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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273453


Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are common and devastating clinical disorders with high mortality and no specific therapy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is usually used intratracheally to induce ALI in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an ultramicronized preparation of palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) in mice subjected to LPS-induced ALI. Histopathological analysis reveals that um-PEA reduced alteration in lung after LPS intratracheal administration. Besides, um-PEA decreased wet/dry weight ratio and myeloperoxidase, a marker of neutrophils infiltration, macrophages and total immune cells number and mast cells degranulation in lung. Moreover, um-PEA could also decrease cytokines release of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-18. Furthermore, um-PEA significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation in ALI, and at the same time decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38/MAPK) expression, that was increased after LPS administration. Our study suggested that um-PEA contrasted LPS-induced ALI, exerting its potential role as an adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapeutic for treating lung injury, maybe also by p38/NF-κB pathway.

Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Amides/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Ethanolamines/pharmacology , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Palmitic Acids/pharmacology , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Amides/therapeutic use , Animals , Ethanolamines/therapeutic use , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/administration & dosage , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/pathology , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/immunology , Palmitic Acids/therapeutic use , Peroxidase/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241739, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934332


Due to the challenges for developing vaccines in devastating pandemic situations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), developing and screening of novel antiviral agents are peremptorily demanded. Herein, we developed EGYVIR as a potent immunomodulatory herbal extract with promising antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. It constitutes of a combination of black pepper extract with curcumin extract. The antiviral effect of EGYVIR extract is attributed to the two key phases of the disease in severe cases. First, the inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-kß p50, attenuating the SARS-CoV-2 infection-associated cytokine storm. Additionally, the EGYVIR extract has an in vitro virucidal effect for SARS-CoV-2. The in vitro study of EGYVIR extract against SARS-CoV-2 on Huh-7 cell lines, revealed the potential role of NF-kß/TNFα/IL-6 during the infection process. EGYVIR antagonizes the NF-kß pathway in-silico and in-vitro studies. Consequently, it has the potential to hinder the release of IL-6 and TNFα, decreasing the production of essential cytokines storm elements.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Animals , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Curcuma/chemistry , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kinetics , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/metabolism , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vero Cells
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 35(3): e22656, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888089


Due to unavailability of a specific drug/vaccine to attenuate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the current strategy to combat the infection has been largely dependent upon the use of anti-inflammatory drugs to control cytokines storm responsible for respiratory depression. Thus, in this study, we discovered novel pyrazole analogs as a potent nuclear factor kappa B (NF-ĸB) inhibitor. The compounds were assessed for NF-ĸB transcriptional inhibitory activity in RAW264.7 cells after stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), revealing Compound 6c as the most potent analog among the tested series. The effect of Compound 6c was further investigated on the levels of interleukin-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW267.4 cells by enzyme immunoassay, where it causes a significant reduction in the level of these cytokines. In Western blot analysis, Compound 6c also causes the inhibition of inhibitor kappa B-α and NF-κB. It was found to be snugly fitted into the inner grove of the active site of NF-ĸB by forming H-bonds and a nonbonded interaction with Asn28 in a docking analysis.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents , COVID-19 , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pyrazoles , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Mice , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/chemistry , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , RAW 264.7 Cells