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1.
Intern Med ; 61(7): 1071-1076, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834094

ABSTRACT

Myoclonus and ataxia, with or without opsoclonus, have recently been recognized as a central nervous system syndrome associated with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). A 52-year-old Japanese man developed myoclonus and ataxia 16 days after the onset of COVID-19. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed hyperperfusion in the cerebellum and hypoperfusion in the cerebral cortices with frontal predominance during the acute stage, which improved over two months. This study indicates that brain perfusion SPECT can be effective in detecting functional alterations in COVID-19-related myoclonus and ataxia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myoclonus , Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myoclonic Cerebellar Dyssynergia , Myoclonus/complications , Perfusion
2.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 213: 107121, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611660

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 12-years-old patient who subacutely developed a positive and negative myoclonus of limbs and face, drowsiness and memory deficits after getting infected by SARS-CoV-2. On admission, nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2, brain and spinal MRI with and without contrast, EEG, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound were negative. CSF physical-chemical examination, culture, PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens, and oligoclonal IgG bands were negative as well. A full panel blood test, including clotting, autoimmunity and paraneoplastic blood studies, did not show any alteration. The neuropsychological examination showed an impairment in memory, visual-motor coordination, inductive reasoning skills, attention, and concentration. The patient was first treated with clonazepam and then with intravenous methylprednisolone for five days, with poor response. For this reason, he then received a cycle of IVIG, thus reaching a gradual and complete recovery. To date, this is the first case of a COVID-19 associated myoclonus affecting a paediatric patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/virology , Myoclonus/virology , Attention , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Myoclonus/diagnosis , Myoclonus/therapy , Neuropsychological Tests , Psychomotor Performance , Syndrome
3.
Neurol Sci ; 43(3): 1587-1592, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603464

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to report the clinical heterogeneity of myoclonus in 6 patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Patient data were obtained from medical records from the University Hospital Dr. Josep Trueta, Girona, Spain. RESULTS: Six patients (5 men and 1 woman, aged 60-76 years) presented with different myoclonus phenotypes. All of them had a medical history of hypertension and overweight. The latency of myoclonus appearance ranged from 1 to 129 days. The phenotype most observed was generalized myoclonus. Special phenotypes such as painful legs and moving toes syndrome with jerking feet, Lazarus sign-like, action myoclonus/ataxia syndrome, and segmental myoclonus secondary to myelitis have been described too. Levetiracetam and clonazepam were medications most used successfully. Two patients died for complications not related to myoclonus. CONCLUSIONS: Our 6 cases highlight the heterogeneity of the clinical spectrum of myoclonus associated to COVID-19 (MYaCO). MYaCO pathogenesis is suspected to be due to an immune-mediated para- or post-infectious phenomenon; nevertheless, further research is needed to elucidate this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebellar Ataxia , Myoclonus , Aged , Ataxia/complications , Cerebellar Ataxia/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myoclonus/complications , Myoclonus/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3533-3536, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with COVID-19 can have central or peripheral neurological manifestations. METHODS: The cases of two patients with acute cerebellar ataxia and myoclonus associated with COVID-19 are reported (with Video S1) and five previously reported patients are discussed. RESULTS: Acute cerebellar ataxia and myoclonus started between 10 days and 6 weeks after the first manifestations of COVID-19. Opsoclonus or ocular flutter was present in four patients. Patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and/or steroids except for one patient, resulting in a striking improvement within a week. CONCLUSION: Acute cerebellar ataxia and myoclonus with or without opsoclonus belongs to the wide spectrum of neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19. It is important to recognize this possible manifestation since early treatment allows for rapid recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebellar Ataxia , Myoclonus , Ocular Motility Disorders , Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome , Cerebellar Ataxia/complications , Humans , Myoclonus/complications , Ocular Motility Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327622

ABSTRACT

A patient presented with fever, generalised rash, confusion, orofacial movements and myoclonus after receiving the first dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna. MRI was unremarkable while cerebrospinal fluid showed leucocytosis with lymphocyte predominance and hyperproteinorrachia. The skin evidenced red, non-scaly, oedematous papules coalescing into plaques with scattered non-follicular pustules. Skin biopsy was consistent with a neutrophilic dermatosis. The patient fulfilled the criteria for Sweet syndrome. A thorough evaluation ruled out alternative infectious, autoimmune or malignant aetiologies, and all manifestations resolved with glucocorticoids. While we cannot prove causality, there was a temporal correlation between the vaccination and the clinical findings.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis , Myoclonus , Sweet Syndrome , COVID-19 Vaccines , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Encephalitis/etiology , Humans , Myoclonus/etiology , Sweet Syndrome/diagnosis , Sweet Syndrome/drug therapy , Sweet Syndrome/etiology
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322780

ABSTRACT

Postinfectious generalised myoclonus has been reported after many viral and bacterial infections in the past. Recently, some case reports have described it in the context of COVID-19 infection. Most patients described in these case reports are either critically ill and intubated or have concurrent respiratory symptoms. Herein, we present a case of a 79-year-old man, who was recovering from a recent COVID-19 infection, presented with isolated generalised myoclonus. The patient was treated with levetiracetam, a short course (10 days) of dexamethasone, and required extensive rehabilitation. Outpatient follow-up at 2 months suggested complete resolution of symptoms and levetiracetam was subsequently discontinued. This case highlights that generalised myoclonus can occur as a delayed complication of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myoclonus , Aged , Humans , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Male , Myoclonus/diagnosis , Myoclonus/drug therapy , Myoclonus/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(17-18): 902-908, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In addition to respiratory symptoms, many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present with neurological complications. Several case reports and small case series described myoclonus in five patients suffering from the disease. The purpose of this article is to report on five critically ill patients with COVID-19-associated myoclonus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The clinical courses and test results of patients treated in the study center ICU and those of partner hospitals are described. Imaging, laboratory tests and electrophysiological test results are reviewed and discussed. RESULTS: In severe cases of COVID-19 myoclonus can manifest about 3 weeks after initial onset of symptoms. Sedation is sometimes effective for symptom control but impedes respiratory weaning. No viral particles or structural lesions explaining this phenomenon were found in this cohort. CONCLUSION: Myoclonus in patients with severe COVID-19 may be due to an inflammatory process, hypoxia or GABAergic impairment. Most patients received treatment with antiepileptic or anti-inflammatory agents and improved clinically.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myoclonus , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Myoclonus/chemically induced , Myoclonus/diagnosis , Myoclonus/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Neurol Sci ; 42(8): 3411-3413, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130805

ABSTRACT

Myoclonus in the context of COVID-19 is an increasingly recognized condition. The occurrence in an ICU context in hypoxic patients, with metabolic disorders, taking several types of medication, makes difficult to establish a precise cause. Also, the implication of SARS-CoV-2 by direct invasion of the CNS or by immune-mediated phenomena is not yet clear. Currently, a dozen of cases of myoclonus as a predominant clinical manifestation, immune-mediated by SARS-Cov-2 are published. In all these cases, myoclonus was preceded by respiratory or other suggestive symptoms (e.g., anosmia) for this infection making straightforward the causal link. We describe a case of an isolated generalized myoclonus without other clinical complaints nor chest CT scan abnormalities nor SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection on nasopharyngeal swabs and on the CSF, as a para-infectious phenomenon of COVID-19 infection with excellent response to steroids perfusion. This challenging diagnosis was made upon confirmation of seroconversion (serology was negative at admission, then positive for IgM at day 6, then for both IgM and IgG at day 10) underlying that repeating serology is a diagnostic key to capture a similar findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myoclonus , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Myoclonus/diagnostic imaging , Myoclonus/etiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
10.
J Neurol Sci ; 423: 117377, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal movements in Covid-19 patients have been reported with varying degree of frequency, prompting neurologic consultation and additional diagnostic evaluation. We sought to evaluate the frequency and etiology of abnormal movements among hospitalized Covid-19 patients undergoing neurologic consultation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the first 50 consecutive patients with confirmed Covid-19 hospitalized at our tertiary medical care center who underwent acute inpatient neurology consultation from March 2020 through May 2020. Indication for neurologic consultation and diagnostic studies performed were identified by electronic medical record review. RESULTS: Of the 50 initial consultation requests, 11 (22.0%) patients were evaluated for abnormal movements (nine male and two female). Myoclonus was diagnosed in 6/11 (54.5%) patients. Additionally, two patients were diagnosed with seizures (confirmed on EEG in one), while two additional patients were diagnosed with tremor (physiologic and probable functional). A single case of serotonin syndrome was also identified. CONCLUSION: Abnormal movements observed in hospitalized Covid-19 patients can have a wide range of etiologies and were a frequent initial indication for neurologic consultation. Myoclonus was the most frequent type of abnormal movement observed. Early clinical recognition and directed diagnostic work-up is essential for accurate diagnoses in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dyskinesias/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myoclonus/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Serotonin Syndrome/etiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Tremor/etiology
11.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3517-3548, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in December 2019, neurological manifestations have been recognized as potential complications. Relatively rare movement disorders associated with COVID-19 are increasingly reported in case reports or case series. Here, we present a case and systematic review of myoclonus and cerebellar ataxia associated with COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline using the PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases, from November 1, 2019 to December 6, 2020. RESULTS: 51 cases of myoclonus or ataxia associated with COVID-19, including our case, were identified from 32 publications. The mean age was 59.6 years, ranging from 26 to 88 years, and 21.6% were female. Myoclonus was multifocal or generalized and had an acute onset, usually within 1 month of COVID-19 symptoms. Myoclonus occurred in isolation (46.7%), or with ataxia (40.0%) or cognitive changes (30.0%). Most cases improved within 2 months, and treatment included anti-epileptic medications or immunotherapy. Ataxia had an acute onset, usually within 1 month of COVID-19 symptoms, but could be an initial symptom. Concurrent neurological symptoms included cognitive changes (45.5%), myoclonus (36.4%), or a Miller Fisher syndrome variant (21.2%). Most cases improved within 2 months, either spontaneously or with immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review highlights myoclonus and ataxia as rare and treatable post-infectious or para-infectious, immune-mediated phenomena associated with COVID-19. The natural history is unknown and future investigation is needed to further characterize these movement disorders and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebellar Ataxia , Myoclonus , Ataxia/complications , Cerebellar Ataxia/complications , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Myoclonus/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Neurol Sci ; 41(12): 3471-3474, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888211

ABSTRACT

A wide range of neurological signs and symptoms have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the present report, we described two Italian patients diagnosed with diaphragmatic myoclonus after COVID-19. In both cases, mild lymphocytosis at cerebrospinal fluid analysis and no structural brain changes were reported. The pathophysiological origin of the myoclonus in the two cases was different. In case 1, electroencephalogram did not reveal any cortical correlates and brain imaging of the spine was unremarkable, while in case 2, cortical origin of myoclonus was demonstrated. With the present two cases, we confirm and extend the neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diaphragm/physiopathology , Myoclonus/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Perit Dial Int ; 41(1): 101-103, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-858345

ABSTRACT

Peritoneal dialysis treatment generates significant amounts of waste for disposal from patients' homes. In Australia, in the days after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, waste collection from homes was temporarily stopped. Our patient tried to dispose of his waste by burning the used bags and tubing, using paint thinner as an accelerant. We present a case report of the unusual neurological complication he developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Myoclonus/etiology , Peritoneal Dialysis , Solvents/adverse effects , Toluene/adverse effects , Australia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control , Fires , Heating , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Myoclonus/diagnosis , Myoclonus/therapy
14.
Eur J Neurol ; 27(12): 2651-2657, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799153

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this paper is to describe the clinical features of COVID-19-related encephalopathy and their metabolic correlates using brain 2-desoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A variety of neurological manifestations have been reported in association with COVID-19. COVID-19-related encephalopathy has seldom been reported and studied. METHODS: We report four cases of COVID-19-related encephalopathy. The diagnosis was made in patients with confirmed COVID-19 who presented with new-onset cognitive disturbances, central focal neurological signs, or seizures. All patients underwent cognitive screening, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), lumbar puncture, and brain 2-desoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (FDG-PET/CT). RESULTS: The four patients were aged 60 years or older, and presented with various degrees of cognitive impairment, with predominant frontal lobe impairment. Two patients presented with cerebellar syndrome, one patient had myoclonus, one had psychiatric manifestations, and one had status epilepticus. The delay between first COVID-19 symptoms and onset of neurological symptoms was between 0 and 12 days. None of the patients had MRI features of encephalitis nor significant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in the CSF was negative for all patients. All patients presented with a consistent brain FDG-PET/CT pattern of abnormalities, namely frontal hypometabolism and cerebellar hypermetabolism. All patients improved after immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Despite varied clinical presentations, all patients presented with a consistent FDG-PET pattern, which may reflect an immune mechanism.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Brain Diseases/psychology , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebellar Diseases/etiology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Immunotherapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Myoclonus/diagnostic imaging , Myoclonus/etiology , Neuropsychological Tests , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Status Epilepticus/etiology , Treatment Outcome
15.
Crit Care Med ; 48(11): 1664-1669, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720986

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the risk factors for and outcomes after myoclonus in a cohort of patients with coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Multicenter case series. SETTING: Three tertiary care hospitals in Massachusetts, Georgia, and Virginia. PATIENTS: Eight patients with clinical myoclonus in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019. INTERVENTIONS & MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Outcomes in patients with myoclonus were variable, with one patient who died during the study period and five who were successfully extubated cognitively intact and without focal neurologic deficits. In five cases, the myoclonus completely resolved within 2 days of onset, while in three cases, it persisted for 10 days or longer. Seven patients experienced significant metabolic derangements, hypoxemia, or exposure to sedating medications that may have contributed to the development of myoclonus. One patient presented with encephalopathy and developed prolonged myoclonus in the absence of clear systemic provoking factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that myoclonus may be observed in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infected patients, even in the absence of hypoxia. This association warrants further evaluation in larger cohorts to determine whether the presence of myoclonus may aid in the assessment of disease severity, neurologic involvement, or prognostication.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Myoclonus/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Georgia , Humans , Hypoxia , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Myoclonus/diagnosis , Myoclonus/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virginia
16.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 9-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Albeit primarily a disease of respiratory tract, the 2019 coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) has been found to have causal association with a plethora of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological effects. This review aims to analyze them with a discussion of evolving therapeutic recommendations. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020 with the following key terms: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "pandemic", "neuro-COVID", "stroke-COVID", "epilepsy-COVID", "COVID-encephalopathy", "SARS-CoV-2-encephalitis", "SARS-CoV-2-rhabdomyolysis", "COVID-demyelinating disease", "neurological manifestations", "psychosocial manifestations", "treatment recommendations", "COVID-19 and therapeutic changes", "psychiatry", "marginalised", "telemedicine", "mental health", "quarantine", "infodemic" and "social media". A few newspaper reports related to COVID-19 and psychosocial impacts have also been added as per context. RESULTS: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are abundant. Clinical features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement are evident. These have been categorically analyzed briefly with literature support. Most of the psychological effects are secondary to pandemic-associated regulatory, socioeconomic and psychosocial changes. CONCLUSION: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of this disease are only beginning to unravel. This demands a wide index of suspicion for prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to prevent further complications and mortality.


Les impacts neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques d'une infection à la COVID-19. CONTEXTE: Bien qu'il s'agisse principalement d'une maladie des voies respiratoires, la maladie infectieuse à coronavirus apparue en 2019 (COVID-19) s'est avérée avoir un lien de causalité avec une pléthore d'impacts d'ordre neurologique, neuropsychiatrique et psychologique. Cette étude entend donc analyser ces impacts tout en discutant l'évolution des recommandations thérapeutiques se rapportant à cette maladie. MÉTHODES: Les bases de données PubMed et Google Scholar ont été interrogées entre les 1er janvier et 30 mai 2020. Les termes clés suivants ont été utilisés : « COVID-19 ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ¼, « Pandémie ¼, « Neuro ­ COVID ¼, « AVC ­ COVID ¼, « Épilepsie ­ COVID ¼, « COVID ­ encéphalopathie ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ encéphalite ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ rhabdomyolyse ¼, « COVID ­ maladie démyélinisante ¼, « Manifestations neurologiques ¼, « Manifestations psychosociales ¼, « Recommandations thérapeutiques ¼, « COVID-19 et changement thérapeutiques ¼, « Psychiatrie ¼, « Marginalisés ¼, « Télémédecine ¼, « Santé mentale ¼, « Quarantaine ¼, « Infodémique ¼ et « Médias sociaux ¼. De plus, quelques articles de journaux relatifs à la pandémie de COVID-19 et à ses impacts psychosociaux ont également été ajoutés en fonction du contexte. RÉSULTATS: Il appert que les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques des infections à la COVID-19 sont nombreuses. Les caractéristiques cliniques d'une implication des systèmes nerveux central et périphérique sautent désormais aux yeux. Ces caractéristiques ont fait l'objet d'une brève analyse systématique à l'aide de publications scientifiques. En outre, la plupart des impacts d'ordre psychologique de cette pandémie se sont révélés moins apparents que les changements réglementaires, socioéconomiques et psychosociaux. CONCLUSION: Les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques de cette maladie ne font que commencer à être élucidées. Cela exige donc une capacité accrue de vigilance en vue d'un diagnostic rapide, et ce, afin de prévenir des complications additionnelles et une mortalité accrue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Brain Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebellar Ataxia/etiology , Cerebellar Ataxia/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Demyelinating Diseases/therapy , Disease Management , Dizziness/etiology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Epilepsy/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Meningoencephalitis/etiology , Meningoencephalitis/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/physiopathology , Myoclonus/etiology , Myoclonus/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Viral Tropism
17.
Neurology ; 95(6): e767-e772, 2020 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-348218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report 3 patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who developed generalized myoclonus. METHODS: Patient data were obtained from medical records from the University Hospital "12 de Octubre," Madrid, Spain. RESULTS: Three patients (2 men and 1 woman, aged 63-88 years) presented with mild hypersomnia and generalized myoclonus following the onset of the so-called inflammatory phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). All of them had presented previously with anosmia. Myoclonus was generalized with both positive and negative jerks, predominantly involving the facial, trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and upper extremities muscles. These myoclonic jerks occurred spontaneously and were extremely sensitive to multisensory stimuli (auditive and tactile) or voluntary movements, with an exaggerated startle response. Other causes of myoclonus were ruled out, and none of the patients had undergone respiratory arrest or significant prolonged hypoxia. All of them improved, at least partially, with immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our 3 cases highlight the occurrence of myoclonus during the COVID-19 pandemic as a post- or para-infectious immune-mediated disorder. However, we cannot rule out that SARS-CoV-2 may spread transneuronally to first- and second-order structures connected with the olfactory bulb. Further investigation is required to clarify the full clinical spectrum of neurologic symptoms and optimal treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Myoclonus/diagnostic imaging , Myoclonus/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Myoclonus/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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