities. RESULTS: In total, 7988 athletes from 15 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled event rate of myocarditis was 1% (CI 1-2%), reaching 4% in the sub-group analysis. In addition, heterogeneity was observed (I2 43.8%). The pooled event rates of elevated serum hs-Tn levels, abnormal ECG and ECHO findings were 2% (CI 1-5%), 3% (CI 1-10%) and 2% (CI 1-6%), respectively. ECG, ECHO and serum hs-Tn level abnormalities did not show any correlation with myocarditis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of COVID-19-related myocarditis in the athletic population ranges from 1 to 4%. Even if the event rate is quite low, current screening protocols are helpful tools for a safe return to play to properly address CMR studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: the study protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database (registration number: CRD42022300819).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Athletes , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(13): e104, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775638

ABSTRACT

Vaccines have become the mainstay of management against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19) in the absence of effective antiviral therapy. Various adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccination have been reported, including cardiovascular complications such as myocarditis or pericarditis. Herein, we describe clinical records of a 63-year woman with fulminant myocarditis following ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination that was salvaged by heart transplantation. She complained chest pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever after the second vaccination. After the heart transplantation, the patient died due to necrotizing pneumonia on the 54th day of onset. Fulminant myocarditis is very rare after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination but can be fatal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Myocarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
Genet Res (Camb) ; 2021: 9952620, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775004

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Herbal medicine is one of crucial symbols of Chinese national medicine. Investigation on molecular responses of different herbal strategies against viral myocarditis is immeasurably conducive to targeting drug development in the current international absence of miracle treatment. Methods: Literature retrieval platforms were applied in the collection of existing empirical evidences for viral myocarditis-related single-herbal strategies. SwissTargetPrediction, Metascape, and Discovery Studio coordinating with multidatabases investigated underlying target genes, interactive proteins, and docking molecules in turn. Results: Six single-herbal medicines consisting of Huangqi (Hedysarum Multijugum Maxim), Yuganzi (Phyllanthi Fructus), Kushen (Sophorae Flavescentis Radix), Jianghuang (Curcumaelongae Rhizoma), Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri), and Jixueteng (Spatholobus Suberectus Dunn) meet the requirement. There were 11 overlapped and 73 unique natural components detected in these herbs. SLC6A2, SLC6A4, NOS2, PPARA, PPARG, ACHE, CYP2C19, CYP51A1, and CHRM2 were equally targeted by six herbs and identified as viral myocarditis-associated symbols. MCODE algorithm exposed the hub role of SRC and EGFR in strategies without Jianghuang. Subsequently, we learned intermolecular interactions of herbal components and their targeting heart-tissue-specific CHRM2, FABP3, TNNC1, TNNI3, TNNT2, and SCN5A and cardiac-myocytes-specific IL6, MMP1, and PLAT coupled with viral myocarditis. Ten interactive characteristics such as π-alkyl and van der Waals were modeled in which ARG111, LYS253, ILE114, and VAL11 on cardiac troponin (TNNC1-TNNI3-TNNT2) and ARG208, ASN106, and ALA258 on MMP1 fulfilled potential communicating anchor with ellagic acid, 5α, 9α-dihydroxymatrine, and leachianone g via hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction, respectively. Conclusions: The comprehensive outcomes uncover differences and linkages between six herbs against viral myocarditis through component and target analysis, fostering development of drugs.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Myocarditis , Plants, Medicinal , Virus Diseases , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
14.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(1): 287-294, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767496

ABSTRACT

Acute myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium, and it can present as severe heart failure in children. Differential diagnosis with genetic cardiomyopathy can be difficult. The objective of this study is to identify patterns of clinical presentation and to assess invasive and non-invasive measures to differentiate patients with acute myocarditis from patients with dilated genetic cardiomyopathy. We performed a retrospective descriptive study of all paediatric patients (0-16 years old) that presented with new-onset heart failure with left ventricle ejection fraction < 35% in whom we performed an endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) during the period from April 2007 to December 2020. The patients were classified into two groups: Group 1 included 18 patients with myocarditis. Group 2 included 9 patients with genetic cardiomyopathy. Findings favouring a diagnosis of myocarditis included a fulminant or acute presentation (77.8% vs 33.3%, p = 0.01), higher degree of cardiac enzyme elevation (p = 0.011), lower left ventricular dimension z-score (2.2 vs 5.4, p = 0.03) increase of ventricular wall thickness (88.8% vs 33.3%, p = 0.03) and oedema in the EMB. Seven (77.8%) patients with genetic cardiomyopathy had inflammation in the endomyocardial biopsy fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of inflammatory cardiomyopathy.Conclusion: Differentiating patients with a myocarditis from those with genetic cardiomyopathy can be challenging, even performing an EMB. Some patients with genetic cardiomyopathy fulfil the diagnostic criteria of inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Using invasive and non-invasive measures may be useful to develop a predictive model to differentiate myocarditis from genetic cardiomyopathy. What is Known: • Acute myocarditis could present with cardiogenic shock in paediatric patients. • Parvovirus B19 is the main cause of myocarditis in this population. What is New: • Current diagnostic criteria for myocarditis have limited use in paediatric patients presenting with new-onset heart failure. • Some patients with a genetic cardiomyopathy and a new-onset heart failure fulfill the diagnostic criteria of inflammatory cardiomyopathy.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Biopsy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocardium , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume
17.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(4): 244-246, 2022 Apr.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765605

ABSTRACT

In the clinical research arsenal, the COVID-19 vaccines are the strongest weapons against the most important worldwide sanitary crisis of the last centuries. Even if vaccine adverse events have mild clinical relevance, several thromboembolic events occurring after adenoviral recombinant vaccine administration have been reported. Cases of myocarditis and pericarditis after administration of mRNA vaccines have also recently been described. We report the case of a patient who suffered from two rare adverse events after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine administration (Pfizer-BioNTech): acute myocarditis and pulmonary embolism. Although the temporal consequentiality does not demonstrate a causal link, the strong analogies emerging in the latest clinical reports suggest a possible relation. Further studies are needed to understand the potential mechanisms of myocardial damage and atypical thrombosis. Despite the favorable and self-limiting clinical course of post-vaccinal myocarditis, in these cases a tight follow-up is advisable and vaccine adverse event reporting remains mandatory, especially if not described during pivotal clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pulmonary Embolism , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760771

ABSTRACT

A 48-year-old female patient underwent a heart transplantation for acute fulminant myocarditis, following heterologous vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19. She had no history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection. She did not exhibit clinical signs or have laboratory findings of concomitant infection before or after vaccination. Heart transplantation was performed because her heart failed to recover with venoarterial extracorporeal oxygenation support. Organ autopsy revealed giant cell myocarditis, possibly related to the vaccines. Clinicians may have to consider the possibility of the development of giant cell myocarditis, especially in patients with rapidly deteriorating cardiac function and myocarditis symptoms after COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Giant Cells , Humans , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010342, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753215

ABSTRACT

Viral infection of the heart is a common but underappreciated cause of heart failure. Viruses can cause direct cardiac damage by lysing infected cardiomyocytes. Inflammatory immune responses that limit viral replication can also indirectly cause damage during infection, making regulatory factors that fine-tune these responses particularly important. Identifying and understanding these factors that regulate cardiac immune responses during infection will be essential for developing targeted treatments for virus-associated heart failure. Our laboratory has discovered Brain Expressed X-linked protein 1 (BEX1) as a novel stress-regulated pro-inflammatory factor in the heart. Here we report that BEX1 plays a cardioprotective role in the heart during viral infection. Specifically, we adopted genetic gain- and loss-of-function strategies to modulate BEX1 expression in the heart in the context of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced cardiomyopathy and found that BEX1 limits viral replication in cardiomyocytes. Interestingly, despite the greater viral load observed in mice lacking BEX1, inflammatory immune cell recruitment in the mouse heart was profoundly impaired in the absence of BEX1. Overall, the absence of BEX1 accelerated CVB3-driven heart failure and pathologic heart remodeling. This result suggests that limiting inflammatory cell recruitment has detrimental consequences for the heart during viral infections. Conversely, transgenic mice overexpressing BEX1 in cardiomyocytes revealed the efficacy of BEX1 for counteracting viral replication in the heart in vivo. We also found that BEX1 retains its antiviral role in isolated cells. Indeed, BEX1 was necessary and sufficient to counteract viral replication in both isolated primary cardiomyocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts suggesting a broader applicability of BEX1 as antiviral agent that extended to viruses other than CVB3, including Influenza A and Sendai virus. Mechanistically, BEX1 regulated interferon beta (IFN-ß) expression in infected cells. Overall, our study suggests a multifaceted role of BEX1 in the cardiac antiviral immune response.


Subject(s)
Coxsackievirus Infections , Heart Failure , Myocarditis , Virus Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Enterovirus B, Human , Fibroblasts , Mice , Myocytes, Cardiac , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Replication
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL