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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 624703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354863

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence suggests that the breakdown of immune tolerance plays an important role in the development of myocarditis triggered by cardiotropic microbial infections. Genetic deletion of immune checkpoint molecules that are crucial for maintaining self-tolerance causes spontaneous myocarditis in mice, and cancer treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors can induce myocarditis in humans. These results suggest that the loss of immune tolerance results in myocarditis. The tissue microenvironment influences the local immune dysregulation in autoimmunity. Recently, tenascin-C (TN-C) has been found to play a role as a local regulator of inflammation through various molecular mechanisms. TN-C is a nonstructural extracellular matrix glycoprotein expressed in the heart during early embryonic development, as well as during tissue injury or active tissue remodeling, in a spatiotemporally restricted manner. In a mouse model of autoimmune myocarditis, TN-C was detectable before inflammatory cell infiltration and myocytolysis became histologically evident; it was strongly expressed during active inflammation and disappeared with healing. TN-C activates dendritic cells to generate pathogenic autoreactive T cells and forms an important link between innate and acquired immunity.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Autoimmunity , Cardiomyopathies/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Tenascin/metabolism , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , Cardiomyopathies/immunology , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Cellular Microenvironment , Humans , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocardium/immunology , Myocardium/pathology , Self Tolerance , Signal Transduction
2.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274611

ABSTRACT

Th17 cells are recognized as indispensable in inducing protective immunity against bacteria and fungi, as they promote the integrity of mucosal epithelial barriers. It is believed that Th17 cells also play a central role in the induction of autoimmune diseases. Recent advances have evaluated Th17 effector functions during viral infections, including their critical role in the production and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and in the recruitment and activation of other immune cells. Thus, Th17 is involved in the induction both of pathogenicity and immunoprotective mechanisms seen in the host's immune response against viruses. However, certain Th17 cells can also modulate immune responses, since they can secrete immunosuppressive factors, such as IL-10; these cells are called non-pathogenic Th17 cells. Here, we present a brief review of Th17 cells and highlight their involvement in some virus infections. We cover these notions by highlighting the role of Th17 cells in regulating the protective and pathogenic immune response in the context of viral infections. In addition, we will be describing myocarditis and multiple sclerosis as examples of immune diseases triggered by viral infections, in which we will discuss further the roles of Th17 cells in the induction of tissue damage.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis/immunology , Th17 Cells/metabolism , Virus Diseases/immunology , Adenoviridae , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Chikungunya virus , Cytokines/immunology , Dengue Virus , Humans , Immune System , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Inflammation , Interleukin-10/biosynthesis , Lymphocytes/cytology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/metabolism , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocarditis/virology , Orthomyxoviridae , SARS-CoV-2 , Simplexvirus , Th1 Cells/cytology , Th2 Cells/cytology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Zika Virus
3.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(8): 948-960, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265359

ABSTRACT

Importance: Myalgia, increased levels of creatine kinase, and persistent muscle weakness have been reported in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To study skeletal muscle and myocardial inflammation in patients with COVID-19 who had died. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control autopsy series was conducted in a university hospital as a multidisciplinary postmortem investigation. Patients with COVID-19 or other critical illnesses who had died between March 2020 and February 2021 and on whom an autopsy was performed were included. Individuals for whom informed consent to autopsy was available and the postmortem interval was less than 6 days were randomly selected. Individuals who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 per polymerase chain reaction test results and had clinical features suggestive of COVID-19 were compared with individuals with negative SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test results and an absence of clinical features suggestive of COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Inflammation of skeletal muscle tissue was assessed by quantification of immune cell infiltrates, expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II antigens on the sarcolemma, and a blinded evaluation on a visual analog scale ranging from absence of pathology to the most pronounced pathology. Inflammation of cardiac muscles was assessed by quantification of immune cell infiltrates. Results: Forty-three patients with COVID-19 (median [interquartile range] age, 72 [16] years; 31 men [72%]) and 11 patients with diseases other than COVID-19 (median [interquartile range] age, 71 [5] years; 7 men [64%]) were included. Skeletal muscle samples from the patients who died with COVID-19 showed a higher overall pathology score (mean [SD], 3.4 [1.8] vs 1.5 [1.0]; 95% CI, 0-3; P < .001) and a higher inflammation score (mean [SD], 3.5 [2.1] vs 1.0 [0.6]; 95% CI, 0-4; P < .001). Relevant expression of MHC class I antigens on the sarcolemma was present in 23 of 42 specimens from patients with COVID-19 (55%) and upregulation of MHC class II antigens in 7 of 42 specimens from patients with COVID-19 (17%), but neither were found in any of the controls. Increased numbers of natural killer cells (median [interquartile range], 8 [8] vs 3 [4] cells per 10 high-power fields; 95% CI, 1-10 cells per 10 high-power fields; P < .001) were found. Skeletal muscles showed more inflammatory features than cardiac muscles, and inflammation was most pronounced in patients with COVID-19 with chronic courses. In some muscle specimens, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, but no evidence for a direct viral infection of myofibers was found by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study of patients who had died with and without COVID-19, most individuals with severe COVID-19 showed signs of myositis ranging from mild to severe. Inflammation of skeletal muscles was associated with the duration of illness and was more pronounced than cardiac inflammation. Detection of viral load was low or negative in most skeletal and cardiac muscles and probably attributable to circulating viral RNA rather than genuine infection of myocytes. This suggests that SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with a postinfectious, immune-mediated myopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Myositis/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Case-Control Studies , Female , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/metabolism , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Leukocytes/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Myositis/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcolemma/metabolism , Time Factors
5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(5): e173-e178, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis (AM) is defined as inflammation of the myocardium. The aim of our study is a comparative analysis of the differences between AM related and unrelated to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: The retrospective study included children with AM treated from January 2018 to November 2020. RESULTS: The study included 24 patients; 7 of 24 had AM related to SARS-CoV-2 and they were older than 7. They were more likely to have abdominal pain (P = 0.014), headache (P = 0.003), cutaneous rash (P = 0.003), and conjunctivitis (P = 0.003), while fulminant myocarditis was commonly registered in AM unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 (P = 0.04). A multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19 was diagnosed in six adolescents. Patients with AM related SARS-CoV-2 had lower serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) (P = 0.012), and platelets (P < 0.001), but had a higher C-reactive protein (CRP) value (P = 0.04), and N-terminal-pro hormone BNP in comparison to patients with AM unrelated to SARS-CoV-2. The patients with AM related to SARS-CoV-2 had significant reduction of CRP (P = 0.007). Inotropic drug support was used for shorter durations in patients with AM related to SARS-CoV-2, than in others (P = 0.02). Children with AM related to SARS-CoV-2 had significant improvement of left ventricle systolic function on the third day in hospital (P = 0.001). Patients with AM unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 AM had more frequent adverse outcomes (P = 0.04; three died and four dilated cardiomyopathy). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to patients with AM unrelated to SARS-CoV-2, patients with AM related to SARS-CoV-2 had a higher CRP value, polymorphic clinical presentation, shorter durations of inotropic drugs use as well as prompt recovery of left ventricle systolic function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Myocarditis/virology , Adolescent , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Exanthema , Female , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Male , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Ventricular Function, Left
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12609-12622, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In human pathology, SARS-CoV-2 utilizes multiple molecular pathways to determine structural and biochemical changes within the different organs and cell types. The clinical picture of patients with COVID-19 is characterized by a very large spectrum. The reason for this variability has not been clarified yet, causing the inability to make a prognosis on the evolution of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed search was performed focusing on the role of ACE 2 receptors in allowing the viral entry into cells, the role of ACE 2 downregulation in triggering the tissue pathology or in accelerating previous disease states, the role of increased levels of Angiotensin II in determining endothelial dysfunction and the enhanced vascular permeability, the role of the dysregulation of the renin angiotensin system in COVID-19 and the role of cytokine storm. RESULTS: The pathological changes induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in the different organs, the correlations between the single cell types targeted by the virus in the different human organs and the clinical consequences, COVID-19 chronic pathologies in liver fibrosis, cardiac fibrosis and atrial arrhythmias, glomerulosclerosis and pulmonary fibrosis, due to the systemic fibroblast activation induced by angiotensin II are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The main pathways involved showed different pathological changes in multiple tissues and the different clinical presentations. Even if ACE2 is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2 and the main entry point into cells for the virus, ACE2 expression does not always explain the observed marked inter-individual variability in clinical presentation and outcome, evidencing the complexity of this disorder. The proper interpretation of the growing data available might allow to better classifying COVID-19 in human pathology.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiomyopathies/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , Angiotensin I/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Capillary Permeability , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibroblasts/pathology , Fibrosis , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Virus Internalization
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12527-12535, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995013

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, an outbreak of a new coronavirus, COVID-19, infection has been taking place. At present, COVID-19 has spread to most countries worldwide. The latest evidence suggests that cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) is an important cause of the transition from mild to critical pneumonia and critically ill patients' death. The sudden exacerbation of COVID-19 may be related to a cytokine storm. Therefore, early identification and active treatment of CSS may play very important roles in improving the patients' prognosis, and these tasks are given attention in the current treatment of new Coronavirus pneumonia. However, there is still no specific medicine for this purpose. This article reviews cytokine storms and conducts an exploratory review of pharmacotherapy for cytokine storms to provide a reference for clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Myocarditis/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Benzyl Compounds/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Glycoproteins/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia/therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Myocardial Ischemia/metabolism , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Sphingosine 1 Phosphate Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Trypsin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , alpha-Methyltyrosine/therapeutic use
8.
J Card Fail ; 27(1): 92-96, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-928866

ABSTRACT

Cardiac complications, including clinically suspected myocarditis, have been described in novel coronavirus disease 2019. Here, we review current data on suspected myocarditis in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome novel coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Hypothetical mechanisms to explain the pathogenesis of troponin release in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 include direct virus-induced myocardial injury (ie, viral myocarditis), systemic hyperinflammatory response (ie, cytokine storm), hypoxemia, downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, systemic virus-induced endothelialitis, and type 1 and type 2 myocardial infarction. To date, despite the fact that millions of SARS-CoV-2 infections have been diagnosed worldwide, there is no definitive proof that SARS-CoV-2 is a novel cardiotropic virus causing direct cardiomyocyte damage. Diagnosis of viral myocarditis should be based on the molecular assessment of endomyocardial biopsy or autopsy by polymerase chain reaction or in-situ hybridization. Blood, sputum, or nasal and throat swab virology testing are insufficient and do not correlate with the myocardial involvement of a given pathogen. Data from endomyocardial biopsies and autopsies in clinically suspected SARS-CoV-2 myocarditis are scarce. Overall, current clinical epidemiologic data do not support the hypothesis that viral myocarditis is caused by SARS-CoV-2, or that it is common. More endomyocardial biopsy and autopsy data are also needed for a better understanding of pathogenesis of clinically suspected myocarditis in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may include virus-negative immune-mediated or already established subclinical autoimmune forms, triggered or accelerated by the hyperinflammatory state of severe novel coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/metabolism , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Myocarditis/metabolism
9.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 31(12): 893-904, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-867128

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with cardiovascular complications have a higher risk of mortality. The main cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 include acute cardiac injury, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), myocarditis, arrhythmia, heart failure, shock, and venous thromboembolism (VTE)/pulmonary embolism (PE). COVID-19 can cause cardiovascular complications or deterioration of coexisting CVD through direct or indirect mechanisms, including viral toxicity, dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), endothelial cell damage and thromboinflammation, cytokine storm, and oxygen supply-demand mismatch. We systematically review cardiovascular manifestations, histopathology, and mechanisms of COVID-19, to help to formulate future research goals and facilitate the development of therapeutic management strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/immunology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/immunology , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Failure/immunology , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Hypoxia/immunology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/immunology , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Shock/immunology , Shock/metabolism , Shock/physiopathology , Troponin/metabolism , Venous Thromboembolism/immunology , Venous Thromboembolism/metabolism , Venous Thromboembolism/physiopathology
10.
Circ J ; 84(11): 2027-2031, 2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-795948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with myocardial injury, but there is a paucity of experimental platforms for the condition.Methods and Results:Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) infected by SARS-CoV-2 for 3 days ceased beating and exhibited cytopathogenic changes with reduced viability. Active viral replication was evidenced by an increase in supernatant SARS-CoV-2 and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocaspid protein within hiPSC-CMs. Expressions of BNP, CXCL1, CXCL2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were upregulated, while ACE2 was downregulated. CONCLUSIONS: Our hiPSC-CM-based in-vitro SARS-CoV-2 myocarditis model recapitulated the cytopathogenic effects and cytokine/chemokine response. It could be exploited as a drug screening platform.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Myocarditis/complications , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocarditis/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(11): 1281-1285, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676377

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be documented in various tissues, but the frequency of cardiac involvement as well as possible consequences are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the myocardial tissue from autopsy cases and to document a possible cardiac response to that infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from consecutive autopsy cases from Germany between April 8 and April 18, 2020. All patients had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in pharyngeal swab tests. Exposures: Patients who died of coronavirus disease 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in cardiac tissue as well as CD3+, CD45+, and CD68+ cells in the myocardium and gene expression of tumor necrosis growth factor α, interferon γ, chemokine ligand 5, as well as interleukin-6, -8, and -18. Results: Cardiac tissue from 39 consecutive autopsy cases were included. The median (interquartile range) age of patients was 85 (78-89) years, and 23 (59.0%) were women. SARS-CoV-2 could be documented in 24 of 39 patients (61.5%). Viral load above 1000 copies per µg RNA could be documented in 16 of 39 patients (41.0%). A cytokine response panel consisting of 6 proinflammatory genes was increased in those 16 patients compared with 15 patients without any SARS-CoV-2 in the heart. Comparison of 15 patients without cardiac infection with 16 patients with more than 1000 copies revealed no inflammatory cell infiltrates or differences in leukocyte numbers per high power field. Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of autopsy cases, viral presence within the myocardium could be documented. While a response to this infection could be reported in cases with higher virus load vs no virus infection, this was not associated with an influx of inflammatory cells. Future investigations should focus on evaluating the long-term consequences of this cardiac involvement.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/methods , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Infections/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Infections/metabolism , Cardiovascular Infections/virology , Chemokines/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/immunology , Myocardium/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Viral Load/statistics & numerical data
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