Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 50
Filter
1.
Circulation ; 145(15): 1123-1139, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis (AM) is thought to be a rare cardiovascular complication of COVID-19, although minimal data are available beyond case reports. We aim to report the prevalence, baseline characteristics, in-hospital management, and outcomes for patients with COVID-19-associated AM on the basis of a retrospective cohort from 23 hospitals in the United States and Europe. METHODS: A total of 112 patients with suspected AM from 56 963 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were evaluated between February 1, 2020, and April 30, 2021. Inclusion criteria were hospitalization for COVID-19 and a diagnosis of AM on the basis of endomyocardial biopsy or increased troponin level plus typical signs of AM on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We identified 97 patients with possible AM, and among them, 54 patients with definite/probable AM supported by endomyocardial biopsy in 17 (31.5%) patients or magnetic resonance imaging in 50 (92.6%). We analyzed patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes among all COVID-19-associated AM. RESULTS: AM prevalence among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 2.4 per 1000 hospitalizations considering definite/probable and 4.1 per 1000 considering also possible AM. The median age of definite/probable cases was 38 years, and 38.9% were female. On admission, chest pain and dyspnea were the most frequent symptoms (55.5% and 53.7%, respectively). Thirty-one cases (57.4%) occurred in the absence of COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Twenty-one (38.9%) had a fulminant presentation requiring inotropic support or temporary mechanical circulatory support. The composite of in-hospital mortality or temporary mechanical circulatory support occurred in 20.4%. At 120 days, estimated mortality was 6.6%, 15.1% in patients with associated pneumonia versus 0% in patients without pneumonia (P=0.044). During hospitalization, left ventricular ejection fraction, assessed by echocardiography, improved from a median of 40% on admission to 55% at discharge (n=47; P<0.0001) similarly in patients with or without pneumonia. Corticosteroids were frequently administered (55.5%). CONCLUSIONS: AM occurrence is estimated between 2.4 and 4.1 out of 1000 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The majority of AM occurs in the absence of pneumonia and is often complicated by hemodynamic instability. AM is a rare complication in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, with an outcome that differs on the basis of the presence of concomitant pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(2)2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715542

ABSTRACT

Fulminant myocarditis is characterized by life threatening heart failure presenting as cardiogenic shock requiring inotropic or mechanical circulatory support to maintain tissue perfusion. There are limited data on the role of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) in the management of fulminant myocarditis. This review seeks to evaluate the management of fulminant myocarditis with a special emphasis on the role and outcomes with VA-ECMO use.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Failure , Myocarditis , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Myocarditis/therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy
3.
J Card Surg ; 37(5): 1439-1443, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685369

ABSTRACT

Emerging data suggest an association between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the development of acute myocarditis, with children and older adults being most at risk. We describe the clinical course of a previously healthy 12-year-old female who rapidly deteriorated into cardiogenic shock and arrest due to coronavirus disease 2019 induced fulminant myocarditis, necessitating venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to full recovery. This case highlights the importance of early clinical recognition of myocardial involvement, and the benefits of taking a multidisciplinary approach in treating these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Female , Humans , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocardium , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy
5.
J Pediatr ; 242: 18-24, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587166

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the etiologies of viral myocarditis in children in the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 era. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective review of all patients (age <18 years) diagnosed with myocarditis and hospitalized at Rady Children's Hospital San Diego between 2000 and 2018. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Of 28 (97%) patients who underwent testing for viruses, polymerase chain reaction was used in 24 of 28 (86% of cases), and 16 of 24 (67%) detected a virus. Pathogens were rhinovirus (6), influenza A/B (4), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (3), coronavirus (3), parvovirus B19 (2), adenovirus (2), and coxsackie B5 virus, enterovirus, and parainfluenza virus type 2 in one case each. Six (21%) patients had no pathogen detected but imaging and other laboratory test results were compatible with myocarditis. Age 0-2 years was associated with RSV, influenza A/B, coronavirus, and enteroviruses (P < .001). Twenty-one patients (72%) experienced full clinical recovery. Three patients (10%) required venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), and all 3 recovered. Three others (10%) required and underwent successful cardiac transplantation without complications. Two patients (7%) died 9-10 days after hospitalization (1 had RSV and 1 had influenza A/B). Two other patients presented with complete atrioventricular block; 1 case (rhinovirus) resolved spontaneously, and 1 (coronavirus) resolved after support with VA-ECMO. Age <2 years, female sex, lower ejection fraction at admission, and greater initial and peak levels of brain natriuretic peptide were significant predictors of critical outcomes (use of VA-ECMO, listing for cardiac transplantation, and death). CONCLUSIONS: Viral nucleic acid-based testing revealed a wider spectrum of viruses that could be associated with myocarditis in children than previously reported and traditionally anticipated. A predilection of certain pathogens in the very young patients was observed. Whether the observed range of viral agents reflects an undercurrent of change in viral etiology or viral detection methods is unclear, but the wider spectrum of viral pathogens found underscores the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction testing to explore possible viral etiologies of myocarditis in children.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/virology , Virus Diseases/complications , Viruses/pathogenicity , Adolescent , California/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/therapy , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies
7.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(5): 230-237, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511053

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is a broad term encompassing any disease leading to myocardial inflammation with associated cardiac dysfunction. While endomyocardial biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis, noninvasive imaging techniques, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, have become powerful tools to facilitate the identification of underlying myocardial inflammation. This review presents a series of clinical cases with some common etiologies of inflammatory cardiomyopathy, including diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/therapy
8.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(13): 2610-2623, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450387

ABSTRACT

Infection of the heart muscle with cardiotropic viruses is one of the major aetiologies of myocarditis and acute and chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy (DCMi). However, viral myocarditis and subsequent dilated cardiomyopathy is still a challenging disease to diagnose and to treat and is therefore a significant public health issue globally. Advances in clinical examination and thorough molecular genetic analysis of intramyocardial viruses and their activation status have incrementally improved our understanding of molecular pathogenesis and pathophysiology of viral infections of the heart muscle. To date, several cardiotropic viruses have been implicated as causes of myocarditis and DCMi. These include, among others, classical cardiotropic enteroviruses (Coxsackieviruses B), the most commonly detected parvovirus B19, and human herpes virus 6. A newcomer is the respiratory virus that has triggered the worst pandemic in a century, SARS-CoV-2, whose involvement and impact in viral cardiovascular disease is under scrutiny. Despite extensive research into the pathomechanisms of viral infections of the cardiovascular system, our knowledge regarding their treatment and management is still incomplete. Accordingly, in this review, we aim to explore and summarize the current knowledge and available evidence on viral infections of the heart. We focus on diagnostics, clinical relevance and cardiovascular consequences, pathophysiology, and current and novel treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/virology , Myocarditis/virology , Parvoviridae Infections/virology , Parvovirus B19, Human/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/immunology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/therapy , Genetic Therapy , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/therapy , Parvoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Parvoviridae Infections/immunology , Parvoviridae Infections/therapy , Parvovirus B19, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430982

ABSTRACT

Evidence is emerging that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can infect various organs of the body, including cardiomyocytes and cardiac endothelial cells in the heart. This review focuses on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the heart after direct infection that can lead to myocarditis and an outline of potential treatment options. The main points are: (1) Viral entry: SARS-CoV-2 uses specific receptors and proteases for docking and priming in cardiac cells. Thus, different receptors or protease inhibitors might be effective in SARS-CoV-2-infected cardiac cells. (2) Viral replication: SARS-CoV-2 uses RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for replication. Drugs acting against ssRNA(+) viral replication for cardiac cells can be effective. (3) Autophagy and double-membrane vesicles: SARS-CoV-2 manipulates autophagy to inhibit viral clearance and promote SARS-CoV-2 replication by creating double-membrane vesicles as replication sites. (4) Immune response: Host immune response is manipulated to evade host cell attacks against SARS-CoV-2 and increased inflammation by dysregulating immune cells. Efficiency of immunosuppressive therapy must be elucidated. (5) Programmed cell death: SARS-CoV-2 inhibits programmed cell death in early stages and induces apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis in later stages. (6) Energy metabolism: SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to disturbed energy metabolism that in turn leads to a decrease in ATP production and ROS production. (7) Viroporins: SARS-CoV-2 creates viroporins that lead to an imbalance of ion homeostasis. This causes apoptosis, altered action potential, and arrhythmia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Endothelial Cells/ultrastructure , Endothelial Cells/virology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/therapy , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Viroporin Proteins , Virus Replication
10.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(9): 129, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338273

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), myocardial injury occurs frequently in severe or critically ill hospitalized patients, yet myocarditis is much less common. In this context, revisiting the definition of myocarditis is appropriate with a specific focus on diagnostic and management considerations in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. RECENT FINDINGS: Pathologic cardiac specimens from patients with COVID-19 suggest a mixed inflammatory response involving lymphocytes and macrophages, and importantly, cellular injury occurs predominantly at the level of pericytes and endothelial cells, less often involving direct myocyte necrosis. In COVID-19, the diagnosis of myocarditis has understandably been based predominantly on clinical criteria, and the number of patients with clinically suspected myocarditis who would meet diagnostic histological criteria is unclear. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance are important diagnostic tools, although the prognostic implications of abnormalities are still being defined. Importantly, SARS-CoV2 myocarditis should be diagnosed within an appropriate clinical context and should not be based on isolated imaging findings. Therapies in COVID-19 have focused on the major clinical manifestation of pneumonia, but the promotion of viral clearance early in the disease could prevent the development of myocarditis, and further study of immunosuppressive therapies once myocarditis has developed are indicated. A strict and uniform approach is needed to diagnose myocarditis due to SARS-CoV-2 to better understand the natural history of this disease and to facilitate evaluation of potential therapeutic interventions. A methodological approach will also better inform the incidence of COVID-19 associated myocarditis and potential long-term health effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Incidence , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Prognosis , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(10): 1665-1667, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265654

ABSTRACT

Vaccination plays an important role in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 to minimie the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its life-threatening complications. Myocarditis has been reported as a possible and rare adverse consequence of different vaccines, and its clinical presentation can range from influenza-like symptoms to acute heart failure. We report a case of a 30-year-old man who presented progressive dyspnea and constrictive retrosternal pain after receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Cardiac magnetic resonance and laboratory data revealed typical findings of acute myopericarditis.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/administration & dosage , Bisoprolol/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , /adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Troponin I/blood
13.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(8): 1260-1262, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252584

ABSTRACT

It is now widely recognized that COVID-19 illness can be associated with significant intermediate and potentially longer-term physical limitations. The term, "long COVID-19" is used to define any patient with persistent symptoms after acute COVID-19 infection (ie, after 4 weeks). It is postulated that cardiac injury might be linked to symptoms that persist after resolution of acute infection, as part of this syndrome. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Rapid Response Team has generated this document to provide guidance to health care providers on the optimal management of patients with suspected cardiac complications of long COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Myocarditis/therapy , Patient Care Management , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Canada , Cardiology/methods , Cardiology/trends , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/therapy , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/virology , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Patient Care Team/organization & administration
15.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(3): 191-194, 2021 03.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123707

ABSTRACT

Observational studies of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in people with recent covid-19, including young asymptomatic athletes, have documented variable amounts of myocardial findings deemed suggestive of myocarditis. Despite a critical appraisal of the current literature points toward an insufficient evidence base about the existence of a peculiar association between covid-19 and myocarditis, the concern for unrecognized myocarditis and its potential consequences has led several sports medicine organizations to recommend a variety of cardiac tests to enable return to play in athletes with previous covid-19. We argue that some of these recommendations may lead to unnecessary tests or treatments, especially for asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive people and for those with previous mild disease, and that sports participation may even be discouraged. As a response to current uncertainty, we advocate both for randomized studies that analyse the outcomes of different diagnostic strategies and for a prolonged follow-up of these people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine , Myocarditis , Physicians , Athletes , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/therapy , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 177: 111-123, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103618

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis, a nonischemic acquired cardiomyopathy, is an uncommon condition with multiple presentation patterns which may be initially difficult to recognize and may simulate other conditions such as acute myocardial infarction, pericarditis, septicemia, etc. There are four distinct clinical presentation patterns that include: (1) low-grade nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue; (2) symptoms that resemble an acute myocardial infarction, especially in younger individuals; (3) a heart failure presentation which may be acute, subacute, or chronic and may be associated with cardiac conduction system defects and arrhythmias; and (4) an arrhythmia presentation that may produce sudden cardiac death, especially in young athletes with minimal or no prodromal symptoms. This chapter will provide a brief overview of various myocarditis etiologies and diagnostic modalities. The ultimate focus will be directed toward neurologic manifestations of myocarditis and its subtypes, complications of specific therapies including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for refractory heart failure, and review the current literature regarding the appropriate use of therapeutic anticoagulation in myocarditis and heart failure for stroke prevention. Covid-19 infection has been discovered to cause myocarditis. The emerging science will be discussed. Nuances of brain death (BD) determination in patients receiving venoarterial ECMO for heart failure refractory to standard medical therapies will be discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy
17.
Future Cardiol ; 17(8): 1307-1311, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094128

ABSTRACT

We describe a unique case of fulminant myocarditis in a patient with presumed SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. Patient had initial infection 4 months backand had COVID-19 antibody at the time of presentation. Endomyocardial biopsy showed lymphocytic myocarditis, that is usually seen in viral myocarditis. The molecular diagnostic testing of the endomyocardial biopsy for cardiotropic viruses was positive for Parvovirus and negative for SARS-CoV-2. Authors highly suspect co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 and Parvovirus, that possibly triggered the immune cascade resulting in fulminant myocarditis. Patient was hemodynamically unstable with ventricular tachycardia and was supported on VA ECMO and Impella CP. There was impressive recovery of left ventricular function within 48 h, leading to decannulation of VA ECMO in 72 h. This unique case was written by the survivor herself.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Myocarditis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/therapy , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Resuscitation ; 160: 16-17, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033689

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization declared the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) a global pandemic on March 12, 2020. However, inadequate attention seems to have been paid to the heart when managing COVID-19 in terms of detection, monitoring and treatment. We are of the opinion that these severe patients may have had myocardial injury or acute myocarditis. Signs that supports this opinion is the extremely high myocardial injury markers in severe patients, cardiac arrhythmia and suffer progressive heart failure or unexpected cardiac arrest in recent studies. Some suggestions involved of treatment need to be made. The use of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) plus extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) should be placed earlier if the pneumonia progresses rapidly, the ejection fraction decreases or there is heart failure. Besides, blood purification treatment including continuous kidney substitution treatment (CRRT) is recommended to clear inflammatory factors and block cytokine storm. In addition, the early usage of glucocorticoid and human immunoglobulin has been found to be preferable when acute myocarditis is accompanied by unstable hemodynamics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Myocarditis , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027110

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is primarily a respiratory disease; however, there have been multiple reports of associated myocarditis. In our 463 bedded, district general hospital, we noted an influx of young patients with myocarditis shortly after the peak of the outbreak. We report two cases presenting with myocarditis, both of whom tested negative for the virus despite clinical and biochemical evidence of recent infection. Diagnosis was made based on positive transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) findings and a raised troponin, not in the context of suspected acute coronary syndrome. We recommend that patients with negative coronavirus tests should still be considered at risk of potential sequelae from the disease. There should be a low threshold for performing basic cardiac investigations: ECG, troponin and TTE as well as seeking a cardiology opinion. Colchicine is a recognised treatment for viral pericarditis and should be considered as adjunctive treatment; however, further research is required specific to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(12)2020 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024604

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) gained worldwide attention at the end of 2019 when it was identified to cause severe respiratory distress syndrome. While it primarily affects the respiratory system, we now have evidence that it affects multiple organ systems in the human body. Cardiac manifestations may include myocarditis, life threatening arrhythmias, acute coronary syndrome, systolic heart failure, and cardiogenic shock. Myocarditis is increasingly recognized as a complication of Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) and may result from direct viral injury or from exaggerated host immune response. The diagnosis is established similar to other etiologies, and is based on detailed history, clinical exam, laboratory findings and non-invasive imaging studies. When available, cardiac MRI is the preferred imaging modality. Endomyocardial biopsy may be performed if the diagnosis remains uncertain. Current management is mainly supportive with the potential addition of interventions recommended for severe COVID-19 disease, such as remdesivir, steroids, and convalescent plasma. In the setting of cardiogenic shock and refractory, life-threatening arrhythmias that persist despite medical therapy, advanced mechanical circulatory support devices should be considered. Ultimately, early recognition and aggressive intervention are key factors in reducing morbidity and mortality. Our management strategy is expected to evolve further as we learn more about COVID-19 disease and the associated cardiac complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Myocarditis/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Myocarditis/mortality , Myocarditis/therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL