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1.
Health Secur ; 20(5): 408-423, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087713

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology, the multidisciplinary field based on the exploitation of the unique physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanoscale materials, has opened a new realm of possibilities for biological research and biomedical applications. The development and deployment of mRNA-NP vaccines for COVID-19, for example, may revolutionize vaccines and therapeutics. However, regulatory and ethical frameworks that protect the health and safety of the global community and environment are lagging, particularly for nanotechnology geared toward biological applications (ie, bionanotechnology). In this article, while not comprehensive, we attempt to illustrate the breadth and promise of bionanotechnology developments, and how they may present future safety and security challenges. Specifically, we address current advancements to streamline the development of engineered NPs for in vivo applications and provide discussion on nano-bio interactions, NP in vivo delivery, nanoenhancement of human performance, nanomedicine, and the impacts of NPs on human health and the environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanomedicine , Nanotechnology , RNA, Messenger
2.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 22(10): 550-556, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050397
3.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 395, 2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038770

ABSTRACT

The rapid advancement of nanomedicine and nanoparticle (NP) materials presents novel solutions potentially capable of revolutionizing health care by improving efficacy, bioavailability, drug targeting, and safety. NPs are intriguing when considering medical applications because of their essential and unique qualities, including a significantly higher surface to mass ratio, quantum properties, and the potential to adsorb and transport drugs and other compounds. However, NPs must overcome or navigate several biological barriers of the human body to successfully deliver drugs at precise locations. Engineering the drug carrier biointerface can help overcome the main biological barriers and optimize the drug delivery in a more personalized manner. This review discusses the significant heterogeneous biological delivery barriers and how biointerface engineering can promote drug carriers to prevail over hurdles and navigate in a more personalized manner, thus ushering in the era of Precision Medicine. We also summarize the nanomedicines' current advantages and disadvantages in drug administration, from natural/synthetic sources to clinical applications. Additionally, we explore the innovative NP designs used in both non-personalized and customized applications as well as how they can attain a precise therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems , Nanoparticles , Drug Carriers , Humans , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Precision Medicine
4.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 393, 2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009412

ABSTRACT

High-quality point-of-care is critical for timely decision of disease diagnosis and healthcare management. In this regard, biosensors have revolutionized the field of rapid testing and screening, however, are confounded by several technical challenges including material cost, half-life, stability, site-specific targeting, analytes specificity, and detection sensitivity that affect the overall diagnostic potential and therapeutic profile. Despite their advances in point-of-care testing, very few classical biosensors have proven effective and commercially viable in situations of healthcare emergency including the recent COVID-19 pandemic. To overcome these challenges functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have emerged as key players in advancing the biomedical and healthcare sector with promising applications during the ongoing healthcare crises. This critical review focus on understanding recent developments in theranostic applications of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Given the profound global economic and health burden, we discuss the therapeutic impact of functionalized MNPs in acute and chronic diseases like small RNA therapeutics, vascular diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer, as well as for COVID-19 testing. Lastly, we culminate with a futuristic perspective on the scope of this field and provide an insight into the emerging opportunities whose impact is anticipated to disrupt the healthcare industry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Chronic Disease , Humans , Magnetite Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Nanomedicine , Pandemics
5.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 17(1): 1-3, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577061

Subject(s)
Nanomedicine
6.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 12(9): 2042-2047, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007292

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnologies enable great opportunities for the development and use of innovative (nano)medicines. As is common for scientific and technical developments, recognized safety evaluation methods for regulatory purposes are lagging behind. The specific properties responsible for the desired functioning also hamper the safety evaluation of such products. Pharmacokinetics determination of the active pharmaceutical ingredient as well as the nanomaterial component is crucial. Due to their particulate nature, nanomedicines, similar to all nanomaterials, are primarily removed from the circulation by phagocytizing cells that are part of the immune system. Therefore, the immune system can be potentially a specific target for adverse effects of nanomedicines, and thus needs special attention during the safety evaluation. This DDTR special issue on the results of the REFINE project on a regulatory science framework for nanomedical products presents a highly valuable body of knowledge needed to address regulatory challenges and gaps in currently available testing methods for the safety evaluation of nanomedicines.


Subject(s)
Nanomedicine , Nanostructures , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanostructures/adverse effects , Nanotechnology
7.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(6): 570-576, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900493

ABSTRACT

Several vaccines against COVID-19 use nanoparticles to protect the antigen cargo (either proteins or nucleic acids), increase the immunogenicity and ultimately the efficacy. The characterization of these nanomedicines is challenging due to their intrinsic complexity and requires the use of multidisciplinary techniques and competencies. The accurate characterization of nanovaccines can be conceptualized as a combination of physicochemical, immunological and toxicological assays. This will help to address key challenges in the preclinical characterization, will guide the rapid development of safe and effective vaccines for current and future health crises, and will streamline the regulatory process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Vaccines/chemistry
8.
ACS Nano ; 16(7): 9994-10041, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900427

ABSTRACT

Worldwide nanotechnology development and application have fueled many scientific advances, but technophilic expectations and technophobic demands must be counterbalanced in parallel. Some of the burning issues today are the following: (1) Where is nano today? (2) How good are the communication and investment networks between academia/research and governments? (3) Is there any spotlight application for nanotechnology? Nanomedicine is a particular arm of nanotechnology within the healthcare landscape, focused on diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of emerging (such as coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) and contemporary (including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer) diseases. However, it may only represent the bright side of the coin. In fact, in the recent past, the concept of nanotoxicology has emerged to address the dark shadows of nanomedicine. The nanomedicine field requires more nanotoxicological studies to identify undesirable effects and guarantee safety. Here, we provide an overall perspective on nanomedicine and nanotoxicology as central pieces of the giant puzzle of nanotechnology. First, the impact of nanotechnology on education and research is highlighted, followed by market trends and scientific output tendencies. In the next section, the nanomedicine and nanotoxicology dilemma is addressed through the interplay of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo models with the support of omics and microfluidic approaches. Lastly, a reflection on the regulatory issues and clinical trials is provided. Finally, some conclusions and future perspectives are proposed for a clearer and safer translation of nanomedicines from the bench to the bedside.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Humans , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nanotechnology , Neoplasms/drug therapy
9.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(6): 1269, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885009

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanomedicine , Humans
10.
Inflammation ; 45(6): 2124-2141, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872584

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are characterized by progressive lung impairment typically triggered by inflammatory processes. The mortality toll for ARDS/ALI yet remains high because of the poor prognosis, lack of disease-specific inflammation management therapies, and prolonged hospitalizations. The urgency for the development of new effective therapeutic strategies has become acutely evident for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are highly susceptible to ARDS/ALI. We propose that the lack of target specificity in ARDS/ALI of current treatments is one of the reasons for poor patient outcomes. Unlike traditional therapeutics, nanomedicine offers precise drug targeting to inflamed tissues, the capacity to surmount pulmonary barriers, enhanced interactions with lung epithelium, and the potential to reduce off-target and systemic adverse effects. In this article, we focus on the key cellular drivers of inflammation in ARDS/ALI: macrophages. We propose that as macrophages are involved in the etiology of ARDS/ALI and regulate inflammatory cascades, they are a promising target for new therapeutic development. In this review, we offer a survey of multiple nanomedicines that are currently being investigated with promising macrophage targeting potential and strategies for pulmonary delivery. Specifically, we will focus on nanomedicines that have shown engagement with proinflammatory macrophage targets and have the potential to reduce inflammation and reverse tissue damage in ARDS/ALI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Nanomedicine , COVID-19/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Macrophages , Inflammation/drug therapy
11.
Vaccine ; 40(29): 3931-3941, 2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867879

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first reported in December 2019, China and later it was found that the causative microorganism is severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). As on 3rd June 2021, SARS-CoV-2 has affected 171049741 people worldwide with 3549710 deaths. Nanomedicine such as nanoparticles, liposomes, lipid nanoparticles, virus-like nanoparticles offer tremendous hopes to treat viral infections including COVID-19. Most importantly target specific ligands can be attached on the surface of them and this makes them more target specific and the loaded drug can be delivered to cellular and molecular level. These properties of nanomedicines can be utilized to deliver drugs or vaccines to treat viral diseases including SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review discusses about SARS-CoV-2 and the potential application of nanomedicines for delivering biological macromolecules like vaccines and drugs for treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Liposomes , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 186: 114317, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821096

ABSTRACT

In the past decades, phytoconstituents have appeared as critical mediators for immune regulations among various diseases, both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These bioactive molecules, showing a broad range of biological functions, would hold tremendous promise for developing new therapeutics. The discovery of phytoconstituents' capability of functionally regulating immune cells and associating cytokines, suppressing systemic inflammation, and remodeling immunity have rapidly promoted the idea of their employment as anti-inflammatory agents. In this review, we discuss various roles of phyto-derived medicines in the field of inflammatory diseases, including chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and acute inflammatory disease such as COVID-19. Nevertheless, traditional phyto-derived medicines often concurred with their clinical administration limitations, such as their lack of cell specificity, inefficient cytoplasmic delivery, and rapid clearance by the immune system. As alternatives, phyto-derived nano-approaches may provide significant benefits. Both unmodified and engineered nanocarriers present the potential to serve as phytoconstituent delivery systems to improve therapeutic physio-chemical properties and pharmacokinetic profiles. Thus, the development of phytoconstituents' nano-delivery designs, their new and perspective approaches for therapeutical applications are elaborated herein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanomedicine , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 290: 119500, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797107

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic, COVID-19 has a global impact on the lives and livelihoods of people. It is characterized by a widespread infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), where infected patients may develop serious medical complications or even face death. Development of therapeutic is essential to reduce the morbidity and mortality of infected patients. Chitosan is a versatile biomaterial in nanomedicine and exhibits anti-microbial, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory properties. This review highlights the progress in chitosan design and application pertaining to the anti-viral effects of chitosan and chitosan derivatives (hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium, sulfate, carboxymethyl, bromine, sialylglycopolymer, peptide and phosphonium conjugates) as a function of molecular weight, degree of deacetylation, type of substituents and their degree and site of substitution. The physicochemical attributes of these polymeric therapeutics are identified against the possibility of processing them into nanomedicine which can confer a higher level of anti-viral efficacy. The designs of chitosan for the purpose of targeting SARS-CoV-2, as well as the ever-evolving strains of viruses with a broad spectrum anti-viral activity to meet pandemic preparedness at the early stages of outbreak are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chitosan , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chitosan/chemistry , Humans , Nanomedicine , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792661

ABSTRACT

The recent development of mRNA vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 infection has turned the spotlight on the potential of nucleic acids as innovative prophylactic agents and as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Until now, their use has been severely limited by their reduced half-life in the biological environment and the difficulties related to their transport to target cells. These limiting aspects can now be overcome by resorting to chemical modifications in the drug and using appropriate nanocarriers, respectively. Oligonucleotides can interact with complementary sequences of nucleic acid targets, forming stable complexes and determining their loss of function. An alternative strategy uses nucleic acid aptamers that, like the antibodies, bind to specific proteins to modulate their activity. In this review, the authors will examine the recent literature on nucleic acids-based strategies in the COVID-19 era, focusing the attention on their applications for the prophylaxis of COVID-19, but also on antisense- and aptamer-based strategies directed to the diagnosis and therapy of the coronavirus pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Nanomedicine , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use , Oligonucleotides/chemistry , Oligonucleotides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(4): 337-346, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783988

ABSTRACT

After over a billion of vaccinations with messenger RNA-lipid nanoparticle (mRNA-LNP) based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, anaphylaxis and other manifestations of hypersensitivity can be considered as very rare adverse events. Although current recommendations include avoiding a second dose in those with first-dose anaphylaxis, the underlying mechanisms are unknown; therefore, the risk of a future reaction cannot be predicted. Given how important new mRNA constructs will be to address the emergence of new viral variants and viruses, there is an urgent need for clinical approaches that would allow a safe repeated immunization of high-risk individuals and for reliable predictive tools of adverse reactions to mRNA vaccines. In many aspects, anaphylaxis symptoms experienced by the affected vaccine recipients resemble those of infusion reactions to nanomedicines. Here we share lessons learned over a decade of nanomedicine research and discuss the current knowledge about several factors that individually or collectively contribute to infusion reactions to nanomedicines. We aim to use this knowledge to inform the SARS-CoV-2 lipid-nanoparticle-based mRNA vaccine field.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Anaphylaxis/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Liposomes , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715400

ABSTRACT

Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), discovered in 2004, are thin, long protrusions between cells utilized for intercellular transfer and communication. These newly discovered structures have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in homeostasis, but also in the spreading of diseases, infections, and metastases. Gaining much interest in the medical research field, TNTs have been shown to transport nanomedicines (NMeds) between cells. NMeds have been studied thanks to their advantageous features in terms of reduced toxicity of drugs, enhanced solubility, protection of the payload, prolonged release, and more interestingly, cell-targeted delivery. Nevertheless, their transfer between cells via TNTs makes their true fate unknown. If better understood, TNTs could help control NMed delivery. In fact, TNTs can represent the possibility both to improve the biodistribution of NMeds throughout a diseased tissue by increasing their formation, or to minimize their formation to block the transfer of dangerous material. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction between NMeds and TNTs. In this work, we will explain what TNTs are and how they form and then review what has been published regarding their potential use in nanomedicine research. We will highlight possible future approaches to better exploit TNT intercellular communication in the field of nanomedicine.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane Structures/metabolism , Animals , Biological Transport/physiology , Humans , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanotubes , Tissue Distribution/physiology
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 968, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705624

ABSTRACT

DNA/RNA-gold nanoparticle (DNA/RNA-AuNP) nanoprobes have been widely employed for nanobiotechnology applications. Here, we discover that both thiolated and non-thiolated DNA/RNA can be efficiently attached to AuNPs to achieve high-stable spherical nucleic acid (SNA) within minutes under a domestic microwave (MW)-assisted heating-dry circumstance. Further studies show that for non-thiolated DNA/RNA the conjugation is poly (T/U) tag dependent. Spectroscopy, test strip hybridization, and loading counting experiments indicate that low-affinity poly (T/U) tag mediates the formation of a standing-up conformation, which is distributed in the outer layer of SNA structure. In further application studies, CRISPR/Cas9-sgRNA (136 bp), SARS-CoV-2 RNA fragment (1278 bp), and rolling circle amplification (RCA) DNA products (over 1000 bp) can be successfully attached on AuNPs, which overcomes the routine methods in long-chain nucleic acid-AuNP conjugation, exhibiting great promise in biosensing and nucleic acids delivery applications. Current heating-dry strategy has improved traditional DNA/RNA-AuNP conjugation methods in simplicity, rapidity, cost, and universality.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gold/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Biotechnology/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , DNA/chemistry , Heating/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Microwaves , Nanomedicine/methods , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Int J Pharm ; 614: 121458, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615600

ABSTRACT

For successful translation of targeting nanomedicines from bench to bedside, it is vital to address their most common drawbacks namely rapid clearance and off-target accumulation. These complications evidently originate from a phenomenon called "protein corona (PC) formation" around the surface of targeting nanoparticles (NPs) which happens once they encounter the bloodstream and interact with plasma proteins with high collision frequency. This phenomenon endows the targeting nanomedicines with a different biological behavior followed by an unexpected fate, which is usually very different from what we commonly observe in vitro. In addition to the inherent physiochemical properties of NPs, the targeting ligands could also remarkably dictate the amount and type of adsorbed PC. As very limited studies have focused their attention on this particular factor, the present review is tasked to discuss the best simulated environment and latest characterization techniques applied to PC analysis. The effect of PC on the biological behavior of targeting NPs engineered with different targeting moieties is further discussed. Ultimately, the recent progresses in manipulation of nano-bio interfaces to achieve the most favorite therapeutic outcome are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Protein Corona , Nanomedicine
19.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(1): 1-2, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671572
20.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 180: 114079, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620432

ABSTRACT

Polyethylene glycol or PEG has a long history of use in medicine. Many conventional formulations utilize PEG as either an active ingredient or an excipient. PEG found its use in biotechnology therapeutics as a tool to slow down drug clearance and shield protein therapeutics from undesirable immunogenicity. Nanotechnology field applies PEG to create stealth drug carriers with prolonged circulation time and decreased recognition and clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Most nanomedicines approved for clinical use and experimental nanotherapeutics contain PEG. Among the most recent successful examples are two mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines that are delivered by PEGylated lipid nanoparticles. The breadth of PEG use in a wide variety of over the counter (OTC) medications as well as in drug products and vaccines stimulated research which uncovered that PEG is not as immunologically inert as it was initially expected. Herein, we review the current understanding of PEG's immunological properties and discuss them in the context of synthesis, biodistribution, safety, efficacy, and characterization of PEGylated nanomedicines. We also review the current knowledge about immunological compatibility of other polymers that are being actively investigated as PEG alternatives.


Subject(s)
Drug Carriers , Nanomedicine , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans
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