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1.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 20(11): 915-962, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging viral zoonotic diseases are one of the major obstacles to secure the "One Health" concept under the current scenario. Current prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches often associated with certain limitations and thus proved to be insufficient for customizing rapid and efficient combating strategy against the highly transmissible pathogenic infectious agents leading to the disastrous socio-economic outcome. Moreover, most of the viral zoonoses originate from the wildlife and poor knowledge about the global virome database renders it difficult to predict future outbreaks. Thus, alternative management strategy in terms of improved prophylactic vaccines and their delivery systems; rapid and efficient diagnostics and effective targeted therapeutics are the need of the hour. METHODS: Structured literature search has been performed with specific keywords in bibliographic databases for the accumulation of information regarding current nanomedicine interventions along with standard books for basic virology inputs. RESULTS: Multi-arrayed applications of nanomedicine have proved to be an effective alternative in all the aspects regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and control of zoonotic viral diseases. The current review is focused to outline the applications of nanomaterials as anti-viral vaccines or vaccine/drug delivery systems, diagnostics and directly acting therapeutic agents in combating the important zoonotic viral diseases in the recent scenario along with their potential benefits, challenges and prospects to design successful control strategies. CONCLUSION: This review provides significant introspection towards the multi-arrayed applications of nanomedicine to combat several important zoonotic viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Animals, Wild , Biosensing Techniques , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Compounding , Drug Liberation , Humans , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Polymers/metabolism , Transfection , Viruses/metabolism
2.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(5): 1722-1724, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408220
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112162, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global healthcare sector has been dealing with a situation known as a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) since the end of 2019. Covid-19 is an acronym for Covid-19 (Coronavirus Disease- 2019). It causes a respiratory infection that includes cold, sneezing and coughing, and pneumonia. In the case of an animal, it causes diarrhea and upper respiratory diseases. Covid-19 transmitted human to human via airborne droplets. First Covid-19 emerged in Wuhan market China and it spread rapidly throughout the World. As we know nanoparticles are a novel drug delivery system. They have various advantageous effects like increasing the efficacy of the drug, safety, etc. In this review, we study about the nanoparticles and summarize how it is effective during drug delivery system in Covid-19. Chitosan is a much focused biopolymeric nanoparticle. It delivers drugs to the specific target site. In a recent health crisis, chitosan nanoparticles are one of the ways to release drugs of Covid-19, and specifically in the lungs of the affected patients. We studied and extracted our data from various research papers, review papers, and some other articles. OBJECTIVE: The main goal is to study the nanoparticles and their future aspects which is an effective drug delivery system in Covid-19. METHODS: The bibliographic search was done through a systematic search. The terms "Nanoparticles", "Covid-19 ", "Drug delivery" etc. were used to search the databases/search engines like "Google Scholar", "NCBI", "PubMed", "Science Direct" etc. These databases and search engines used here perform the limited criteria of search to conduct a systematic literature survey for the study and report writing. All the text from the articles and research papers were studied and analyzed. The various articles and research papers were used in writing this report and all of which are mentioned in the reference section of this report. CONCLUSION: Our current studies reveal that nanoparticles may prove very helpful in the delivery of drugs for Covid-19 treatment. Many cases showed that patients, where drugs are delivered with the help of nanoparticles, produced very few side effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Nanoparticles , Animals , Biopolymers/adverse effects , Biopolymers/chemistry , Biopolymers/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles/adverse effects , Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(38): 7878-7908, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373457

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi and their global spread pose a great threat to human health. The 2019 World Health Organization report predicted that infection-related mortality will be similar to cancer mortality by 2050. Particularly, the global cumulative numbers of the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have reached 110.7 million cases and over 2.4 million deaths as of February 23, 2021. Moreover, the crisis of these infectious diseases exposes the many problems of traditional diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, such as time-consuming and unselective detection methods, the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, serious side effects, and poor drug delivery. There is an urgent need for rapid and sensitive diagnosis as well as high efficacy and low toxicity treatments. The emergence of nanomedicine has provided a promising strategy to greatly enhance detection methods and drug treatment efficacy. Owing to their unique optical, magnetic, and electrical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) have great potential for the fast and selective detection of bacteria, viruses, and fungi. NPs exhibit remarkable antibacterial activity by releasing reactive oxygen species and metal ions, exerting photothermal effects, and causing destruction of the cell membrane. Nano-based delivery systems can further improve drug permeability, reduce the side effects of drugs, and prolong systemic circulation time and drug half-life. Moreover, effective drugs against COVID-19 are still lacking. Recently, nanomedicine has shown great potential to accelerate the development of safe and novel anti-COVID-19 drugs. This article reviews the fundamental mechanisms and the latest developments in the treatment and diagnosis of bacteria, viruses, and fungi and discusses the challenges and perspectives in the application of nanomedicine.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Nanomedicine , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/virology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
J Control Release ; 338: 80-104, 2021 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347165

ABSTRACT

Millions of people die each year from viral infections across the globe. There is an urgent need to overcome the existing gap and pitfalls of the current antiviral therapy which include increased dose and dosing frequency, bioavailability challenges, non-specificity, incidences of resistance and so on. These stumbling blocks could be effectively managed by the advent of nanomedicine. Current review emphasizes over an enhanced understanding of how different lipid, polymer and elemental based nanoformulations could be potentially and precisely used to bridle the said drawbacks in antiviral therapy. The dawn of nanotechnology meeting vaccine delivery, role of RNAi therapeutics in antiviral treatment regimen, various regulatory concerns towards clinical translation of nanomedicine along with current trends and implications including unexplored research avenues for advancing the current drug delivery have been discussed in detail.


Subject(s)
Nanomedicine , Virus Diseases , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Nanotechnology , Polymers , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
7.
J Control Release ; 334: 318-326, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343265

ABSTRACT

This « Magnum Opus ¼ emphasizes that serendipity is a corner stone in research. The paths of discovery and innovation often result from the interdisciplinarity of scientific areas that are a priori disconnected from each other. In the 1970s, fundamental discoveries in cell biology led to unexpected advances in galenic pharmacy with the emergence of nanotechnologies for the intracellular delivery of non diffusing molecules. As well, fluorescein-loaded polyacrylamide nanocapsules were shown to deliver this fluorescent agent precisely into cellular lysosomes which represented a seminal observation. However, due to the lack of biodegradability of this carrier polymer, this approach was still far from therapeutic application. The use of cyanoacrylates as surgical glue inspired us to use this material in the design of the first biodegradable nanoparticles for human use. Capable of transporting compounds with anti-tumor activity, these polyalkylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles demonstrated the unexpected property of overcoming multi-drug resistance. This discovery led to the development of a nanomedicine that has completed phase III clinical trials for the treatment of resistant hepatocarcinoma. Going beyond the state-of-the art, a step ahead in the nanomedicine field was the drug « squalenoylation ¼ technology, which represents a shift from the « physical ¼ to the « chemical ¼ encapsulation paradigm. The bioconjugation of anticancer and other drugs to squalene, a natural and biocompatible lipid, enabled a dramatic increase in drug payload, and eliminated the so-called « burst release ¼ of drug: Two major drawbacks commonly associated with drug nanoencapsulation. The drug « squalenoylation ¼ approach resulted in a generic nanomedicine platform with broad pharmacological applications.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cyanoacrylates , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Nanomedicine , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Polymers/therapeutic use
8.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 11(3): 748-787, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343054

ABSTRACT

The host immune system is highly compromised in case of viral infections and relapses are very common. The capacity of the virus to destroy the host cell by liberating its own DNA or RNA and replicating inside the host cell poses challenges in the development of antiviral therapeutics. In recent years, many new technologies have been explored for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of viral infections. Nanotechnology has emerged as one of the most promising technologies on account of its ability to deal with viral diseases in an effective manner, addressing the limitations of traditional antiviral medicines. It has not only helped us to overcome problems related to solubility and toxicity of drugs, but also imparted unique properties to drugs, which in turn has increased their potency and selectivity toward viral cells against the host cells. The initial part of the paper focuses on some important proteins of influenza, Ebola, HIV, herpes, Zika, dengue, and corona virus and those of the host cells important for their entry and replication into the host cells. This is followed by different types of nanomaterials which have served as delivery vehicles for the antiviral drugs. It includes various lipid-based, polymer-based, lipid-polymer hybrid-based, carbon-based, inorganic metal-based, surface-modified, and stimuli-sensitive nanomaterials and their application in antiviral therapeutics. The authors also highlight newer promising treatment approaches like nanotraps, nanorobots, nanobubbles, nanofibers, nanodiamonds, nanovaccines, and mathematical modeling for the future. The paper has been updated with the recent developments in nanotechnology-based approaches in view of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19.Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Carriers , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles , Polymers/chemistry , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Drug Compounding , Humans , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
10.
J Control Release ; 337: 258-284, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320165

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has taken the world by surprise. To date, a worldwide approved treatment remains lacking and hence in the context of rapid viral spread and the growing need for rapid action, drug repurposing has emerged as one of the frontline strategies in the battle against SARS-CoV2. Repurposed drugs currently being evaluated against COVID-19 either tackle the replication and spread of SARS-CoV2 or they aim at controlling hyper-inflammation and the rampaged immune response in severe disease. In both cases, the target for such drugs resides in the lungs, at least during the period where treatment could still provide substantial clinical benefit to the patient. Yet, most of these drugs are administered systemically, questioning the percentage of administered drug that actually reaches the lung and as a consequence, the distribution of the remainder of the dose to off target sites. Inhalation therapy should allow higher concentrations of the drug in the lungs and lower concentrations systemically, hence providing a stronger, more localized action, with reduced adverse effects. Therefore, the nano-reformulation of the repurposed drugs for inhalation is a promising approach for targeted drug delivery to lungs. In this review, we critically analyze, what nanomedicine could and ought to do in the battle against SARS-CoV2. We start by a brief description of SARS-CoV2 structure and pathogenicity and move on to discuss the current limitations of repurposed antiviral and immune-modulating drugs that are being clinically investigated against COVID-19. This account focuses on how nanomedicine could address limitations of current therapeutics, enhancing the efficacy, specificity and safety of such drugs. With the appearance of new variants of SARS-CoV2 and the potential implication on the efficacy of vaccines and diagnostics, the presence of an effective therapeutic solution is inevitable and could be potentially achieved via nano-reformulation. The presence of an inhaled nano-platform capable of delivering antiviral or immunomodulatory drugs should be available as part of the repertoire in the fight against current and future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Nanomedicine , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299446

ABSTRACT

Curcumin (CUR) is a natural substance extracted from turmeric that has antimicrobial properties. Due to its ability to absorb light in the blue spectrum, CUR is also used as a photosensitizer (PS) in antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT). However, CUR is hydrophobic, unstable in solutions, and has low bioavailability, which hinders its clinical use. To circumvent these drawbacks, drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been used. In this review, we summarize the DDSs used to carry CUR and their antimicrobial effect against viruses, bacteria, and fungi, including drug-resistant strains and emergent pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2. The reviewed DDSs include colloidal (micelles, liposomes, nanoemulsions, cyclodextrins, chitosan, and other polymeric nanoparticles), metallic, and mesoporous particles, as well as graphene, quantum dots, and hybrid nanosystems such as films and hydrogels. Free (non-encapsulated) CUR and CUR loaded in DDSs have a broad-spectrum antimicrobial action when used alone or as a PS in aPDT. They also show low cytotoxicity, in vivo biocompatibility, and improved wound healing. Although there are several in vitro and some in vivo investigations describing the nanotechnological aspects and the potential antimicrobial application of CUR-loaded DDSs, clinical trials are not reported and further studies should translate this evidence to the clinical scenarios of infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Curcumin/chemistry , Humans , Micelles , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanoparticles/chemistry
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288899

ABSTRACT

Viral-associated respiratory infectious diseases are one of the most prominent subsets of respiratory failures, known as viral respiratory infections (VRI). VRIs are proceeded by an infection caused by viruses infecting the respiratory system. For the past 100 years, viral associated respiratory epidemics have been the most common cause of infectious disease worldwide. Due to several drawbacks of the current anti-viral treatments, such as drug resistance generation and non-targeting of viral proteins, the development of novel nanotherapeutic or nano-vaccine strategies can be considered essential. Due to their specific physical and biological properties, nanoparticles hold promising opportunities for both anti-viral treatments and vaccines against viral infections. Besides the specific physiological properties of the respiratory system, there is a significant demand for utilizing nano-designs in the production of vaccines or antiviral agents for airway-localized administration. SARS-CoV-2, as an immediate example of respiratory viruses, is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the coronaviridae family. COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, similarly to other members of the coronaviridae. Hence, reviewing the current and past emerging nanotechnology-based medications on similar respiratory viral diseases can identify pathways towards generating novel SARS-CoV-2 nanotherapeutics and/or nano-vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Nanomedicine , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Virus Diseases/pathology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/therapy
13.
Biomaterials ; 275: 120986, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275155

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is an irreparable and life-threatening disease with only limited therapeutic options. The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has caused a sharp rise in the incidence of pulmonary fibrosis owing to SARS-CoV-2 infection-mediated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The considerable oxidative damage caused by locally infiltrated immune cells plays a crucial role in ARDS, suggesting the potential use of antioxidative therapeutics. Here, we report the therapeutic potential of nanoparticles derived from the endogenous antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bile acid, bilirubin (BRNPs), in treating pulmonary fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced mouse model of the disease. Our results demonstrate that BRNPs can effectively reduce clinical signs in mice, as shown by histological, disease index evaluations, and detection of biomarkers. Our findings suggest that BRNPs, with their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, long blood circulation half-life, and preferential accumulation at the inflamed site, are potentially a viable clinical option for preventing Covid-19 infection-associated pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Animals , Bilirubin , Humans , Mice , Nanomedicine , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 20-30, 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260751

ABSTRACT

Chitosan-loaded nanomedicines provide a greater opportunity for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Natural biopolymer chitosan and its derivatives have a large number of proven pharmacological actions like antioxidant, wound healing, immuno-stimulant, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, obesity treatment, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, bone tissue engineering, antifungal, regenerative medicine, anti-diabetic and mucosal adjuvant, etc. which attracted its use in the pharmaceutical industry. As compared to other polysaccharides, chitosan has excellent mucoadhesive characteristics, less viscous, easily modified into the chemical and biological molecule and gel-forming property due to which the drugs retain in the respiratory tract for a longer period of time providing enhanced therapeutic action of the drug. Chitosan-based nanomedicines would have the greatest effect when used to transport poor water soluble drugs, macromolecules like proteins, and peptides through the lungs. In this review, we highlight and discuss the role of chitosan and its nanomedicines in the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases such as pneumonia, asthma, COPD, lung cancer, tuberculosis, and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chitosan/therapeutic use , Drug Carriers/therapeutic use , Nanomedicine , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans
15.
Int J Dermatol ; 60(9): 1047-1052, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 virus-induced pandemic has been the deadliest pandemic to have occurred in two generations, besides HIV/AIDS. Epidemiologists predicted that the SARS-Cov 2 pandemic would not be able to be brought under control until a majority of the world's population had been inoculated with safe and effective vaccines. A world-wide effort to expedite vaccine development was successful. Previous research for vaccines to prevent SARS and MERS, also coronaviruses, was vital to this success. Nanotechnology was essential to this vaccine development. Key elements are presented here to better understand the relationship between nanomedicine and the COVID-19 vaccine development. METHODS: NLM PubMed searches for COVID-19 vaccines, nanotechnology and nanomedicine were done. There were 6911 articles screened, 235 of which were deemed appropriate to this subject and utilized here, together with two landmark nanomedicine texts used to expand understanding of the basic science of nanotechnology. RESULTS: SARS-Cov 2, caused by the COVID-19 virus, was first recognized in China in December of 2019 and was declared as a pandemic in March of 2020. The RNA sequence was identified in January of 2020. Within 4 months of the viral genome being released, over 259 vaccines had been in development. The World Health Organization (WHO) anticipated a vaccine with a 50-80% efficacy to be developed within 1-2 years. Ahead of schedule, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the emergency authorization approval for two mRNA vaccines within 11 month's time. Nanotechnology was the key to the success of these rapidly developed, safe and effective vaccines. A brief review of pertinent basic science principles of nanomedicine are presented. The development of COVID vaccines is reviewed. Future considerations are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Control of the COVID-19 SARS-Cov2 pandemic benefitted from nanomedicine principles used to develop highly effective, yet very safe and relatively inexpensive vaccines. These nanovaccines can be much more easily altered to adjust for viral variants than traditional live or inactivated legacy-type whole virus vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanomedicine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccines, Inactivated
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244038

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, a new member of the Coronaviridae family, officially designated as "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), emerged and spread rapidly. The Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak was accompanied by a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Within the Coronaviridae family, SARS-CoV-2 is considered to be the third most highly pathogenic virus that infects humans, following the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Four major mechanisms are thought to be involved in COVID-19 pathogenesis, including the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) signaling pathway, oxidative stress and cell death, cytokine storm, and endothelial dysfunction. Following virus entry and RAS activation, acute respiratory distress syndrome develops with an oxidative/nitrosative burst. The DNA damage induced by oxidative stress activates poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1), viral macrodomain of non-structural protein 3, poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), and transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 (TRPM2) channel in a sequential manner which results in cell apoptosis or necrosis. In this review, blockers of angiotensin II receptor and/or PARP, PARG, and TRPM2, including vitamin D3, trehalose, tannins, flufenamic and mefenamic acid, and losartan, have been investigated for inhibiting RAS activation and quenching oxidative burst. Moreover, the application of organic and inorganic nanoparticles, including liposomes, dendrimers, quantum dots, and iron oxides, as therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV-2 were fully reviewed. In the present review, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are explained by focusing on molecular mechanisms. Potential therapeutic targets, including the RAS signaling pathway, PARP, PARG, and TRPM2, are also discussed in depth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Nanomedicine/methods , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , GTPase-Activating Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , TRPM Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , TRPM Cation Channels/metabolism , Tannins/pharmacology , Trehalose/pharmacology
18.
Chem Rev ; 121(13): 7398-7467, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243272

ABSTRACT

RNA nanotechnology is the bottom-up self-assembly of nanometer-scale architectures, resembling LEGOs, composed mainly of RNA. The ideal building material should be (1) versatile and controllable in shape and stoichiometry, (2) spontaneously self-assemble, and (3) thermodynamically, chemically, and enzymatically stable with a long shelf life. RNA building blocks exhibit each of the above. RNA is a polynucleic acid, making it a polymer, and its negative-charge prevents nonspecific binding to negatively charged cell membranes. The thermostability makes it suitable for logic gates, resistive memory, sensor set-ups, and NEM devices. RNA can be designed and manipulated with a level of simplicity of DNA while displaying versatile structure and enzyme activity of proteins. RNA can fold into single-stranded loops or bulges to serve as mounting dovetails for intermolecular or domain interactions without external linking dowels. RNA nanoparticles display rubber- and amoeba-like properties and are stretchable and shrinkable through multiple repeats, leading to enhanced tumor targeting and fast renal excretion to reduce toxicities. It was predicted in 2014 that RNA would be the third milestone in pharmaceutical drug development. The recent approval of several RNA drugs and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines by FDA suggests that this milestone is being realized. Here, we review the unique properties of RNA nanotechnology, summarize its recent advancements, describe its distinct attributes inside or outside the body and discuss potential applications in nanotechnology, medicine, and material science.


Subject(s)
Nanomedicine/methods , Neoplasms/drug therapy , RNA Stability , RNA/chemistry , Animals , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Thermodynamics
19.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 16(14): 1203-1218, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229138

ABSTRACT

The most effective COVID-19 vaccines, to date, utilize nanotechnology to deliver immunostimulatory mRNA. However, their high cost equates to low affordability. Total nano-vaccine purchases per capita and their proportion within the total vaccine lots have increased directly with the GDP per capita of countries. While three out of four COVID-19 vaccines procured by wealthy countries by the end of 2020 were nano-vaccines, this amounted to only one in ten for middle-income countries and nil for the low-income countries. Meanwhile, economic gains of saving lives with nano-vaccines in USA translate to large costs in middle-/low-income countries. It is discussed how nanomedicine can contribute to shrinking this gap between rich and poor instead of becoming an exquisite technology for the privileged. Two basic routes are outlined: (1) the use of qualitative contextual analyses to endorse R&D that positively affects the sociocultural climate; (2) challenging the commercial, competitive realities wherein scientific innovation of the day operates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Nanomedicine , Poverty , Humans
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