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1.
Circulation ; 145(5): 345-356, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the clinical course and short-term outcomes of suspected myocarditis after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has important public health implications in the decision to vaccinate youth. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on patients <21 years old presenting before July 4, 2021, with suspected myocarditis within 30 days of COVID-19 vaccination. Lake Louise criteria were used for cardiac MRI findings. Myocarditis cases were classified as confirmed or probable on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. RESULTS: We report on 139 adolescents and young adults with 140 episodes of suspected myocarditis (49 confirmed, 91 probable) at 26 centers. Most patients were male (n=126, 90.6%) and White (n=92, 66.2%); 29 (20.9%) were Hispanic; and the median age was 15.8 years (range, 12.1-20.3; interquartile range [IQR], 14.5-17.0). Suspected myocarditis occurred in 136 patients (97.8%) after the mRNA vaccine, with 131 (94.2%) after the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; 128 (91.4%) occurred after the second dose. Symptoms started at a median of 2 days (range, 0-22; IQR, 1-3) after vaccination. The most common symptom was chest pain (99.3%). Patients were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (81.3%), intravenous immunoglobulin (21.6%), glucocorticoids (21.6%), colchicine (7.9%), or no anti-inflammatory therapies (8.6%). Twenty-six patients (18.7%) were in the intensive care unit, 2 were treated with inotropic/vasoactive support, and none required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or died. Median hospital stay was 2 days (range, 0-10; IQR, 2-3). All patients had elevated troponin I (n=111, 8.12 ng/mL; IQR, 3.50-15.90) or T (n=28, 0.61 ng/mL; IQR, 0.25-1.30); 69.8% had abnormal ECGs and arrhythmias (7 with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia); and 18.7% had left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram. Of 97 patients who underwent cardiac MRI at a median 5 days (range, 0-88; IQR, 3-17) from symptom onset, 75 (77.3%) had abnormal findings: 74 (76.3%) had late gadolinium enhancement, 54 (55.7%) had myocardial edema, and 49 (50.5%) met Lake Louise criteria. Among 26 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram, all with follow-up had normalized function (n=25). CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of suspected COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis occurring in persons <21 years have a mild clinical course with rapid resolution of symptoms. Abnormal findings on cardiac MRI were frequent. Future studies should evaluate risk factors, mechanisms, and long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Adolescent , Child , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
2.
Circulation ; 145(5): 345-356, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the clinical course and short-term outcomes of suspected myocarditis after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has important public health implications in the decision to vaccinate youth. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on patients <21 years old presenting before July 4, 2021, with suspected myocarditis within 30 days of COVID-19 vaccination. Lake Louise criteria were used for cardiac MRI findings. Myocarditis cases were classified as confirmed or probable on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. RESULTS: We report on 139 adolescents and young adults with 140 episodes of suspected myocarditis (49 confirmed, 91 probable) at 26 centers. Most patients were male (n=126, 90.6%) and White (n=92, 66.2%); 29 (20.9%) were Hispanic; and the median age was 15.8 years (range, 12.1-20.3; interquartile range [IQR], 14.5-17.0). Suspected myocarditis occurred in 136 patients (97.8%) after the mRNA vaccine, with 131 (94.2%) after the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; 128 (91.4%) occurred after the second dose. Symptoms started at a median of 2 days (range, 0-22; IQR, 1-3) after vaccination. The most common symptom was chest pain (99.3%). Patients were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (81.3%), intravenous immunoglobulin (21.6%), glucocorticoids (21.6%), colchicine (7.9%), or no anti-inflammatory therapies (8.6%). Twenty-six patients (18.7%) were in the intensive care unit, 2 were treated with inotropic/vasoactive support, and none required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or died. Median hospital stay was 2 days (range, 0-10; IQR, 2-3). All patients had elevated troponin I (n=111, 8.12 ng/mL; IQR, 3.50-15.90) or T (n=28, 0.61 ng/mL; IQR, 0.25-1.30); 69.8% had abnormal ECGs and arrhythmias (7 with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia); and 18.7% had left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram. Of 97 patients who underwent cardiac MRI at a median 5 days (range, 0-88; IQR, 3-17) from symptom onset, 75 (77.3%) had abnormal findings: 74 (76.3%) had late gadolinium enhancement, 54 (55.7%) had myocardial edema, and 49 (50.5%) met Lake Louise criteria. Among 26 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <55% on echocardiogram, all with follow-up had normalized function (n=25). CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of suspected COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis occurring in persons <21 years have a mild clinical course with rapid resolution of symptoms. Abnormal findings on cardiac MRI were frequent. Future studies should evaluate risk factors, mechanisms, and long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Adolescent , Child , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
6.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(10): 1665-1667, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265654

ABSTRACT

Vaccination plays an important role in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 to minimie the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its life-threatening complications. Myocarditis has been reported as a possible and rare adverse consequence of different vaccines, and its clinical presentation can range from influenza-like symptoms to acute heart failure. We report a case of a 30-year-old man who presented progressive dyspnea and constrictive retrosternal pain after receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Cardiac magnetic resonance and laboratory data revealed typical findings of acute myopericarditis.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/administration & dosage , Bisoprolol/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , /adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Troponin I/blood
9.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 20(1): 44-52, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135914

ABSTRACT

Due to the lack of prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies on inflammation and cardiovascular involvement, the exact mechanism of cardiac injury among patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) still remains uncertain. It was demonstrated that there is a high and significantly positive linear correlation between troponin T and plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, biomarkers of cardiac injury and systemic inflammation, respectively. Cardiac injury and inflammation is a relatively common association among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, and it is related to higher risk of in-hospital mortality. In our literature search, we identified several potential mechanisms of myocardial tissue damage, namely, coronavirus-associated acute myocarditis, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor binding affinity to the virus Spike protein, increased cytokine secretion, and hypoxia-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Elucidation of the disease pathogenesis and prospective histopathological studies are crucial for future proper treatment in case of renewed outbreaks. Of interest is that with hundred of thousands of bodies available for autopsy studies, no prospective investigation has been reported so far. Strong efforts and continued research of the cardiovascular complications and identification of risk factors for poor prognosis in COVID-19 are steadily needed. The high morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, its monumental economic burden and social impact, the despair of a new pandemic outbreak, and the thread of potential utilization of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as biologic weapons make it a preponderant necessity to better comprehend the therapeutic management of this lethal disease. Emerging as an acute infectious disease, COVID-19 may become a chronic epidemic because of genetic recombination. Therefore, we should be ready for the reemergence of COVID-19 or other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokines/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Myocarditis/mortality , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin T/blood
10.
Am J Med Sci ; 361(4): 522-525, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064782

ABSTRACT

Current reports concerning cardiac involvement in the novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) mostly document acute myocardial injury at presentation. Here, we present a healthy young male, with presumed acute myocarditis, presenting 20 days after initial diagnosis of COVID-19 - and after a clinical, and apparent laboratory, resolution of the original episode. His sole substantial clinical finding upon admission was fever, which was followed by a witnessed elevation in troponin-I.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fever/complications , Myocarditis/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Electrocardiography , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Troponin I/blood , Young Adult
11.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(10): 4530-4537, 2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To better define the clinical distinctions between the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) and Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS: We compared three groups of patients: group 1, cases from our national historic KD database (KD-HIS), before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; group 2, patients with KD admitted to an intensive care unit (KD-ICU) from both our original cohort and the literature, before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; and group 3, patients with PIMS from the literature. RESULTS: KD-HIS included 425 patients [male:female ratio 1.3, mean age 2.8 years (s.d. 2.4)], KD-ICU 176 patients [male:female ratio 1.3, mean age 3.5 years (s.d. 3.1)] and PIMS 404 patients [male:female ratio 1.4, mean age 8.8 years (s.d. 3.7)]. As compared with KD-HIS patients, KD-ICU and PIMS patients had a higher proportion of cardiac failure, digestive and neurological signs. KD-ICU and PIMS patients also had a lower frequency of typical KD-mucocutaneous signs, lower platelet count, higher CRP and lower sodium level. As compared with KD-HIS and KD-ICU patients, PIMS patients were older and more frequently had myocarditis; they also had fewer coronary abnormalities and lower sodium levels. Unresponsiveness to IVIG was more frequent in KD-ICU than KD-HIS and PIMS patients. CONCLUSION: On clinical grounds, KD-HIS, KD-ICU and PIMS might belong to a common spectrum of non-specific pathogen-triggered hyperinflammatory states. The causes of increasing inflammation severity within the three entities and the different effects on the heart remain to be determined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Pericardial Effusion/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Adolescent , Aspirin/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Digestive System Diseases/physiopathology , Female , France , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Myocarditis/blood , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Phenotype , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Count , Sodium/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020900

ABSTRACT

Here we present the case of a 37-year-old previously healthy man who developed fever, headache and a unilateral, painful neck swelling while working offshore. He had no known contact with anyone with COVID-19; however, due to the ongoing pandemic, a nasopharyngeal swab was performed, which was positive for the virus. After transfer to hospital for assessment his condition rapidly deteriorated, requiring admission to intensive care for COVID-19 myocarditis. One week after discharge he re-presented with unilateral facial nerve palsy. Our case highlights an atypical presentation of COVID-19 and the multifaceted clinical course of this still poorly understood disease.


Subject(s)
Alkalosis, Respiratory/blood , Bell Palsy/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Adult , Alkalosis, Respiratory/etiology , Blood Gas Analysis , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Echocardiography , Edema/etiology , Electrocardiography , Humans , Hypotension/etiology , Hypotension/physiopathology , Lymphadenitis/etiology , Lymphadenitis/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/therapy , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Neck , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Peptide Fragments/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin T/blood , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Chest ; 159(2): 657-662, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-928873
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(19): 10293-10300, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890965

ABSTRACT

Acute SARS-CoV-2 respiratory disease is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 belonging to the coronaviridae family. A pandemic is still present as of May 2020. In addition to causing pneumonia, SARS-CoV-2 may induce a direct damage to the heart, causing myocarditis, with significant impairment of cardiac contractility, and/or pericarditis. Elderly patients and those with cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, are at increased risk of heart complications from COVID-19. In this review, we focused on the correlation between COVID-19 infection and the high sensitivity troponin T and I, and their significance in the development of myocarditis. Data emerging from the studies so far conducted indicate that a high value of high-sensitivity troponin represents a negative prognostic indicator when associated with heart damage on an infectious-inflammatory basis (i.e. myopericarditis). We should identify a safe and clear diagnostic algorithm, possibly combining patient clinical history, troponin levels and cardiac ultrasound findings that could help us in the prediction of myopericarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/complications , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
15.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(10): 739-749, 2020 Oct.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792878

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, can lead to cardiac impairment with various types of clinical manifestations, including heart failure and cardiogenic shock. A possible expression of cardiac impairment is non-ischemic ventricular dysfunction, which can be related to different pathological conditions, such as myocarditis, stress and cytokine-related ventricular dysfunction. The diagnosis of these pathological conditions can be challenging during COVID-19; furthermore, their prevalence and prognostic significance have not been elucidated yet. The purpose of this review is to take stock of the various aspects of non-ischemic ventricular dysfunction that may occur during COVID-19 and of the diagnostic implications related to the use of cardiac imaging techniques.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Troponin/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology
16.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(19): 1157-1161, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744836

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. This pandemic has necessitated that all professional and elite sport is either suspended, postponed or cancelled altogether to minimise the risk of viral spread. As infection rates drop and quarantine restrictions are lifted, the question how athletes can safely resume competitive sport is being asked. Given the rapidly evolving knowledge base about the virus and changing governmental and public health recommendations, a precise answer to this question is fraught with complexity and nuance. Without robust data to inform policy, return-to-play (RTP) decisions are especially difficult for elite athletes on the suspicion that the COVID-19 virus could result in significant cardiorespiratory compromise in a minority of afflicted athletes. There are now consistent reports of athletes reporting persistent and residual symptoms many weeks to months after initial COVID-19 infection. These symptoms include cough, tachycardia and extreme fatigue. To support safe RTP, we provide sport and exercise medicine physicians with practical recommendations on how to exclude cardiorespiratory complications of COVID-19 in elite athletes who place high demand on their cardiorespiratory system. As new evidence emerges, guidance for a safe RTP should be updated.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Respiration Disorders/diagnosis , Return to Sport/standards , Athletes , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Electrocardiography , Humans , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocardium/pathology , Necrosis/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiration Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sports Medicine/standards , Symptom Assessment , Troponin/blood
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(8)2020 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724263

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic with its severe respiratory disease has caused overflow to hospitals and intensive care units. Elevated troponins and natriuretic peptides are related to cardiac injury and poor prognosis. We present a young woman with COVID-19 infection with haemodynamic instability caused by acute perimyocarditis and cardiac tamponade. Troponin T was modestly elevated. Focused cardiac ultrasound made the diagnosis. Echocardiography revealed transient thickening of the myocardial walls. After pericardial drainage and supportive care, she improved significantly within 1 week without targeted therapy. The case illustrates the importance of cardiac diagnostic imaging in patients with COVID-19 and elevated cardiac biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiac Tamponade/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Myocarditis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Disease , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Cardiac Tamponade/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin T/blood
18.
Am J Cardiol ; 132: 147-149, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640760

ABSTRACT

The cardiac involvement in Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is still under evaluation, especially in severe COVID-19-related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The cardiac involvement was assessed by serial troponin levels and echocardiograms in 28 consecutive patients with COVID-19 ARDS consecutively admitted to our Intensive Care Unit from March 1 to March 31. Twenty-eight COVID-19 patients (aged 61.7 ± 10 years, males 79%). The majority was mechanically ventilated (86%) and 4 patients (14%) required veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. As of March 31, the Intensive Care Unit mortality rate was 7%, whereas 7 patients were discharged (25%) with a length of stay of 8.2 ±5 days. At echocardiographic assessment on admission, acute core pulmonale was detected in 2 patients who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Increased systolic arterial pressure was detected in all patients. Increased Troponin T levels were detectable in 11 patients (39%) on admission. At linear regression analysis, troponin T showed a direct relationship with C-reactive Protein (R square: 0.082, F: 5.95, p = 0.017). In conclusions, in COVID-19-related ARDS, increased in Tn levels was common but not associated with alterations in wall motion kinesis, thus suggesting that troponin T elevation is likely to be multifactorial, mainly linked to disease severely (as inferred by the relation between Tn and C-reactive Protein). The increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressures observed in all patients may be related to hypoxic vasoconstriction. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings in larger cohorts.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Myocarditis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin I/blood
20.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(8): 1326.e5-1326.e7, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549053

ABSTRACT

A 64-year-old man presented with severe myocarditis 6 weeks after an initial almost asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) infection. He was found to have a persistent positive swab. Mechanisms explaining myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 remains unclear, but this case suggests that severe acute myocarditis can develop in the late phase of COVID-19 infection, even after a symptom-free interval.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocarditis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Patient Care Management/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
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