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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934078

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) initiates the cytokine/chemokine storm-mediated lung injury. The SARS-CoV unique domain (SUD) with three macrodomains (N, M, and C), showing the G-quadruplex binding activity, was examined the possible role in SARS pathogenesis in this study. The chemokine profile analysis indicated that SARS-CoV SUD significantly up-regulated the expression of CXCL10, CCL5 and interleukin (IL)-1ß in human lung epithelial cells and in the lung tissues of the mice intratracheally instilled with the recombinant plasmids. Among the SUD subdomains, SUD-MC substantially activated AP-1-mediated CXCL10 expression in vitro. In the wild type mice, SARS-CoV SUD-MC triggered the pulmonary infiltration of macrophages and monocytes, inducing CXCL10-mediated inflammatory responses and severe diffuse alveolar damage symptoms. Moreover, SUD-MC actuated NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-dependent pulmonary inflammation, as confirmed by the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor and the NLRP3-/- mouse model. This study demonstrated that SARS-CoV SUD modulated NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent CXCL10-mediated pulmonary inflammation, providing the potential therapeutic targets for developing the antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Cell Line , Chemokine CXCL10/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/deficiency , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Up-Regulation , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
2.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917652

ABSTRACT

Black rice is a functional food that is high in anthocyanin content, primarily C3G and P3G. It possesses nutraceutical properties that exhibit a range of beneficial effects on human health. Currently, the spike glycoprotein S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 (SP) has been reported for its contribution to pathological inflammatory responses in targeting lung tissue and innate immune cells during COVID-19 infection and in the long-COVID phenomenon. Our objectives focused on the health benefits of the C3G and P3G-rich fraction of black rice germ and bran (BR extract) on the inhibition of inflammatory responses induced by SP, as well as the inhibition of NF-kB activation and the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in an in vitro model. In this study, BR extract was identified for its active anthocyanins, C3G and P3G, using the HPLC technique. A549-lung cells and differentiated THP-1 macrophages were treated with BR extract, C3G, or P3G prior to exposure to 100 ng/mL of SP. Their anti-inflammatory properties were then determined. BR extract at concentrations of 12.5-100 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammation activity for both A549 and THP-1 cells through the significant suppression of NLRP3, IL-1ß, and IL-18 inflammatory gene expressions and IL-6, IL-1ß, and IL-18 cytokine secretions in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). It was determined that both cell lines, C3G and P3G (at 1.25-10 µg/mL), were compatibly responsible for the significant inhibition of SP-induced inflammatory responses for both gene and protein levels (p < 0.05). With regard to the anti-inflammation mechanism, BR extract, C3G, and P3G could attenuate SP-induced inflammation via counteraction with NF-kB activation and downregulation of the inflammasome-dependent inflammatory pathway proteins (NLRP3, ASC, and capase-1). Overall, the protective effects of anthocyanins obtained from black rice germ and bran can be employed in potentially preventive strategies that use pigmented rice against the long-term sequelae of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oryza , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Glucosides/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-18 , Lung/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Oryza/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
BMC Immunol ; 23(1): 25, 2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1857991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) is an intracelluar transcriotion factor and NLRP3 (Nod-like receptor containing a pyrin domain 3) is a component of NLRP3 inflammasome in pyroptotic cells. There was increased activation of STAT6 and expression of NLRP3 in mice with murine acute lung injury (ALI). However, it is unknown their roles in the development of murine ALI. We in this study, investigated the effects of STAT6 signaling on murine ALI and pyroptosis in STAT6 knock-out (KO) mice and macrophages. RESULTS: STAT6 was activated in the lung tissues of mice 2 days after intratracheal treatmemt with 5 mg/kg LPS. Lack of STAT6 expression in KO mice induced more severe lung inflammation, associated with elevated neutrophil influx and expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1beta in the inflamed lung tissues. In addition, the expression of NLRP3, ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD), p-p38 MAPK (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) and ratio of LC3-II/I (microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3) was increased, accompanied with the increased polarization of Siglec-F(-) subtype macrophages in KO mice with ALI. Further studies in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) revealed that lack of STAT6 increased the expression of NLRP3 and p-p38 MAPK, in association with elevated expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and Calreticulin in LPS-treated KO BMDMs. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of STAT6 exacerbated murine ALI through improving the expression of NLRP3 and activation of p38 MAPK in macrophages. STAT6 has an immune suppressive role in the development of ALI and would be a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of ALI and possibly among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , STAT6 Transcription Factor/genetics , STAT6 Transcription Factor/metabolism , STAT6 Transcription Factor/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
4.
mBio ; 13(3): e0095122, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854239

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection induces inflammatory response, cytokine storm, venous thromboembolism, coagulopathy, and multiple organ damage. Resting endothelial cells prevent coagulation, control blood flow, and inhibit inflammation. However, it remains unknown how SARS-CoV-2 induces strong molecular signals in distant cells for immunopathogenesis. In this study, we examined the consequence of human endothelial cells, microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), and liver endothelial cells (TMNK-1) to exosomes isolated from plasma of mild or severe COVID-19 patients. We observed a significant induction of NLRP3, caspase-1, and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) mRNA expression in endothelial cells following exposure to exosomes from severe COVID-19 patients compared with that from patients with mild disease or healthy donors. Activation of caspase-1 was noted in the endothelial cell culture medium following exposure to the COVID-19 exosomes. Furthermore, COVID-19 exosomes significantly induced mature IL-1ß secretion in both HMEC-1 and TMNK-1 endothelial cell culture medium. Thus, our results demonstrated for the first time that exosomes from COVID-19 plasma trigger NLRP3 inflammasome in endothelial cells of distant organs resulting in IL-1ß secretion and inflammatory response. IMPORTANCE Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a global health problem. Although the vaccine controls infection, understanding the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis will help in developing future therapies. Furthermore, several investigators predicted the involvement of endothelial cell-related inflammation in SARS-CoV-2 infection and using extracellular vesicles as a cargo to carry a drug or vaccine for combating SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the mechanism by which endothelial cells are inflamed remains unknown. Our present study highlights that exosomes from severe COVID-19 patients can enhance inflammasome activity in distant endothelial cells for augmentation of immunopathogenesis and opens an avenue for developing therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Caspases , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the spontaneous clinical course of patients with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)-proven lymphocytic myocarditis and cardiac human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) DNA presence, and the effectiveness of steroid-based intervention in HHV6-positive patients. RESULTS: 756 heart failure (HF) patients underwent an EMB procedure to determine the underlying cause of unexplained HF. Low levels of HHV6 DNA, detectable by nested PCR only, were found in 10.4% of the cases (n = 79) of which 62% (n = 49) showed myocardial inflammation. The spontaneous course of patients with EMB-proven HHV6 DNA-associated lymphocytic myocarditis (n = 26) showed significant improvements in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and clinical symptoms, respectively, in 15/26 (60%) patients, 3-12 months after disease onset. EMB mRNA expression of components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and protein analysis of cardiac remodeling markers, analyzed by real-time PCR and MALDI mass spectrometry, respectively, did not differ between HHV6-positive and -negative patients. In another cohort of patients with ongoing symptoms related to lymphocytic myocarditis associated with cardiac levels of HHV6-DNA copy numbers <500 copies/µg cardiac DNA, quantified by real-time PCR, the efficacy and safety of steroid-based immunosuppression for six months was investigated. Steroid-based immunosuppression improved the LVEF (≥5%) in 8/10 patients and reduced cardiac inflammation in 7/10 patients, without an increase in cardiac HHV6 DNA levels in follow-up EMBs. CONCLUSION: Low HHV6 DNA levels are frequently detected in the myocardium, independent of inflammation. In patients with lymphocytic myocarditis with low levels of HHV6 DNA, the spontaneous clinical improvement is nearby 60%. In selected symptomatic patients with cardiac HHV6 DNA copy numbers less than 500 copies/µg cardiac DNA and without signs of an active systemic HHV6 infection, steroid-based therapy was found to be effective and safe. This finding needs to be further confirmed in large, randomized trials.


Subject(s)
Herpesvirus 6, Human/physiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Steroids/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Biopsy , Cohort Studies , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Gene Dosage , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/physiopathology , Stroke Volume
6.
mBio ; 13(2): e0313521, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714354

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the closely related SARS-CoV-2 are emergent highly pathogenic human respiratory viruses causing acute lethal disease associated with lung damage and dysregulated inflammatory responses. SARS-CoV envelope protein (E) is a virulence factor involved in the activation of various inflammatory pathways. Here, we study the contribution of host miRNAs to the virulence mediated by E protein. Small RNAseq analysis of infected mouse lungs identified miRNA-223 as a potential regulator of pulmonary inflammation, since it was significantly increased in SARS-CoV-WT virulent infection compared to the attenuated SARS-CoV-ΔE infection. In vivo inhibition of miRNA-223-3p increased mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NLRP3 inflammasome, suggesting that during lung infection, miRNA-223 might contribute to restrict an excessive inflammatory response. Interestingly, miRNA-223-3p inhibition also increased the levels of the CFTR transporter, which is involved in edema resolution and was significantly downregulated in the lungs of mice infected with the virulent SARS-CoV-WT virus. At the histopathological level, a decrease in the pulmonary edema was observed when miR-223-3p was inhibited, suggesting that miRNA-223-3p was involved in the regulation of the SARS-CoV-induced inflammatory pathology. These results indicate that miRNA-223 participates in the regulation of E protein-mediated inflammatory response during SARS-CoV infection by targeting different host mRNAs involved in the pulmonary inflammation, and identify miRNA-223 as a potential therapeutic target in SARS-CoV infection. IMPORTANCE The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has emphasized the need to understand the mechanisms of severe lung inflammatory pathology caused by human deadly coronaviruses in order to design new antiviral therapies. Here, we identify miRNA-223-3p as a host miRNA involved in the regulation of lung inflammatory response mediated by envelope (E) protein during SARS-CoV infection. miRNAs downregulate the expression of cellular mRNAs and participate in complex networks of mRNA-miRNA interactions that regulate cellular processes. The inhibition of miRNA-223 in infected mice by intranasal administration of antisense RNAs led to changes in the expression of host factors involved in inflammation (cytokines, chemokines, and NLRP3 inflammasome) and in the resolution of lung edema ion transporter CFTR. These results confirmed the contribution of miRNA-223 to the regulation of SARS-CoV-induced pathogenic processes and support the therapeutic potential of inhibiting miRNAs during coronavirus infection using RNA interference approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Animals , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator , Cytokines , Inflammasomes , Lung/pathology , Mice , MicroRNAs/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(4): 1945-1955, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635000

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is activated in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Acute infections are accompanied by a sickness symptom complex (SSC) which is highly conserved and protects against infections and hyperinflammation. The aim of this study is to delineate the associations of COVID-19, SSC and NLPR3 rs10157379 T > C and NLPR3 rs10754558 C > G variants; and the protective role of SSC in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We recruited COVID-19 patients, 308 with critical, 63 with moderate and 157 with mild disease. Increased SSC protects against SARS, critical disease, and death due to COVID-19. Increasing age, male sex and rs10754558 CG significantly reduce SSC protection. The rs10157379 CT and rs10754558 GG genotypes are positively associated with SARS. Partial Least Squares analysis shows that a) 41.8% of the variance in critical COVID-19 symptoms is explained by SSC and oxygen saturation (inversely associated), inflammation, chest computed tomography abnormalities, increased body mass index, SARS and age (positively associated); and b) the effects of the NLRP3 rs10157379 and rs10754558 variants on critical COVID-19 are mediated via SSC (protective) and SARS (detrimental). SSC includes anosmia and dysgeusia, and maybe gastrointestinal symptoms. In conclusion, intersections among the rs10754558 variant, age, and sex increase risk towards critical COVID-19 by attenuating SSC. NLRP3 variants play an important role in SARS, and severe and critical COVID-19 especially in elderly male individuals with reduced SSC and with increased BMI, hypertension, and diabetes type 2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammasomes , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Male , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Cell Death Differ ; 29(6): 1240-1254, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612182

ABSTRACT

A recent mutation analysis suggested that Non-Structural Protein 6 (NSP6) of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a key determinant of the viral pathogenicity. Here, by transcriptome analysis, we demonstrated that the inflammasome-related NOD-like receptor signaling was activated in SARS-CoV-2-infected lung epithelial cells and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients' lung tissues. The induction of inflammasomes/pyroptosis in patients with severe COVID-19 was confirmed by serological markers. Overexpression of NSP6 triggered NLRP3/ASC-dependent caspase-1 activation, interleukin-1ß/18 maturation, and pyroptosis of lung epithelial cells. Upstream, NSP6 impaired lysosome acidification to inhibit autophagic flux, whose restoration by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, metformin or polydatin abrogated NSP6-induced pyroptosis. NSP6 directly interacted with ATP6AP1, a vacuolar ATPase proton pump component, and inhibited its cleavage-mediated activation. L37F NSP6 variant, which was associated with asymptomatic COVID-19, exhibited reduced binding to ATP6AP1 and weakened ability to impair lysosome acidification to induce pyroptosis. Consistently, infection of cultured lung epithelial cells with live SARS-CoV-2 resulted in autophagic flux stagnation, inflammasome activation, and pyroptosis. Overall, this work supports that NSP6 of SARS-CoV-2 could induce inflammatory cell death in lung epithelial cells, through which pharmacological rectification of autophagic flux might be therapeutically exploited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pyroptosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/metabolism
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24432, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585772

ABSTRACT

Despite the initial success of some drugs and vaccines targeting COVID-19, understanding the mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 disease pathogenesis remains crucial for the development of further approaches to treatment. Some patients with severe Covid-19 experience a cytokine storm and display evidence of inflammasome activation leading to increased levels of IL-1ß and IL-18; however, other reports have suggested reduced inflammatory responses to Sars-Cov-2. In this study we have examined the effects of the Sars-Cov-2 envelope (E) protein, a virulence factor in coronaviruses, on inflammasome activation and pulmonary inflammation. In cultured macrophages the E protein suppressed inflammasome priming and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Similarly, in mice transfected with E protein and treated with poly(I:C) to simulate the effects of viral RNA, the E protein, in an NLRP3-dependent fashion, reduced expression of pro-IL-1ß, levels of IL-1ß and IL-18 in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, and macrophage infiltration in the lung. To simulate the effects of more advanced infection, macrophages were treated with both LPS and poly(I:C). In this setting the E protein increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation in both murine and human macrophages. Thus, the Sars-Cov-2 E protein may initially suppress the host NLRP3 inflammasome response to viral RNA while potentially increasing NLRP3 inflammasome responses in the later stages of infection. Targeting the Sars-Cov-2 E protein especially in the early stages of infection may represent a novel approach to Covid-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/deficiency , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Poly I-C/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103803, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a great threat to global public health since 2020. Although the advance on vaccine development has been largely achieved, a strategy to alleviate immune overactivation in severe COVID-19 patients is still needed. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated upon SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated with COVID-19 severity. However, the processes by which the NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in COVID-19 disease remain unclear. METHODS: We infected THP-1 derived macrophages, NLRP3 knockout mice, and human ACE2 transgenic mice with live SARS-CoV-2 in Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) laboratory. We performed quantitative real-time PCR for targeted viral or host genes from SARS-CoV-2 infected mouse tissues, conducted histological or immunofluorescence analysis in SARS-CoV-2 infected mouse tissues. We also injected intranasally AAV-hACE2 or intraperitoneally NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 before SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice as indicated. FINDINGS: We have provided multiple lines of evidence that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 invasion of the lungs. Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome attenuated the release of COVID-19 related pro-inflammatory cytokines in cell cultures and mice. The severe pathology induced by SARS-CoV-2 in lung tissues was reduced in Nlrp3-/- mice compared to wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Finally, specific inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome by MCC950 alleviated excessive lung inflammation and thus COVID-19 like pathology in human ACE2 transgenic mice. INTERPRETATION: Inflammatory activation induced by SARS-CoV-2 is an important stimulator of COVID-19 related immunopathology. Targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome is a promising immune intervention against severe COVID-19 disease. FUNDING: This work was supported by grants from the Bureau of Frontier Sciences and Education, CAS (grant no. QYZDJ-SSW-SMC005 to Y.G.Y.), the key project of the CAS "Light of West China" Program (to D.Y.) and Yunnan Province (202001AS070023 to D.Y.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Macrophages , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , Macrophages/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , THP-1 Cells
11.
Immunity ; 54(11): 2632-2649.e6, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549842

ABSTRACT

The incidence and severity of sepsis is higher among individuals of African versus European ancestry. We found that genetic risk variants (RVs) in the trypanolytic factor apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1), present only in individuals of African ancestry, were associated with increased sepsis incidence and severity. Serum APOL1 levels correlated with sepsis and COVID-19 severity, and single-cell sequencing in human kidneys revealed high expression of APOL1 in endothelial cells. Analysis of mice with endothelial-specific expression of RV APOL1 and in vitro studies demonstrated that RV APOL1 interfered with mitophagy, leading to cytosolic release of mitochondrial DNA and activation of the inflammasome (NLRP3) and the cytosolic nucleotide sensing pathways (STING). Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of NLRP3 and STING protected mice from RV APOL1-induced permeability defects and proinflammatory endothelial changes in sepsis. Our studies identify the inflammasome and STING pathways as potential targets to reduce APOL1-associated health disparities in sepsis and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Sepsis/genetics , Animals , Apolipoprotein L1/blood , COVID-19/pathology , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/pathology , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Mitophagy/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Risk Factors , Sepsis/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , /statistics & numerical data
12.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(11): 2187-2195, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442084

ABSTRACT

Millions of people around the world are involved with COVID-19 due to infection with SARS-CoV-2. Virological features of SARS-CoV-2, including its genomic sequence, have been identified but the mechanisms governing COVID-19 immunopathogenesis have remained uncertain. miR-223 is a hematopoietic cell-derived miRNA that is implicated in regulating monocyte-macrophage differentiation, neutrophil recruitment, and pro-inflammatory responses. The miR-223 controls inflammation by targeting a variety of factors, including TRAF6, IKKα, HSP-70, FOXO1, TLR4, PI3K/AKT, PARP-1, HDAC2, ITGB3, CXCL2, CCL3, IL-6, IFN-I, STMN1, IL-1ß, IL-18, Caspase-1, NF-κB, and NLRP3. The key role of miR-223 in regulating the inflammatory process and its antioxidant and antiviral role can suggest this miRNA as a potential regulatory factor in the process of COVID-19 immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/pathology , MicroRNAs/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammation/immunology
16.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 77(1-2): 37-42, 2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346341

ABSTRACT

The inflammasome as a multiprotein complex has a role in activating ASC and caspase-1 resulting in activating IL-1ß in various infections and diseases like corona virus infection in various tissues. It was shown that these tissues are affected by COVID-19 patients. According to the current evidence, melatonin is not veridical while possessing a high safety profile, however, it possesses indirect anti-viral actions owing to its anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and immune improving properties. This study aims to assess the impacts of melatonin as the complementary treatments on oxidative stress agents and inflammasome activation in patients with COVID-19. Melatonin supplement (9 mg daily, orally) was provided for the patients hospitalized with a COVID-19 analysis for 14 days. For measuring IL-10, IL-1ß, and TNF-α cytokines and malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) level and the expression of CASP1 and ASC genes, blood samples were gathered from the individuals at the start and termination of the therapy. Our findings indicated that melatonin is used as a complementary treatment to reduce the levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß cytokines, MDA, and NO levels in COVID-19 patients and significantly increase SOD level, however, the levels of IL-10 cytokine possesses no considerable changes. The findings revealed that genes of CASP1 and ASC were dysregulated by melatonin regulating the inflammasome complex. Based on the findings of the current study, it is found that melatonin can be effective as a medicinal supplement in decreasing the inflammasome multiprotein complex and oxidative stress along with beneficial impacts on lung cytokine storm of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Melatonin , Oxidative Stress , Cytokines , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Melatonin/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4664, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338538

ABSTRACT

Excessive inflammatory responses induced upon SARS-CoV-2 infection are associated with severe symptoms of COVID-19. Inflammasomes activated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection are also associated with COVID-19 severity. Here, we show a distinct mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 N protein promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation to induce hyperinflammation. N protein facilitates maturation of proinflammatory cytokines and induces proinflammatory responses in cultured cells and mice. Mechanistically, N protein interacts directly with NLRP3 protein, promotes the binding of NLRP3 with ASC, and facilitates NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. More importantly, N protein aggravates lung injury, accelerates death in sepsis and acute inflammation mouse models, and promotes IL-1ß and IL-6 activation in mice. Notably, N-induced lung injury and cytokine production are blocked by MCC950 (a specific inhibitor of NLRP3) and Ac-YVAD-cmk (an inhibitor of caspase-1). Therefore, this study reveals a distinct mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 N protein promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation and induces excessive inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Inflammasomes/genetics , Lung Injury/genetics , Lung Injury/metabolism , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , THP-1 Cells
18.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(8): e14150, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271067

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity triggers responsible for viral control or hyperinflammation in COVID-19 are largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-protein) primes inflammasome formation and release of mature interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in macrophages derived from COVID-19 patients but not in macrophages from healthy SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals. Furthermore, longitudinal analyses reveal robust S-protein-driven inflammasome activation in macrophages isolated from convalescent COVID-19 patients, which correlates with distinct epigenetic and gene expression signatures suggesting innate immune memory after recovery from COVID-19. Importantly, we show that S-protein-driven IL-1ß secretion from patient-derived macrophages requires non-specific monocyte pre-activation in vivo to trigger NLRP3-inflammasome signaling. Our findings reveal that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes profound and long-lived reprogramming of macrophages resulting in augmented immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein, a major vaccine antigen and potent driver of adaptive and innate immune signaling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-1beta , Macrophages , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(5): 997-1001, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014115

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine belong to the aminoquinoline drugs. Studies revealed that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine shows antagonism activity against COVID-19 under laboratory conditions. ARDS and ALI are conditions that occur in patients with COVID-19 as the main pathological complications of cytokine storm. Inflammasomes play a key role in the pathogenesis of many diseases associated with destructive inflammation. NLRP3 inflammasome has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of viral diseases. The possible role of NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors in the treatment of COVID-19 has been considered. We surveyed the potential inhibitory effect of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on inflammasome. Studies indicate that one of the possible anti-inflammatory mechanisms of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is inhibition of the activity of NLRP3 inflammasome.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes/drug effects , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/drug effects , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics
20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 570251, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976246

ABSTRACT

Several countries around the world have faced an important obesity challenge for the past four decades as the result of an obesogenic environment. This disease has a multifactorial origin and it is associated with multiple comorbidities including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and dyslipidemia. With regard to dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia is a well-known activator of the NLRP3 inflammasome, triggering adipokines and cytokines secretion which in addition induce a systemic inflammatory state that provides an adequate scenario for infections, particularly those mediated by viruses such as HIV, H1N1 influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and it is responsible for the pandemic that we are currently living. COVID-19 causes an aggressive immune response known as cytokine release syndrome or cytokine storm that causes multiorgan failure and in most cases leads to death. In the present work, we aimed to review the molecular mechanisms by which obesity-associated systemic inflammation could cause a more severe clinical presentation of COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 infection could potentiate or accelerate the pre-existing systemic inflammatory state of individuals with obesity, via the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from cells trough Gasdermin-pores commonly found in cell death by pyroptosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Humans , Inflammasomes/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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