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1.
Elife ; 102021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597375

ABSTRACT

For the first time, we have used phase-contrast X-ray tomography to characterize the three-dimensional (3d) structure of cardiac tissue from patients who succumbed to Covid-19. By extending conventional histopathological examination by a third dimension, the delicate pathological changes of the vascular system of severe Covid-19 progressions can be analyzed, fully quantified and compared to other types of viral myocarditis and controls. To this end, cardiac samples with a cross-section of 3.5mm were scanned at a laboratory setup as well as at a parallel beam setup at a synchrotron radiation facility the synchrotron in a parallel beam configuration. The vascular network was segmented by a deep learning architecture suitable for 3d datasets (V-net), trained by sparse manual annotations. Pathological alterations of vessels, concerning the variation of diameters and the amount of small holes, were observed, indicative of elevated occurrence of intussusceptive angiogenesis, also confirmed by high-resolution cone beam X-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, we implemented a fully automated analysis of the tissue structure in the form of shape measures based on the structure tensor. The corresponding distributions show that the histopathology of Covid-19 differs from both influenza and typical coxsackie virus myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/pathology , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/virology , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Synchrotrons , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
BMJ ; 375: e068665, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and myocarditis or myopericarditis. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 4 931 775 individuals aged 12 years or older, followed from 1 October 2020 to 5 October 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome, myocarditis or myopericarditis, was defined as a combination of a hospital diagnosis of myocarditis or pericarditis, increased troponin levels, and a hospital stay lasting more than 24 hours. Follow-up time before vaccination was compared with follow-up time 0-28 days from the day of vaccination for both first and second doses, using Cox proportional hazards regression with age as an underlying timescale to estimate hazard ratios adjusted for sex, comorbidities, and other potential confounders. RESULTS: During follow-up, 269 participants developed myocarditis or myopericarditis, of whom 108 (40%) were 12-39 years old and 196 (73%) were male. Of 3 482 295 individuals vaccinated with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), 48 developed myocarditis or myopericarditis within 28 days from the vaccination date compared with unvaccinated individuals (adjusted hazard ratio 1.34 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.00); absolute rate 1.4 per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.8)). Adjusted hazard ratios among female participants only and male participants only were 3.73 (1.82 to 7.65) and 0.82 (0.50 to 1.34), respectively, with corresponding absolute rates of 1.3 (0.8 to 1.9) and 1.5 (1.0 to 2.2) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio among 12-39 year olds was 1.48 (0.74 to 2.98) and the absolute rate was 1.6 (1.0 to 2.6) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination. Among 498 814 individuals vaccinated with mRNA-1273 (Moderna), 21 developed myocarditis or myopericarditis within 28 days from vaccination date (adjusted hazard ratio 3.92 (2.30 to 6.68); absolute rate 4.2 per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination (2.6 to 6.4)). Adjusted hazard ratios among women only and men only were 6.33 (2.11 to 18.96) and 3.22 (1.75 to 5.93), respectively, with corresponding absolute rates of 2.0 (0.7 to 4.8) and 6.3 (3.6 to 10.2) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio among 12-39 year olds was 5.24 (2.47 to 11.12) and the absolute rate was 5.7 (3.3 to 9.3) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with mRNA-1273 was associated with a significantly increased risk of myocarditis or myopericarditis in the Danish population, primarily driven by an increased risk among individuals aged 12-39 years, while BNT162b2 vaccination was only associated with a significantly increased risk among women. However, the absolute rate of myocarditis or myopericarditis after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination was low, even in younger age groups. The benefits of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination should be taken into account when interpreting these findings. Larger multinational studies are needed to further investigate the risks of myocarditis or myopericarditis after vaccination within smaller subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , /adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , Young Adult
4.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572665

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has mobilized many efforts worldwide to curb its impact on morbidity and mortality. Vaccination of the general population has resulted in the administration of more than 6,700,000,000 doses by the end of October 2021, which is the most effective method to prevent hospitalization and death. Among the adverse effects described, myocarditis and pericarditis are low-frequency events (less than 10 per 100,000 people), mainly observed with messenger RNA vaccines. The mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been specified, considering an exacerbated and uncontrolled immune response and an autoimmune response against specific cardiomyocyte proteins. This greater immunogenicity and reactogenicity is clinically manifested in a differential manner in pediatric patients, adults, and the elderly, determining specific characteristics of its presentation for each age group. It generally develops as a condition of mild to moderate severity, whose symptoms and imaging findings are self-limited, resolving favorably in days to weeks and, exceptionally, reporting deaths associated with this complication. The short- and medium-term prognosis is favorable, highlighting the lack of data on long-term evolution, which should be determined in longer follow-ups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Adolescent , Aged , Cardiomyopathies/epidemiology , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/pathology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/pathology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Science ; 374(6570): 913, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522892

ABSTRACT

Earlier this month, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended Pfizer's COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine for children between 5 and 11 years of age-that's 28 million children. Yet surveys show that 42 to 66% of parents of these children are reluctant or opposed to seeking this protection. Without vaccination, it is likely that almost everyone-including young children-will be infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at some point in their lives. So, the question for parents and caregivers is: Which is worse, vaccination or natural infection?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Myocarditis/etiology , Parents , United States , Vaccination Refusal
6.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(11): 583-584, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501234

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: A growing number of adolescents are being diagnosed with acute myocarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations. This case describes an adolescent who presented to the emergency department with chest pain and tachycardia following the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination. Point-of-care ultrasound was performed prior to the return of laboratory studies and revealed depressed left ventricular systolic function. Point-of-care ultrasound may be a tool used to rapidly diagnose or risk stratify patients with potential post-COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 67, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497893

ABSTRACT

Adverse consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination which have been reported in scientific papers are varied. One possible but rare consequence is myocarditis, which may have a diversity of clinical manifestations. We report a case of a 70-year-old man who presented to the hospital for some syncope, 3 days after his first COVID-19 AstraZeneca Vaccination. Initial electrocardiogram (ECG) showed a long QT interval (QTc = 600 milliseconds). Laboratory tests revealed elevated troponin and lack of evidence of viral infection. Further investigations revealed the vaccine-induced myocarditis and arrhythmias linked to it. Within one week of magnesium treatment, the QT interval was completely corrected, and the patient discharged with no typical syncope attacks. This case like the previous reported one confirms that myocarditis is a complication of COVID-19 vaccine, but implies its clinical manifestations may be varied and even may happen after the single dose of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/etiology , Syncope/etiology , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Electrocardiography , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/drug therapy , Magnesium/administration & dosage , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Syncope/diagnosis , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods
8.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(11): 894-899, 2021 Nov.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496712

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused 2.69 million deaths and 122 million infections. Great efforts have been made worldwide to promptly develop effective vaccines and reduce morbidity and mortality rates from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Available vaccines have proven highly effective at preventing symptomatic disease in clinical trials and real-world reports and are playing an essential role in flattening the epidemiology curve and, mostly, in reducing COVID-19 hospitalizations. Some concerns have been raised after very rare cases of myocarditis and pericarditis recently reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as potentially associated with COVID-19 mRNA vaccinations, namely the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) and the Moderna mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273). Therefore, the aim of this document is to explore the possible link between COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and the development of myocarditis and/or pericarditis by performing a critical analysis of available data and to provide indications for specific subgroups of individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Expert Testimony , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1390-1399, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490611

ABSTRACT

Importance: Safety surveillance of vaccines against COVID-19 is critical to ensure safety, maintain trust, and inform policy. Objectives: To monitor 23 serious outcomes weekly, using comprehensive health records on a diverse population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study represents an interim analysis of safety surveillance data from Vaccine Safety Datalink. The 10 162 227 vaccine-eligible members of 8 participating US health plans were monitored with administrative data updated weekly and supplemented with medical record review for selected outcomes from December 14, 2020, through June 26, 2021. Exposures: Receipt of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccination, with a risk interval of 21 days for individuals after vaccine dose 1 or 2 compared with an interval of 22 to 42 days for similar individuals after vaccine dose 1 or 2. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of serious outcomes, including acute myocardial infarction, Bell palsy, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myocarditis/pericarditis, pulmonary embolism, stroke, and thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Incidence of events that occurred among vaccine recipients 1 to 21 days after either dose 1 or 2 of a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine was compared with that of vaccinated concurrent comparators who, on the same calendar day, had received their most recent dose 22 to 42 days earlier. Rate ratios (RRs) were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity, health plan, and calendar day. For a signal, a 1-sided P < .0048 was required to keep type I error below .05 during 2 years of weekly analyses. For 4 additional outcomes, including anaphylaxis, only descriptive analyses were conducted. Results: A total of 11 845 128 doses of mRNA vaccines (57% BNT162b2; 6 175 813 first doses and 5 669 315 second doses) were administered to 6.2 million individuals (mean age, 49 years; 54% female individuals). The incidence of events per 1 000 000 person-years during the risk vs comparison intervals for ischemic stroke was 1612 vs 1781 (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87-1.08); for appendicitis, 1179 vs 1345 (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.93); and for acute myocardial infarction, 935 vs 1030 (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.89-1.18). No vaccine-outcome association met the prespecified requirement for a signal. Incidence of confirmed anaphylaxis was 4.8 (95% CI, 3.2-6.9) per million doses of BNT162b2 and 5.1 (95% CI, 3.3-7.6) per million doses of mRNA-1273. Conclusions and Relevance: In interim analyses of surveillance of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, incidence of selected serious outcomes was not significantly higher 1 to 21 days postvaccination compared with 22 to 42 days postvaccination. While CIs were wide for many outcomes, surveillance is ongoing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Public Health Surveillance , Time Factors , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Young Adult
10.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(5): 372-378, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483189

ABSTRACT

Since the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic spread unrelentingly all over the world, millions of cases have been reported. Despite a high number of asymptomatic cases, the course of the disease can be serious or even fatal. The affection of the myocardium, called myocardial injury, is caused by multiple triggers. The occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients with myocardial involvement and a critical course is common. In this review, potential mechanisms, incidence, and treatment options for cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients will be provided by performing a literature research in MESH database and the National Library of Medicine. Common cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients were sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation (AF), ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), atrioventricular block, sinusoidal block or QTc prolongation. AF was the most common heart rhythm disorder. About 10% of COVID-19 patients develop new-onset AF and 23 to 33% showed recurrence of AF in patients with known AF. One retrospective trial revealed the incidence of VT or VF to be 5.9% in hospitalized patients. Both AF and VT are clearly associated with worse outcome. Several mechanisms such as hypoxia, myocarditis, myocardial ischemia, or abnormal host immune response, which induce cardiac arrhythmias, have been described. The effect of QT-prolonging drugs in inducing cardiac arrhythmias has become mitigated as these medications are no longer recommended. Acute management of cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients is affected by the reduction of exposure of health care personnel. More prospective data are desirable to better understand pathophysiology and consecutively adapt management.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/etiology
12.
J Pediatr ; 238: 317-320, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481892

ABSTRACT

Reports have emerged of myocarditis and pericarditis predominantly after the second dose of the coronavirus disease messenger ribonucleic acid vaccine. We describe 13 patients aged 12-17 years who presented with chest pain within 1 week after their second dose of the Pfizer vaccine and were found to have elevated serum troponin levels and evidence of myopericarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Washington/epidemiology
14.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(39): e277, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463460

ABSTRACT

Mass vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine (BNT162b2) in Korea has resulted in many reported adverse effects. These side effects are the object of much scrutiny in the medical community. We report the case of a 29-year-old male who was diagnosed with myopericarditis after his second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. This patient is the second recognized case of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine induced myopericarditis in Korea and the first to have recovered from it. He originally presented with chest discomfort and exertional chest pain. Lab tests revealed elevated cardiac marker levels and echocardiographic findings displayed minimal pericardial effusion, prompting diagnosis as myopericarditis. We decided on two weeks of outpatient treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to the patient's mild symptoms and his occupation in the military. When this proved insufficient, we shifted to combination therapy with low dose corticosteroids and NSAIDs. After two weeks of treatment, the patient's symptoms and pericardial effusion had improved, and he was recovered completely 37 days after the onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Myocarditis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/drug therapy
15.
J Pediatr ; 238: 26-32.e1, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinical course and outcomes of children 12-18 years of age who developed probable myopericarditis after vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 25 children, aged 12-18 years, diagnosed with probable myopericarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination as per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for myopericarditis at 8 US centers between May 10, 2021, and June 20, 2021. We retrospectively collected the following data: demographics, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus detection or serologic testing, clinical manifestations, laboratory test results, imaging study results, treatment, and time to resolutions of symptoms. RESULTS: Most (88%) cases followed the second dose of vaccine, and chest pain (100%) was the most common presenting symptom. Patients came to medical attention a median of 2 days (range, <1-20 days) after receipt of Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. All adolescents had an elevated plasma troponin concentration. Echocardiographic abnormalities were infrequent, and 92% showed normal cardiac function at presentation. However, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, obtained in 16 patients (64%), revealed that 15 (94%) had late gadolinium enhancement consistent with myopericarditis. Most were treated with ibuprofen or an equivalent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for symptomatic relief. One patient was given a corticosteroid orally after the initial administration of ibuprofen or an nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; 2 patients also received intravenous immune globulin. Symptom resolution was observed within 7 days in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that symptoms owing to myopericarditis after the mRNA COVID-19 vaccination tend to be mild and transient. Approximately two-thirds of patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed evidence of myocardial inflammation despite a lack of echocardiographic abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 106, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocarditis is a potential complication after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and a known cause of sudden cardiac death. Given the athletic demands of soldiers, identification of myocarditis and characterization of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection with cardiovascular symptoms (CV PASC) may be critical to guide return-to-service. This study sought to evaluate the spectrum of cardiac involvement among soldiers with cardiopulmonary symptoms in the late convalescent phase of recovery from SARS-CoV-2 compared to a healthy soldier control group, and to determine the rate of progression to CV PASC. METHODS: All soldiers referred for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for cardiopulmonary symptoms following COVID-19 were enrolled and matched by age, gender, and athletic phenotype 1:1 to soldiers undergoing CMR in the year prior to the first case of COVID-19 at our institution. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging parameters were compared between groups. The diagnosis of acute myocarditis was made using modified Lake Louise criteria. Wilcoxon rank sum and chi-squared tests were used for comparison of continuous and categorical variables, respectively. RESULTS: Fifty soldier cases and 50 healthy soldier controls were included. The median time from SARS-CoV-2 detection to CMR was 71 days. The majority of cases experienced moderate symptoms (N = 43, 86%), while only 10% required hospitalization. The right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (RVEF) was reduced in soldier cases compared to controls (51.0% vs. 53.2%, p = 0.012). Four cases were diagnosed with myocarditis (8%), 1 (2%) was diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and 1 (2%) had new biventricular systolic dysfunction of unclear etiology. Isolated inferior RV septal insertion late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was present in 8 cases and 8 controls (16% vs. 24%, p = 0.09). Seven of the 19 (37%) cases that completed an intermediate-term follow-up survey reported CV PASC at a median of 139 days of follow-up. Two of the 7 soldiers (29%) with CV PASC had a pathological clinical diagnosis (myocarditis) on CMR. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular pathology was diagnosed in 6 symptomatic soldiers (12%) after recovery from SARS-CoV-2, with myocarditis found in 4 (8%). RVEF was reduced in soldier cases compared to controls. CV PASC occurred in over one-third of soldiers surveyed, but did not occur in any soldiers with asymptomatic acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Anaesthesist ; 70(2): 121-126, 2021 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453674

ABSTRACT

A 59-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital diagnosed with moderate pneumonia associated with COVID-19. Upfront treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was started. Due to a clinical deterioration (ARDS, circulatory shock) and greatly increased inflammation markers 6 days after admission, a cytokine storm was suspected and off-label treatment with the IL­6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab was initiated. Subsequently there was a dramatic rise of D­dimers indicating pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy and respiratory insufficiency worsened. After a second dose of tocilizumab was administered severe perimyocarditis with cardiac arrhythmia, hemodynamic instability and ST elevation occurred. Shortly afterwards the patient died due to multiorgan failure. From our experience, exacerbation of COVID-19 following treatment with tocilizumab cannot be ruled out. Randomized controlled studies are necessary to further investigate the efficacy, safety and patient selection criteria for tocilizumab treatment in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Myocarditis/etiology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Off-Label Use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency , Treatment Outcome
20.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430982

ABSTRACT

Evidence is emerging that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can infect various organs of the body, including cardiomyocytes and cardiac endothelial cells in the heart. This review focuses on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the heart after direct infection that can lead to myocarditis and an outline of potential treatment options. The main points are: (1) Viral entry: SARS-CoV-2 uses specific receptors and proteases for docking and priming in cardiac cells. Thus, different receptors or protease inhibitors might be effective in SARS-CoV-2-infected cardiac cells. (2) Viral replication: SARS-CoV-2 uses RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for replication. Drugs acting against ssRNA(+) viral replication for cardiac cells can be effective. (3) Autophagy and double-membrane vesicles: SARS-CoV-2 manipulates autophagy to inhibit viral clearance and promote SARS-CoV-2 replication by creating double-membrane vesicles as replication sites. (4) Immune response: Host immune response is manipulated to evade host cell attacks against SARS-CoV-2 and increased inflammation by dysregulating immune cells. Efficiency of immunosuppressive therapy must be elucidated. (5) Programmed cell death: SARS-CoV-2 inhibits programmed cell death in early stages and induces apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis in later stages. (6) Energy metabolism: SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to disturbed energy metabolism that in turn leads to a decrease in ATP production and ROS production. (7) Viroporins: SARS-CoV-2 creates viroporins that lead to an imbalance of ion homeostasis. This causes apoptosis, altered action potential, and arrhythmia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Endothelial Cells/ultrastructure , Endothelial Cells/virology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/therapy , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Viroporin Proteins , Virus Replication
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