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1.
Circulation ; 145(15): 1123-1139, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis (AM) is thought to be a rare cardiovascular complication of COVID-19, although minimal data are available beyond case reports. We aim to report the prevalence, baseline characteristics, in-hospital management, and outcomes for patients with COVID-19-associated AM on the basis of a retrospective cohort from 23 hospitals in the United States and Europe. METHODS: A total of 112 patients with suspected AM from 56 963 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were evaluated between February 1, 2020, and April 30, 2021. Inclusion criteria were hospitalization for COVID-19 and a diagnosis of AM on the basis of endomyocardial biopsy or increased troponin level plus typical signs of AM on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We identified 97 patients with possible AM, and among them, 54 patients with definite/probable AM supported by endomyocardial biopsy in 17 (31.5%) patients or magnetic resonance imaging in 50 (92.6%). We analyzed patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes among all COVID-19-associated AM. RESULTS: AM prevalence among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 2.4 per 1000 hospitalizations considering definite/probable and 4.1 per 1000 considering also possible AM. The median age of definite/probable cases was 38 years, and 38.9% were female. On admission, chest pain and dyspnea were the most frequent symptoms (55.5% and 53.7%, respectively). Thirty-one cases (57.4%) occurred in the absence of COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Twenty-one (38.9%) had a fulminant presentation requiring inotropic support or temporary mechanical circulatory support. The composite of in-hospital mortality or temporary mechanical circulatory support occurred in 20.4%. At 120 days, estimated mortality was 6.6%, 15.1% in patients with associated pneumonia versus 0% in patients without pneumonia (P=0.044). During hospitalization, left ventricular ejection fraction, assessed by echocardiography, improved from a median of 40% on admission to 55% at discharge (n=47; P<0.0001) similarly in patients with or without pneumonia. Corticosteroids were frequently administered (55.5%). CONCLUSIONS: AM occurrence is estimated between 2.4 and 4.1 out of 1000 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The majority of AM occurs in the absence of pneumonia and is often complicated by hemodynamic instability. AM is a rare complication in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, with an outcome that differs on the basis of the presence of concomitant pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(5): JC58, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835631

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Husby A, Hansen JV, Fosbøl E, et al. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and myocarditis or myopericarditis: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2021;375:e068665. 34916207.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Humans , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(3): 362-370, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Case reports of carditis after BNT162b2 vaccination are accruing worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac (Sinovac) vaccination with carditis. DESIGN: Case-control study with hospital control participants. SETTING: Territory-wide, public health care database with linkage to population-based vaccination records in Hong Kong. PATIENTS: Inpatients aged 12 years or older first diagnosed with carditis were selected as case patients. All other hospitalized patients without carditis were treated as control participants. Ten control participants were randomly matched with each case patient by age, sex, and admission date. INTERVENTION: Vaccination with BNT162b2 or CoronaVac. MEASUREMENTS: Incident diagnosis of carditis based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and elevated troponin levels. RESULTS: A total of 160 case patients and 1533 control participants were included. Incidence of carditis per 100 000 doses of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 administered was estimated to be 0.31 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.66) and 0.57 (CI, 0.36 to 0.90), respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that recipients of the BNT162b2 vaccine had higher odds of carditis (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.57 [CI, 1.93 to 6.60]) than unvaccinated persons. Stratified by sex, the OR was 4.68 (CI, 2.25 to 9.71) for males and 2.22 (CI, 0.57 to 8.69) for females receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine. The ORs for adults and adolescents receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine were 2.41 (CI, 1.18 to 4.90) and 13.79 (CI, 2.86 to 110.38), respectively. Subanalysis showed an OR of 9.29 (CI, 3.94 to 21.91) for myocarditis and 1.06 (CI, 0.35 to 3.22) for pericarditis associated with BNT162b2. The risk was mainly seen after the second dose of BNT162b2 rather than the first. No association between CoronaVac and carditis with a magnitude similar to that for BNT162b2 was seen. LIMITATION: Limited sample size, absence of electrocardiography and other clinical investigative data, and unrecorded overseas vaccination exposure. CONCLUSION: Despite a low absolute risk, there is an increased risk for carditis associated with BNT162b2 vaccination. This elevated risk should be weighed against the benefits of vaccination. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Health and Medical Research Fund.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(9): e024393, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816968

ABSTRACT

Background Although rare, classic viral myocarditis in the pediatric population is a disease that carries significant morbidity and mortality. Since 2020, myocarditis has been a common component of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) following SARS-CoV-2 infection. In 2021, myocarditis related to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines was recognized as a rare adverse event. This study aims to compare classic, MIS-C, and COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis with regard to clinical presentation, course, and outcomes. Methods and Results In this retrospective cohort study, we compared patients aged <21 years hospitalized at our institution with classic viral myocarditis from 2015 to 2019, MIS-C myocarditis from March 2020 to February 2021, and vaccine-related myocarditis from May 2021 to June 2021. Of 201 total participants, 43 patients had classic myocarditis, 149 had MIS-C myocarditis, and 9 had vaccine-related myocarditis. At presentation, ejection fraction was lowest for those with classic myocarditis, with ejection fraction <55% present in 58% of patients. Nearly all patients with MIS-C myocarditis (n=139, 93%) and all patients with vaccine-related myocarditis (n=9, 100%) had normal left ventricular ejection fraction at the time of discharge compared with 70% (n=30) of the classic myocarditis group (P<0.001). At 3 months after discharge, of the 21 children discharged with depressed ejection fraction, none of the 10 children with MIS-C myocarditis had residual dysfunction compared with 3 of the 11 (27%) patients in the classic myocarditis group. Conclusions Compared with classic myocarditis, those with MIS-C myocarditis had better clinical outcomes, including rapid recovery of cardiac function. Patients with vaccine-related myocarditis had prompt resolution of symptoms and improvement of cardiac function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Humans , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
7.
BMJ ; 377: e068898, 2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784788

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk of acute and post-acute adverse events after SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents in Denmark and to evaluate the real world effectiveness of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) among adolescents. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide Danish healthcare registers. PARTICIPANTS: All Danish people younger than 18 years who were either tested for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or vaccinated with BNT162b2 to 1 October 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of hospital admissions (any hospital contact of ≥12 hours); intensive care unit (ICU) admissions; serious complications, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), myocarditis, and neuroimmune disorders; and initiating drug treatment and health service use up to six months after being tested. Vaccine effectiveness in vaccine recipients compared with unvaccinated peers was evaluated as one minus the risk ratio at 20 days after the first dose and 60 days after the second dose. RESULTS: Of 991 682 children and adolescents tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR in Denmark, 74 611 (7.5%) were positive. The risk of hospital admission with any variant for ≥12 hours was 0.49% (95% confidence interval 0.44% to 0.54%; 361/74 350), and 0.01% (0.01% to 0.03%; 10/73 187) of participants were admitted to an ICU within 30 days of testing positive. The risk of MIS-C within two months of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0.05% (0.03% to 0.06%; 32/70 666), whereas no participants had myocarditis outside of MIS-C or encephalitis and fewer than five had Guillain-Barré syndrome. In the post-acute phase (1-6 months after infection), participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 showed a 1.08-fold (95% confidence interval 1.06-fold to 1.10-fold) increase in rate of contacts with general practitioners compared with a reference cohort sampled among all children tested for SARS-CoV-2 during the study period. Overall, 278 649 adolescents received BNT162b2. Compared with unvaccinated adolescents, the estimated vaccine effectiveness among 229 799 adolescents vaccinated with one dose was 62% (95% confidence interval 59% to 65%) after 20 days, and among 175 176 vaccinated with two doses was 93% (92% to 94%) after 60 days during a period when delta was the dominant variant. CONCLUSIONS: The absolute risks of adverse events after SARS-CoV-2 infection were generally low in Danish children and adolescents, although MIS-C occurred in 0.05% (32/70 666) of participants with RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. In adjusted analyses, rates of general practitioner visits were slightly increased in SARS-CoV-2 positive children and adolescents, which could indicate persisting symptoms. BNT162b2 appeared to be effective in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection with the delta variant in adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vaccines, Synthetic
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(14): 517-523, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780340

ABSTRACT

Cardiac complications, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis, have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection (1-3) and mRNA COVID-19 vaccination (2-5). Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a rare but serious complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection with frequent cardiac involvement (6). Using electronic health record (EHR) data from 40 U.S. health care systems during January 1, 2021-January 31, 2022, investigators calculated incidences of cardiac outcomes (myocarditis; myocarditis or pericarditis; and myocarditis, pericarditis, or MIS) among persons aged ≥5 years who had SARS-CoV-2 infection, stratified by sex (male or female) and age group (5-11, 12-17, 18-29, and ≥30 years). Incidences of myocarditis and myocarditis or pericarditis were calculated after first, second, unspecified, or any (first, second, or unspecified) dose of mRNA COVID-19 (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) vaccines, stratified by sex and age group. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated to compare risk for cardiac outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection to that after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The incidence of cardiac outcomes after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was highest for males aged 12-17 years after the second vaccine dose; however, within this demographic group, the risk for cardiac outcomes was 1.8-5.6 times as high after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after the second vaccine dose. The risk for cardiac outcomes was likewise significantly higher after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after first, second, or unspecified dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination for all other groups by sex and age (RR 2.2-115.2). These findings support continued use of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines among all eligible persons aged ≥5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the event rates of myocarditis detected by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) in athletes who recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies reporting abnormal CMR findings in athletes who recovered from COVID-19. Secondary analyses were performed considering increased serum high sensitivity troponin (hs-Tn) levels and electrocardiographic (ECG) and echocardiographic (ECHO) abnormalities. RESULTS: In total, 7988 athletes from 15 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled event rate of myocarditis was 1% (CI 1-2%), reaching 4% in the sub-group analysis. In addition, heterogeneity was observed (I2 43.8%). The pooled event rates of elevated serum hs-Tn levels, abnormal ECG and ECHO findings were 2% (CI 1-5%), 3% (CI 1-10%) and 2% (CI 1-6%), respectively. ECG, ECHO and serum hs-Tn level abnormalities did not show any correlation with myocarditis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of COVID-19-related myocarditis in the athletic population ranges from 1 to 4%. Even if the event rate is quite low, current screening protocols are helpful tools for a safe return to play to properly address CMR studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: the study protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database (registration number: CRD42022300819).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Athletes , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Vaccine ; 40(19): 2781-2789, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764017

ABSTRACT

Since authorization of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA (Comirnaty), real-world evidence has indicated the vaccines are effective in preventing COVID-19 cases and related hospitalizations and deaths. However, increased cases of myocarditis/pericarditis have been reported in the United States associated with vaccination, particularly in adolescents and young adults. FDA conducted a benefit-risk assessment to determine whether the benefits of vaccination outweigh the risks among various age (16-17, 18-24, 25-29) and sex (M/F) subgroups being considered for approved use of the vaccine. We conducted a simulation study with sensitivity analysis of the benefits and risks of the vaccine across possible pandemic scenarios. The model results show benefits outweigh the risks for all scenarios including the high-risk subgroup, males 16-17 years old. Our worst-case scenario used sex and age subgroup-specific incidences for COVID-19 cases (47-98 per million per day) and hospitalizations (1-4 per million per day) which are the US COVID-19 incidences as of July 10, 2021, vaccine efficacy of 70% against COVID-19 cases and 80% against hospitalization, and unlikely, pessimistic, non-zero vaccine-attributable myocarditis death rate. For males 16-17 years old, the model predicts prevented COVID cases, hospitalizations, ICUs, and deaths of 13577, 127, 41, and 1, respectively; while the predicted ranges for excess myocarditis/pericarditis cases, hospitalizations, and deaths attributable to the vaccine are [98-196], [98-196], and 0, respectively, for the worst-case scenario. Considering the different clinical implications of hospitalization due to COVID-19 infection versus vaccine-attributable myocarditis/pericarditis cases, we determine the benefits still outweigh the risks even for this high-risk subgroup. Our results demonstrate that the benefits of the vaccine outweigh its risks for all age and sex subgroups we analyze in this study. Uncertainties exist in this assessment as both benefits and risks of vaccination may change with the continuing evolution of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , Risk Assessment , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(5): 905-912, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739303

ABSTRACT

Adult COVID-19 patients can present with acute muscle and/or cardiac involvement. Our study aims to describe the incidence and characteristics of patients with the co-occurrence of COVID-19 myopathy and inflammatory cardiac disease. We retrospectively reviewed all COVID-19 patients admitted to a large tertiary center to assess the co-occurrence of myopathy and inflammatory cardiac disease. We conducted a literature review of prior relevant case reports. There were three COVID-19 patients with concurrent involvement from our center and five cases in the published literature. Overall, mean age was 57.7 ± 16, four were females (50%) and only two patients (25%) had major relevant comorbidities. Muscle involvement included rhabdomyolysis or myositis and cardiac involvement included myocarditis or pericarditis. Most patients (75%) had no respiratory COVID-19 symptoms. Troponin and creatine phosphokinase levels were higher than twofold of the upper limit of normal for all patients. Steroids were used in the treatment of most patients (75%). All patients had a resolution or improvement of their extra-pulmonary involvement while two (25%) deteriorated due to COVID-19 pneumonia. The incidence for this co-occurrence is 0.07% among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients with these rare COVID-19 simultaneous manifestations have distinct features. They are generally younger, present with extra-pulmonary symptoms and do not have severe respiratory compromise. An underdiagnosis causing treatment delay is possible. Further study is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muscular Diseases , Myocarditis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Diseases/complications , Muscular Diseases/epidemiology , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Heart Lung Circ ; 31(6): 757-765, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704479

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Reports of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine-related myocarditis, particularly after mRNA vaccines, have raised concerns amongst the general public. This review examined the literature regarding myocarditis post COVID-19 vaccination, drawing from vaccine safety surveillance databases and case reports. METHODS: Combinations of search terms were used in PubMed and COVID-19-specific repositories - LitCovid and the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register - between 1 October 2020 and 31 October 2021. Manual searches of GoogleScholar and screening of article bibliographies were also performed. RESULTS: Information was obtained from five vaccine safety surveillance databases. Fifty-two (52) case reports totalling 200 cases of possible COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis were summarised. Vaccine surveillance databases differed in reporting formats and vaccination rates; however, gross estimates suggested low overall incidence rates of 2-5 per million mRNA vaccines. The incidence appeared to be higher in younger male populations, with onset of symptoms within a few days, usually after the second dose. Some with prior COVID-19 infections had onset after the first dose. Cases with prior unrelated myocarditis were also noted. Almost all presented with chest pain (98.0%). Troponin elevation was universally described and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was commonly reported based on the updated Lake Louise criteria. Clinical course was mild in the majority, with response to anti-inflammatory treatment. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis is an important but rare adverse event. More research is needed into its pathogenesis and reasons for its predominance in young males, while gaps in data exist in those aged <16 years, as well as those with prior COVID-19 infections and prior myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
13.
Vaccine ; 40(10): 1499-1511, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700469

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis and/or pericarditis (also known as myopericarditis) are inflammatory diseases involving the myocardium (with non-ischemic myocyte necrosis) and/or the pericardial sac. Myocarditis/pericarditis (MPC) may present with variable clinical signs, symptoms, etiologies and outcomes, including acute heart failure, sudden death, and chronic dilated cardiomyopathy. Possible undiagnosed and/or subclinical acute myocarditis, with undefined potential for delayed manifestations, presents further challenges for diagnosing an acute disease and may go undetected in the setting of infection as well as adverse drug/vaccine reactions. The most common causes of MPC are viral, with non-infectious, drug/vaccine associated hypersensitivity and/or autoimmune causes being less well defined and with potentially different inflammatory mechanisms and treatment responses. Potential cardiac adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) encompass a larger scope of diagnoses such as triggering or exacerbating ischemic cardiac events, cardiomyopathy with potential heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden death. The current published experience does not support a potential causal association with vaccines based on epidemiologic evidence of relative risk increases compared with background unvaccinated incidence. The only evidence supporting a possible causal association of MPC with a vaccine comes from case reports. Hypersensitivity MPC as a drug/vaccine induced cardiac adverse event has long been a concern for post-licensure safety surveillance, as well as safety data submission for licensure. Other cardiac adverse events, such as dilated cardiomyopathy, were also defined in the CDC definitions for adverse events after smallpox vaccination in 2006. In addition, several groups have attempted to develop and improve the definition and adjudication of post-vaccination cardiovascular events. We developed the current case definitions for myocarditis and pericarditis as an AEFI building on experience and lessons learnt, as well as a comprehensive literature review. Considerations of other etiologies and causal relationships are outside the scope of this document.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Vaccination , Humans , Incidence , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/diagnosis , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
Glob Heart ; 17(1): 2, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667534

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), commonly affects the lungs, but the involvement of other organs, particularly the heart, is highly prevalent as has been reported in several studies. The overall aim of this review was to provide an in-depth description of the available literature related to the cardiac system and COVID-19 infection. It focuses on type and the frequency of cardiac manifestations, clinical parameters and cardiac biomarkers that support the prognosis of COVID-19 patients, and the cardiac adverse events and outcomes related to pharmacotherapy. Methods: A scoping review was conducted searching Embase, PubMed, Epistomonikos, Medrxiv, BioRxiv databases, up to November 2020, for systematic reviews relevant to cardiac manifestations in adult COVID-19 patients. Relevant articles were screened and extracted to summarize key outcomes and findings. Results: A total of 63 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. The overall frequency of acute cardiac injury ranged from 15% to 33% in the reporting studies. The main cardiac complications were arrhythmias (3.1% to 6.9% in non-severe patients, 33.0% to 48.0% in severe disease), acute coronary syndromes (6% to 33% in severe disease), and myocarditis. Most studies found no association with the use of Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASI) with COVID-19 outcomes such as susceptibility to infection, hospitalization, severity, and mortality. Conclusion: This study provided an overview of the several cardiac complications associated with Covid-19. Cardiac injury, arrhythmias, myocarditis, cardiac failure, and acute coronary syndrome, are prevalent and clinically significant and associated with COVID-19 disease severity and mortality. Other studies are needed to clearly identify what is the part of viral heart infection and what is the part of cardiac injury secondary to acute respiratory failure and inflammation. In the therapeutic field, these systematic reviews gave heterogenous results. This underlines the importance of randomized trials to determine the right therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 353: 131-134, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1652578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of myocarditis after RNA-based vaccines for coronavirus has gained social and medical interest. METHODS: We performed an intention-to-treat meta-analysis, following the PRISMA statement. After a systematic search, without language restriction, 9 publications were selected. Two were excluded (one was only in subjects with age 12-17 and other might had included subjects from a larger publication). We followed the PRISMA guidelines for abstracting data and assessing data quality and validity. Data was verified by 2 investigators. RESULTS: We analyzed 17,704,413 subjects, from 7 studies, that included 627 cases of confirmed myocarditis). The incidence of myocarditis was 0.0035% (95% CI 0.0034-0.0035). Mean incidence rate was 10.69 per 100.000 persons-year. Cases reported from Israel represented 45.14% from total (283 out of the 627). Only 1 case of fatal myocarditis or death was reported. There was significant heterogeneity between results. The meta-regression analysis excluded mean age, region, number of cases or number of people included as sources of heterogeneity. No small-study effect was observed (p = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Myocarditis incidence after RNA vaccines is very rare (0.0035%) and has a very favorable clinical course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , RNA
17.
JAMA ; 327(4): 331-340, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649976

ABSTRACT

Importance: Vaccination against COVID-19 provides clear public health benefits, but vaccination also carries potential risks. The risks and outcomes of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination are unclear. Objective: To describe reports of myocarditis and the reporting rates after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: Descriptive study of reports of myocarditis to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) that occurred after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine administration between December 2020 and August 2021 in 192 405 448 individuals older than 12 years of age in the US; data were processed by VAERS as of September 30, 2021. Exposures: Vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna). Main Outcomes and Measures: Reports of myocarditis to VAERS were adjudicated and summarized for all age groups. Crude reporting rates were calculated across age and sex strata. Expected rates of myocarditis by age and sex were calculated using 2017-2019 claims data. For persons younger than 30 years of age, medical record reviews and clinician interviews were conducted to describe clinical presentation, diagnostic test results, treatment, and early outcomes. Results: Among 192 405 448 persons receiving a total of 354 100 845 mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines during the study period, there were 1991 reports of myocarditis to VAERS and 1626 of these reports met the case definition of myocarditis. Of those with myocarditis, the median age was 21 years (IQR, 16-31 years) and the median time to symptom onset was 2 days (IQR, 1-3 days). Males comprised 82% of the myocarditis cases for whom sex was reported. The crude reporting rates for cases of myocarditis within 7 days after COVID-19 vaccination exceeded the expected rates of myocarditis across multiple age and sex strata. The rates of myocarditis were highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males aged 12 to 15 years (70.7 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), in adolescent males aged 16 to 17 years (105.9 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), and in young men aged 18 to 24 years (52.4 and 56.3 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine and the mRNA-1273 vaccine, respectively). There were 826 cases of myocarditis among those younger than 30 years of age who had detailed clinical information available; of these cases, 792 of 809 (98%) had elevated troponin levels, 569 of 794 (72%) had abnormal electrocardiogram results, and 223 of 312 (72%) had abnormal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging results. Approximately 96% of persons (784/813) were hospitalized and 87% (577/661) of these had resolution of presenting symptoms by hospital discharge. The most common treatment was nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (589/676; 87%). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on passive surveillance reporting in the US, the risk of myocarditis after receiving mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines was increased across multiple age and sex strata and was highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males and young men. This risk should be considered in the context of the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Myocarditis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 140, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows an association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and a severe inflammatory syndrome in children. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data about myocardial injury in children are limited to small cohorts. The aim of this multicenter, international registry is to describe clinical and cardiac characteristics of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 using CMR so as to better understand the real extent of myocardial damage in this vulnerable cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hundred-eleven patients meeting the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), having clinical cardiac involvement and having received CMR imaging scan were included from 17 centers. Median age at disease onset was 10.0 years (IQR 7.0-13.8). The majority of children had COVID-19 serology positive (98%) with 27% of children still having both, positive serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CMR was performed at a median of 28 days (19-47) after onset of symptoms. Twenty out of 111 (18%) patients had CMR criteria for acute myocarditis (as defined by the Lake Louise Criteria) with 18/20 showing subepicardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR myocarditis was significantly associated with New York Heart Association class IV (p = 0.005, OR 6.56 (95%-CI 1.87-23.00)) and the need for mechanical support (p = 0.039, OR 4.98 (95%-CI 1.18-21.02)). At discharge, 11/111 (10%) patients still had left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: No CMR evidence of myocardial damage was found in most of our MIS-C cohort. Nevertheless, acute myocarditis is a possible manifestation of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 with CMR evidence of myocardial necrosis in 18% of our cohort. CMR may be an important diagnostic tool to identify a subset of patients at risk for cardiac sequelae and more prone to myocardial damage. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT04455347, registered on 01/07/2020, retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
20.
J Pediatr ; 243: 208-213.e3, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587164

ABSTRACT

In this survey study of institutions across the US, marked variability in evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of adolescents 12 through 18 years of age with mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine-associated myopericarditis was noted. Only one adolescent with life-threatening complications was reported, with no deaths at any of the participating institutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger
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