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1.
Redox Biol ; 63: 102752, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324519

ABSTRACT

Viral infection-induced cell death has long been considered as a double-edged sword in the inhibition or exacerbation of viral infections. Patients with severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are characterized by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and cytokine storm, which may result from SARS-CoV-2-induced cell death. Previous studies have observed enhanced ROS level and signs of ferroptosis in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells or specimens of patients with COVID-19, but the exact mechanism is not clear yet. Here, we find SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a sensitizes cells to ferroptosis via Keap1-NRF2 axis. SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a promotes the degradation of NRF2 through recruiting Keap1, thereby attenuating cellular resistance to oxidative stress and facilitated cells to ferroptotic cell death. Our study uncovers that SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a functions as a positive regulator of ferroptosis, which might explain SARS-CoV-2-induced damage in multiple organs in COVID-19 patients and imply the potential of ferroptosis inhibition in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ferroptosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
2.
Phytother Res ; 37(4): 1590-1605, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319168

ABSTRACT

Usually, in aerobic metabolism, natural materials including nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids can experience auxiliary injury by oxidative responses. This damage produced by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species has been identified as "oxidative stress." As a natural polyphenol got from red wine and peanuts, resveratrol is one of the most eminent anti-aging mixtures. Based on many studies', resveratrol hinders destructive effects of inflammatory causes and reactive oxygen radicals in several tissues. The nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 is a factor related to transcription with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant possessions which is complicated by enzyme biotransformation and biosynthesis of lipids and carbohydrates. This review provides current understanding and information about the character of resveratrol against oxidative stress and regulation of inflammation via Nrf2 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Oxidative Stress , Humans , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Inflammation/drug therapy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Reactive Nitrogen Species , Lipids
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1163397, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306532

ABSTRACT

Introdcution: Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are major causes of COVID-19 mortality. However, drug delivery to lung tissues is impeded by endothelial cell barriers, limiting the efficacy of existing treatments. A prompt and aggressive treatment strategy is therefore necessary. Methods: We assessed the ability of anti-CD31-ORI-NPs to penetrate endothelial cell barriers and specifically accumulate in lung tissues using an animal model. We also compared the efficacy of anti-CD31-ORI-NPs to that of free oridonin in ameliorating acute lung injury and evaluated the cytotoxicity of both treatments on endothelial cells. Results: Compared to free ORI, the amount of anti-CD31-ORI-NPs accumulated in lung tissues increase at least three times. Accordingly, anti-CD31-ORI-NPs improve the efficacy three times on suppressing IL-6 and TNF-a secretion, ROS production, eventually ameliorating acute lung injury in animal model. Importantly, anti-CD31-ORI-NPs significantly decrease the cytotoxicity at least two times than free oridonin on endothelial cells. Discussion: Our results from this study will not only offer a novel therapeutic strategy with high efficacy and low toxicity, but also provide the rational design of nanomaterials of a potential drug for acute lung injury therapy.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Animals , Endothelial Cells , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Epithelial Cells
4.
Phytomedicine ; 114: 154753, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dehydroandrographolide (Deh) from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall has strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. PURPOSE: To explore the role of Deh in acute lung injury (ALI) of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and its inflammatory molecular mechanism. METHODS: Liposaccharide (LPS) was injected into a C57BL/6 mouse model of ALI, and LPS + adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was used to stimulate BMDMs in an in vitro model of ALI. RESULTS: In an in vivo and in vitro model of ALI, Deh considerably reduced inflammation and oxidative stress by inhibiting NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis and attenuated mitochondrial damage to suppress NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis through the suppression of ROS production by inhibiting the Akt/Nrf2 pathway. Deh inhibited the interaction between Akt at T308 and PDPK1 at S549 to promote Akt protein phosphorylation. Deh directly targeted PDPK1 protein and accelerated PDPK1 ubiquitination. 91-GLY, 111-LYS, 126-TYR, 162-ALA, 205-ASP and 223-ASP may be the reason for the interaction between PDPK1 and Deh. CONCLUSION: Deh from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall presented NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis in a model of ALI through ROS-induced mitochondrial damage through inhibition of the Akt/Nrf2 pathway by PDPK1 ubiquitination. Therefore, it can be concluded that Deh may be a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of ALI in COVID-19 or other respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Mice , Animals , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Andrographis paniculata , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pyroptosis , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Inflammasomes
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0037823, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277255

ABSTRACT

Several viruses have been shown to modulate the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), the master regulator of redox homeostasis. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, also seems to disrupt the balance between oxidants and antioxidants, which likely contributes to lung damage. Using in vitro and in vivo models of infection, we investigated how SARS-CoV-2 modulates the transcription factor NRF2 and its dependent genes, as well as the role of NRF2 during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection downregulates NRF2 protein levels and NRF2-dependent gene expression in human airway epithelial cells and in lungs of BALB/c mice. Reductions in cellular levels of NRF2 seem to be independent of proteasomal degradation and the interferon/promyelocytic leukemia (IFN/PML) pathway. Furthermore, lack of the Nrf2 gene in SARS-CoV-2-infected mice exacerbates clinical disease, increases lung inflammation, and is associated with a trend toward increased lung viral titers, indicating that NRF2 has a protective role during this viral infection. In summary, our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection alters the cellular redox balance by downregulating NRF2 and its dependent genes, which exacerbates lung inflammation and disease, therefore, suggesting that the activation of NRF2 could be explored as therapeutic approach during SARS-CoV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE The antioxidant defense system plays a major function in protecting the organism against oxidative damage caused by free radicals. COVID-19 patients often present with biochemical characteristics of uncontrolled pro-oxidative responses in the respiratory tract. We show herein that SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron, are potent inhibitors of cellular and lung nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), the master transcription factor that controls the expression of antioxidant and cytoprotective enzymes. Moreover, we show that mice lacking the Nrf2 gene show increased clinical signs of disease and lung pathology when infected with a mouse-adapted strain of SARS-CoV-2. Overall, this study provides a mechanistic explanation for the observed unbalanced pro-oxidative response in SARS-CoV-2 infections and suggests that therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 may consider the use of pharmacologic agents that are known to boost the expression levels of cellular NRF2.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , COVID-19 , Humans , Mice , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Pandemics , COVID-19/pathology , Lung , Epithelial Cells
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1142173, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288509

ABSTRACT

Background: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an intestinal pathogenic coronavirus, has caused significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. At present, there are several treatment methods, but there is still a lack of clinically effective targeted drugs, new antiviral mechanisms and drugs need to be explored. Methods: In this study, we established a model of erastin versus ferrostatin-1 treatment of Vero cells, and then detected virus proliferation and gene expression by RT-qPCR through PEDV infection experiments. Results: We demonstrated for the first time that erastin significantly inhibited the replication of PEDV upon entry into cells; Vero treated with erastin significantly regulated the expression of three genes, NRF2, ACSL4 and GPX4, notably erastin regulated the expression of these three genes negatively correlated with the expression induced by PEDV virus infection. Conclusions: Since NRF2, ACSL4 and GPX4 are classical Ferroptosis genes, this study speculates that erastin may inhibit the replication of PEDV in Vero cells in part through the regulation of ferroptosis pathway, and erastin may be a potential drug for the treatment of PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Swine , Vero Cells , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Piperazines/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Virus Replication
7.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 19: 139-144, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262714

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ascorbic acid and calcitriol were frequently utilized in conjunction as therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic, and individuals with minor symptoms had notable improvements. There have been a few studies, often with conflicting findings, that examine the use of them for endothelium restoration and numerous clinical trial studies that failed to establish the efficacy. The aim of this study was to find the efficacy of ascorbic acid compared to calcitriol on the inflammatory markers monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as protective agents which play an important role in the early stages of atherosclerosis formation. This study was an experimental in vivo study. Methods: The total of 24 male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, namely: control/normal group (N), atherosclerosis group (DL) given atherogenic diet, atherosclerosis group given atherogenic diet and ascorbic acid (DLC), and atherosclerosis group given atherogenic diet and calcitriol (DLD) treatment for 30 days. Results: Ascorbic acid and calcitriol treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05) in lowering expression of MCP-1 and increasing NO and SOD level. Calcitriol was superior to ascorbic acid in increasing SOD (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between ascorbic acid and calcitriol in decreasing MCP-1 and increasing NO (P>0.05). Discussion: Both treatments could reduce MCP-1, and increase NO and SOD by increasing antioxidants. In this study calcitriol was superior to ascorbic acid in increasing SOD, but not NO and decreasing MCP-1. According to the theory, it was found that calcitriol through nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) causes a direct increase in the amount of SOD. Nrf2 is an emerging regulator of cellular resistance to oxidants. Conclusion: Ascorbic acid and calcitriol treatment was able to reduce MCP-1 and increase NO and SOD in atherosclerosis rat. Calcitriol was significantly superior in increasing SOD levels compared to ascorbic acid.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Atherosclerosis , Calcitriol , Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Calcitriol/pharmacology , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2022 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245397

ABSTRACT

In patients with severe pneumonia due to COVID-19, the deregulation of oxidative stress is present. Nuclear erythroid factor 2 (NRF2) is regulated by KEAP1, and NRF2 regulates the expression of genes such as NFE2L2-KEAP1, which are involved in cellular defense against oxidative stress. In this study, we analyzed the participation of the polymorphisms of NFE2L2 and KEAP1 genes in the mechanisms of damage in lung disease patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients with COVID-19 and a control group were included. Organ dysfunction was evaluated using SOFA. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed and classified as moderate or severe by ventilatory status and by the Berlin criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome. SNPs in the gene locus for NFE2L2, rs2364723C>G, and KEAP1, rs9676881A>G, and rs34197572C>T were determined by qPCR. We analyzed 110 individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection: 51 with severe evolution and 59 with moderate evolution. We also analyzed 111 controls. Significant differences were found for rs2364723 allele G in severe cases vs. controls (p = 0.02); for the rs9676881 allele G in moderate cases vs. controls (p = 0.04); for the rs34197572 allele T in severe cases vs. controls (p = 0.001); and in severe vs. moderate cases (p = 0.004). Our results showed that NFE2L2 rs2364723C>G allele G had a protective effect against severe COVID-19, while KEAP1 rs9676881A>G allele G and rs34197572C>T minor allele T were associated with more aggressive stages of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/genetics , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Med Virol ; 95(1): e28431, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173208

ABSTRACT

Neuroinflammation caused by COVID-19 negatively impacts brain metabolism and function, while pre-existing brain pathology may contribute to individuals' vulnerability to the adverse consequences of COVID-19. We used summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to perform Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses, thus assessing potential associations between multiple sclerosis (MS) and two COVID-19 outcomes (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] infection and COVID-19 hospitalization). Genome-wide risk genes were compared between the GWAS datasets on hospitalized COVID-19 and MS. Literature-based analysis was conducted to construct molecular pathways connecting MS and COVID-19. We found that genetic liability to MS confers a causal effect on hospitalized COVID-19 (odd ratio [OR]: 1.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.16) but not on SARS-CoV-2 infection (1.03, 1.00-1.05). Genetic liability to hospitalized COVID-19 confers a causal effect on MS (1.15, 1.02-1.30). Hospitalized COVID-19 and MS share five risk genes within two loci, including TNFAIP8, HSD17B4, CDC37, PDE4A, and KEAP1. Pathway analysis identified a panel of immunity-related genes that may mediate the links between MS and COVID-19. Our study suggests that MS was associated with a 9% increased risk for COVID-19 hospitalization, while hospitalized COVID-19 was associated with a 15% increased risk for MS. Immunity-related pathways may underlie the link between MS on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1 , Genome-Wide Association Study , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143227

ABSTRACT

An acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious lung disease with a high mortality rate, warranting the development of novel therapies. Previously, we reported that 1,2,3,4,6-O-pentagalloylglucose (PGG) could afford protection against ALI, however, the PGG-mediated protective effects remain elusive. Herein, PGG (60 and 30 mg/kg) markedly inhibited the lung wet/drug weight ratio and attenuated histological changes in the lungs (p < 0.05). A pretreatment with PGG (60 and 30 mg/kg) reduced the number of total leukocytes and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1ß in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (p < 0.05). In addition, PGG (60 and 30 mg/kg) also attenuated oxidative stress by reducing the formation of formation and the depletion of superoxide dismutase to treat an ALI (p < 0.05). To further explore the PGG-induced mechanism against an ALI, we screened the PGG pathway using immunohistochemical analysis, immunofluorescence assays, and Western blotting (WB). WB revealed that the expression levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation (p-AMPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B phosphorylation (P-Akt), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) were significantly higher in the PGG group (60 and 30 mg/kg) than in the lipopolysaccharide group (p < 0.05); these findings were confirmed by the immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence results. Accordingly, PGG could be effective against an ALI by inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress via AMPK/PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling, allowing for the potential development of this as a natural drug against an ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor
11.
Redox Biol ; 58: 102553, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2122764

ABSTRACT

Endogenous small molecules are metabolic regulators of cell function. Itaconate is a key molecule that accumulates in cells when the Krebs cycle is disrupted. Itaconate is derived from cis-aconitate decarboxylation by cis-aconitate decarboxylase (ACOD1) in the mitochondrial matrix and is also known as immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1). Studies have demonstrated that itaconate plays an important role in regulating signal transduction and posttranslational modification through its immunoregulatory activities. Itaconate is also an important bridge among metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune response. This review summarizes the structural characteristics and classical pathways of itaconate, its derivatives, and the compounds that release itaconate. Here, the mechanisms of itaconate action, including its transcriptional regulation of ATF3/IκBζ axis and type I IFN, its protein modification regulation of KEAP1, inflammasome, JAK1/STAT6 pathway, TET2, and TFEB, and succinate dehydrogenase and glycolytic enzyme metabolic action, are presented. Moreover, the roles of itaconate in diseases related to inflammation and oxidative stress induced by autoimmune responses, viruses, sepsis and IRI are discussed in this review. We hope that the information provided in this review will help increase the understanding of cellular immune metabolism and improve the clinical treatment of diseases related to inflammation and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Macrophages , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Humans , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Oxidative Stress
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116149

ABSTRACT

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) have significant roles in the development of a hyperinflammatory state in infectious diseases. We aimed to investigate the association of the serum concentrations of Nrf2 and HO-1 with the severity of COVID-19 disease. The study included 40 subjects with mild and moderately severe forms of the disease (MEWS scoring system ≤2). Twenty of the subjects had MEWS scores of 3 or 4, which indicate a severe form of the disease, and twenty subjects had a MEWS score of ≥5, which indicates a critical form of the disease. HO-1 and Nrf2 were measured using the commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Subjects with the most severe form of COVID-19 (critically ill) had a lower concentration of Nrf2 that negatively correlated with the markers of hyperinflammatory response (CRP, IL-6, ferritin). This observation was not made for HO-1, and the correlation between Nrf2 and HO-1 values was not established. In the mild/moderate form of COVID-19 disease, Nrf2 was associated with an increased 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D concentration. The results of this study show that Nrf2 has a role in the body's anti-inflammatory response to COVID-19 disease, which makes it a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heme Oxygenase-1 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ferritins , Heme Oxygenase-1/blood , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/blood
13.
Physiol Rep ; 10(20): e15507, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100495

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common event, occurring in ~5% and ~35% of hospitalized and ICU patients, respectively. The development of AKI portends an increased risk of morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospitalization, and subsequent development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Given these facts, a multitude of experimental studies have addressed potential methods for inducing AKI prevention in high-risk patients. However, successful clinical translation of promising experimental data has remained elusive. Over the past decade, our laboratory has focused on developing a method for safely triggering AKI protection by inducing "kidney preconditioning" in mice by the intravenous administration of a combination of Fe sucrose (FeS) + tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). These agents induce mild, but short lived, 'oxidant stress' which synergistically activate a number of kidney 'self-defense' pathways (e.g., Nrf2, ferritin, IL-10). Within 18-24 h of Fe/SnPP administration, marked protection against diverse forms of experimental toxic and ischemic AKI results. FeS/SnPP-mediated reductions in kidney injury can also indirectly decrease injury in other organs by mitigating the so called "organ cross talk" phenomenon. Given these promising experimental data, three phase 1b clinical trials were undertaken in healthy subjects and patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD. These studies demonstrated that FeS/SnPP were well tolerated and that they up-regulated the cytoprotective Nrf2, ferritin, and IL-10 pathways. Two subsequent phase 2 trials, conducted in patients undergoing 'on-pump' cardiovascular surgery or in patients hospitalized with COVID 19, confirmed FeS/SnPP safety. Furthermore, interim data analyses revealed statistically significant improvements in several clinical parameters. The goals of this review are to: (i) briefly discuss the historical background of renal "preconditioning"; (ii) present the experimental data that support the concept of FeS/SnPP- induced organ protection; and (iii) discuss the initial results of clinical trials that suggest the potential clinical utility of an 'oxidant preconditioning' strategy.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Mice , Animals , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Oxidants/pharmacology , Kidney/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Ferritins
14.
Cells ; 11(16)2022 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023200

ABSTRACT

Obesity is of concern to the population because it is known to cause inflammation and oxidative stress throughout the body, leading to patient predisposition for health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and some cancers. However, some proteins that are activated in times of oxidative stress may provide cytoprotective properties. In this study, we aim to gain further understanding of the interconnection between Nrf2 and Sesn2 during obesity-related stress and how this relationship can play a role in cardio-protection. Cardiomyocyte-specific Sesn2 knockout (cSesn2-/-) and Sesn2 overexpressed (tTa-tet-Sesn2) mice and their wildtype littermates (Sesn2flox/flox and tet-Sesn2, respectively) were assigned to either a normal chow (NC) or a high-fat (HF) diet to induce obesity. After 16 weeks of dietary intervention, heart function was evaluated via echocardiography and cardiac tissue was collected for analysis. Immunoblotting, histology, and ROS staining were completed. Human heart samples were obtained via the LifeLink Foundation and were also subjected to analysis. Overall, these results indicated that the overexpression of Sesn2 appears to have cardio-protective effects on the obese heart through the reduction of ROS and fibrosis present in the tissues and in cardiac function. These results were consistent for both mouse and human heart samples. In human samples, there was an increase in Sesn2 and Nrf2 expression in the obese patients' LV tissue. However, there was no observable pattern of Sesn2/Nrf2 expression in mouse LV tissue samples. Further investigation into the link between the Sesn2/Nrf2 pathway and obesity-related oxidative stress is needed.


Subject(s)
Heart Diseases , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Animals , Diet, High-Fat , GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor , Humans , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Obesity , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sestrins
15.
Environ Toxicol ; 37(12): 2910-2923, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007115

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, widespread utilization of disinfectants has led to a tremendous increase in the generation of disinfection byproducts worldwide. Bromoacetic acid (BAA), one of the common disinfection byproducts in the environment, has triggered public concern because of its adverse effects on urinary system in mammals. Nevertheless, the BAA-induced nephrotoxicity and potential mechanism in birds still remains obscure. According to the detected content in the Taihu Lake Basin, the model of BAA exposure in chicken was established at doses of 0, 3, 300, 3000 µg/L for 4 weeks. Our results indicated that BAA exposure caused kidney swelling and structural disarrangement. BAA led to disorder in renal function (CRE, BUN, UA) and increased apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase3). BAA suppressed the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis genes (PGC-1α, Nrf1, TFAM) and OXPHOS complex I genes (ND1, ND2, ND3, ND4, ND4L, ND5, ND6). Subsequently, BAA destroyed the expression of Nrf2 antioxidant reaction genes (Nrf2, Keap1, HO-1, NQO1, GCLM, GCLC). Furthermore, renal oxidative damage led to disorder in uric acid metabolism genes (Mrp2, Mrp4, Bcrp, OAT1, OAT2, OAT3) and exacerbated destruction in renal function. Overall, our study provided insights into the potential mechanism of BAA-induced nephrotoxicity, which were important for the clinical monitoring and prevention of BAA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Animals , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Chickens/metabolism , Uric Acid/metabolism , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2 , Signal Transduction , Neoplasm Proteins , Oxidative Stress , Mitochondria/metabolism , Kidney , Mammals/metabolism
16.
J Food Biochem ; 46(10): e14345, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956770

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is a global problem that humanity has not yet found a definitive solution for it. In this regard, a global effort has been done to find effective or potential adjuvant therapies in order to fight this infection. Genistein is a small, biologically active phytoestrogen flavonoid that is found in high amounts in soy and plants of the Fabaceae family. This important compound is known due to its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Additionally, protective effects of genistein have been reported in different pathological conditions through modulating intracellular pathways such as PI3K, Akt, mTOR, NF-κB, PPARγ, AMPK, and Nrf2. Scientific evidence suggests that genistein could have a potential role to treat COVID-19 through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Furthermore, it appears to interfere with intracellular pathways involved in viral entry into the cell. This review provides a basis for further research and development of clinical applications of genistein as a potential alternative therapy to decrease inflammation and oxidative stress in COVID-19 patients. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has brought unprecedented untold hardship to both developing and developed countries. The inflammation, cytokine storm, and oxidative stress have an important role in the pathogenesis of this infection. In this regard, finding plant-derived compounds with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects would be very beneficial in reducing the mortality induced by this infection. Genistein an isoflavone derived from soy-rich products possesses versatile biological activities. It has potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory effects. Furthermore, this compound may prevent viral entry to host cells and reduce SARS-CoV2-induced lung injury. Therefore, we suggest further studies on the effects of genistein on SARS-Cov-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Genistein/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , NF-kappa B , PPAR gamma , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytoestrogens/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
17.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(8): 872-882, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900480

ABSTRACT

Most deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic are due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-related respiratory failure. Cytokine storms and oxidative stress are the major players in ARDS development during respiratory virus infections. However, it is still unknown how oxidative stress is regulated by viral and host factors in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we found that activation of NRF2/HMOX1 significantly suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication in multiple cell types by producing the metabolite biliverdin, whereas SARS-CoV-2 impaired the NRF2/HMOX1 axis through the action of the nonstructural viral protein NSP14. Mechanistically, NSP14 interacts with the catalytic domain of the NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and inhibits its ability to activate the NRF2/HMOX1 pathway. Furthermore, both genetic and pharmaceutical evidence corroborated the novel antiviral activity of SIRT1 against SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 dysregulates the host antioxidant defense system and emphasize the vital role played by the SIRT1/NRF2 axis in host defense against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Exoribonucleases/chemistry , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sirtuin 1 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/genetics
18.
Cells ; 11(12)2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896808

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients show lipid metabolic alterations, but the mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the Spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) impairs lipid metabolism in host cells. We generated a Spike cell line in HEK293 using the pcDNA vector carrying the Spike gene expression cassette. A control cell line was generated using the empty pcDNA vector. Gene expression profiles related to lipid metabolic, autophagic, and ferroptotic pathways were investigated. Palmitic acid (PA)-overload was used to assess lipotoxicity-induced necrosis. As compared with controls, the Spike cells showed a significant increase in lipid depositions in cell membranes as well as dysregulation of expression of a panel of molecules involving lipid metabolism, autophagy, and ferroptosis. The Spike cells showed an upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a multifunctional transcriptional factor, in response to PA. Furthermore, the Spike cells exhibited increased necrosis in response to PA-induced lipotoxicity compared to control cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner via ferroptosis, which could be attenuated by the Nrf2 inhibitor trigonelline. We conclude that the Spike protein impairs lipid metabolic and autophagic pathways in host cells, leading to increased susceptibility to lipotoxicity via ferroptosis which can be suppressed by a Nrf2 inhibitor. This data also suggests a central role of Nrf2 in Spike-induced lipid metabolic impairments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Necrosis , Palmitic Acid/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 21(6): 2288-2297, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, the definition of health continuity, well-being, and well-dying is also evolving. OBJECTIVES: This review is about the utilization of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) for customized inner beauty products and customized cosmetics through Direct-To-Consumer (DTC) genetic testing in the non-face-to-face era that is evolving after the global pandemic. METHODS: In May 2021, we proposed a narrative review as a new report and commentary. It was written with reference to keywords such as "Covid DTC Genetic Test," "Covid 4th industrial revolution," "Covid NRF2," and "Antioxidants." This study was performed by searching on PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ResearchGate. A total of 432 papers were retrieved, of which 40 were successfully included in this study. RESULTS: With the rapid transition to a non-face-to-face society after COVID-19, the concept of DTC was born, which allows consumers to receive genetic testing directly without visiting a medical institution. Based on the 4th industrial revolution, a convergence medical device is needed to secure the function as an NRF2 regulator of antioxidants in customized inner beauty products and customized cosmetics. CONCLUSION: Therefore, let us look at the fact that a fusion medical device based on the 4th industrial revolution has emerged in the global DTC genetic test market, which is still insufficient to summarize important research results. This study is expected to be an important data for the development of antioxidants as NRF2 regulators in customized inner beauty products and customized cosmetics. As mobile use increases in the future, additional research focusing on app development is needed, and various follow-up studies are also needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cosmetics , Antioxidants , Beauty , Genetic Testing/methods , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , Pandemics
20.
Aging Cell ; 21(4): e13575, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788808

ABSTRACT

Dopamine (DA) signaling via G protein-coupled receptors is a multifunctional neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine-immune modulator. The DA nigrostriatal pathway, which controls the motor coordination, progressively degenerates in Parkinson's disease (PD), a most common neurodegenerative disorder (ND) characterized by a selective, age-dependent loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) neurons, where DA itself is a primary source of oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment, intersecting astrocyte and microglial inflammatory networks. Importantly, glia acts as a preferential neuroendocrine-immune DA target, in turn, counter-modulating inflammatory processes. With a major focus on DA intersection within the astrocyte-microglial inflammatory network in PD vulnerability, we herein first summarize the characteristics of DA signaling systems, the propensity of DA neurons to oxidative stress, and glial inflammatory triggers dictating the vulnerability to PD. Reciprocally, DA modulation of astrocytes and microglial reactivity, coupled to the synergic impact of gene-environment interactions, then constitute a further level of control regulating midbrain DA neuron (mDAn) survival/death. Not surprisingly, within this circuitry, DA converges to modulate nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2), the master regulator of cellular defense against oxidative stress and inflammation, and Wingless (Wnt)/ß-catenin signaling, a key pathway for mDAn neurogenesis, neuroprotection, and immunomodulation, adding to the already complex "signaling puzzle," a novel actor in mDAn-glial regulatory machinery. Here, we propose an autoregulatory feedback system allowing DA to act as an endogenous Nrf2/Wnt innate modulator and trace the importance of DA receptor agonists applied to the clinic as immune modifiers.


Subject(s)
Dopamine , Parkinson Disease , Aged , Brain/metabolism , Dopamine/metabolism , Dopaminergic Neurons/metabolism , GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Neuroglia/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/metabolism
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