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1.
Theranostics ; 12(14): 6422-6436, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203053

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine outperforms other kinds of cancer immunotherapy due to its high response rates, easy preparation, and wide applicability, which is considered as one of the most promising forms of next-generation cancer therapies. However, the inherent instability and insufficient protein expression duration of mRNA limit the efficacy and widespread application of the vaccine. Methods: Here, we first tested the possibility of a novel circular RNA (circRNA) platform for protein expression and compare its duration with linear RNA. Then, we developed a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) system for circRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo. Next, the innate and adaptive immune response of circRNA-LNP complex was evaluated in vivo. The anti-tumor efficacy of circRNA-LNP was further confirmed in three tumor models. Finally, the possibility of combination therapy with circRNA-LNP and adoptive cell transfer therapy was further investigated in a late-stage tumor model. Results: We successfully increased the stability of the RNA vaccine by circularizing the linear RNA molecules to form highly stable circRNA molecules which exhibited durable protein expression ability. By encapsulating the antigen-coding circRNA in LNP enabling in vivo expression, we established a novel circRNA vaccine platform, which was capable of triggering robust innate and adaptive immune activation and showed superior anti-tumor efficacy in multiple mouse tumor models. Conclusions: Overall, our circRNA vaccine platform provides a novel prospect for the development of cancer RNA vaccines in a wide range of hard-to-treat malignancies.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Animals , Liposomes , Mice , Neoplasms/therapy , RNA/genetics , RNA, Circular/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
2.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 2296-2319, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187331

ABSTRACT

The emerging cell membrane (CM)-camouflaged poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) (CM@PLGA NPs) have witnessed tremendous developments since coming to the limelight. Donning a novel membrane coat on traditional PLGA carriers enables combining the strengths of PLGA with cell-like behavior, including inherently interacting with the surrounding environment. Thereby, the in vivo defects of PLGA (such as drug leakage and poor specific distribution) can be overcome, its therapeutic potential can be amplified, and additional novel functions beyond drug delivery can be conferred. To elucidate the development and promote the clinical transformation of CM@PLGA NPs, the commonly used anucleate and eukaryotic CMs have been described first. Then, CM engineering strategies, such as genetic and nongenetic engineering methods and hybrid membrane technology, have been discussed. The reviewed CM engineering technologies are expected to enrich the functions of CM@PLGA for diverse therapeutic purposes. Third, this article highlights the therapeutic and diagnostic applications and action mechanisms of PLGA biomimetic systems for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, virus infection, and eye diseases. Finally, future expectations and challenges are spotlighted in the concept of translational medicine.


Subject(s)
Biomimetics , Nanoparticles , Cell Membrane , Drug Carriers
3.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol ; 14(6): e1809, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2170335

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid therapeutics can be used to control virtually every aspect of cell behavior and therefore have significant potential to treat genetic disorders, infectious diseases, and cancer. However, while clinically approved to treat a small number of diseases, the full potential of nucleic acid therapeutics is hampered by inefficient delivery. Nucleic acids are large, highly charged biomolecules that are sensitive to degradation and so the approaches to deliver these molecules differ significantly from traditional small molecule drugs. Current studies suggest less than 1% of the injected nucleic acid dose is delivered to the target cell in an active form. This inefficient delivery increases costs and limits their use to applications where a small amount of nucleic acid is sufficient. In this review, we focus on two of the major barriers to efficient nucleic acid delivery: (1) delivery to the target cell and (2) transport to the subcellular compartment where the nucleic acids are therapeutically active. We explore how nanoparticles can be modified with targeting ligands to increase accumulation in specific cells, and how the composition of the nanoparticle can be engineered to manipulate or disrupt cellular membranes and facilitate delivery to the optimal subcellular compartments. Finally, we highlight how with intelligent material design, nanoparticle delivery systems have been developed to deliver nucleic acids that silence aberrant genes, correct genetic mutations, and act as both therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines. This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Cells at the Nanoscale Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Lipid-Based Structures.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids , Vaccines , Humans , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use , Genetic Therapy/methods , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanomedicine , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy
4.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol ; 14(2): e1763, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173486

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is a common but serious infectious disease, and is the sixth leading cause for death. The foreign pathogens such as viruses, fungi, and bacteria establish an inflammation response after interaction with lung, leading to the filling of bronchioles and alveoli with fluids. Although the pharmacotherapies have shown their great effectiveness to combat pathogens, advanced methods are under developing to treat complicated cases such as virus-infection and lung inflammation or acute lung injury (ALI). The inflammation modulation nanoparticles (NPs) can effectively suppress immune cells and inhibit inflammatory molecules in the lung site, and thereby alleviate pneumonia and ALI. In this review, the pathological inflammatory microenvironments in pneumonia, which are instructive for the design of biomaterials therapy, are summarized. The focus is then paid to the inflammation-modulating NPs that modulate the inflammatory cells, cytokines and chemokines, and microenvironments of pneumonia for better therapeutic effects. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Respiratory Disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Nanoparticles , Pneumonia , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lung , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/pathology
5.
Virol Sin ; 37(5): 731-739, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150803

ABSTRACT

Latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may be reactivated to cause herpes zoster, which affects one in three people during their lifetime. The currently available subunit vaccine Shingrix™ is superior to the attenuated vaccine Zostavax® in terms of both safety and efficacy, but the supply of its key adjuvant component QS21 is limited. With ionizable lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) that were recently approved by the FDA for COVID-19 mRNA vaccines as carriers, and oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODNs) approved by the FDA for a subunit hepatitis B vaccine as immunostimulators, we developed a LNP vaccine encapsulating VZV-glycoprotein E (gE) and CpG ODN, and compared its immunogenicity with Shingrix™ in C57BL/6J mice. The results showed that the LNP vaccine induced comparable levels of gE-specific IgG antibodies to Shingrix™ as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most importantly, the LNP vaccine induced comparable levels of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) that plays decisive roles in the efficacy of zoster vaccines to Shingrix™ in a VZV-primed mouse model that was adopted for preclinical studies of Shingrix™. Number of IL-2 and IFN-γ secreting splenocytes and proportion of T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine-expressing CD4+ T cells in LNP-CpG-adjuvanted VZV-gE vaccinated mice were similar to that of Shingrix™ boosted mice. All of the components in this LNP vaccine can be artificially and economically synthesized in large quantities, indicating the potential of LNP-CpG-adjuvanted VZV-gE as a more cost-effective zoster vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster Vaccine , Herpes Zoster , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Immunoglobulin G , Interleukin-2 , Liposomes , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nanoparticles , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, Subunit
6.
Sci Adv ; 8(47): eabo1827, 2022 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137352

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic underlines the urgent need for effective mRNA vaccines. However, current understanding of the immunological outcomes of mRNA vaccines formulated under different nanoplatforms is insufficient. Here, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 receptor binding domain mRNA delivered via lipid nanoparticle (LNP), cationic nanoemulsion (CNE), and cationic liposome (Lipo) was constructed. Results demonstrated that the structural and biochemical characteristics of nanoparticles shaped their tissue dissemination, cellular uptake, and intracellular trafficking, which eventually determined the activation of antiviral humoral and cellular immunity. Specifically, LNP was mainly internalized by myocyte and subsequently circumvented lysosome degradation, giving rise to humoral-biased immune responses. Meanwhile, CNE and Lipo induced cellular-preferred immunity, which was respectively attributed to the better lysosomal escape in dendritic cells and the superior biodistribution in secondary lymphoid organs. Overall, this study may guide the design and clinical use of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Messenger/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Tissue Distribution , Immunity, Cellular
7.
RNA Biol ; 19(1): 1256-1275, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2134467

ABSTRACT

From the early days of research on RNA biology and biochemistry, there was an interest to utilize this knowledge and RNA itself for therapeutic applications. Today, we have a series of oligonucleotide therapeutics on the market and many more in clinical trials. These drugs - exploit different chemistries of oligonucleotides, such as modified DNAs and RNAs, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) or phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs), and different mechanisms of action, such as RNA interference (RNAi), targeted RNA degradation, splicing modulation, gene expression and modification. Despite major successes e.g. mRNA vaccines developed against SARS-CoV-2 to control COVID-19 pandemic, development of therapies for other diseases is still limited by inefficient delivery of oligonucleotides to specific tissues and organs and often prohibitive costs for the final drug. This is even more critical when targeting multifactorial disorders and patient-specific biological variations. In this review, we will present the evolution of complexity of oligonucleotide delivery methods with focus on increasing complexity of formulations from gymnotic delivery to bioconjugates and to lipid nanoparticles in respect to developments that will enable application of therapeutic oligonucleotides as drugs in personalized therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , Oligonucleotides/genetics , Oligonucleotides/therapeutic use , Biomimetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , RNA
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(46): 52334-52346, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117028

ABSTRACT

The high antibacterial and antiviral performance of synthesized copper(I) oxide (Cu2O) incorporated in zeolite nanoparticles (Cu-Z) was determined. Various Cu contents (1-9 wt %) in solutions were loaded in the zeolite matrix under neutral conditions at room temperature. All synthesized Cu-Z nanoparticles showed high selectivity of the cuprous oxide, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. An advantage of the prepared Cu-Z over the pristine Cu2O nanoparticles was its high thermal stability. The 7 and 9 wt % Cu contents (07Cu-Z and 09Cu-Z) exhibited the best activities to deactivate Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The film coated with 07Cu-Z nanoparticles also had high antiviral activities against porcine coronavirus (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, PEDV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Specifically, the 07Cu-Z-coated film could reduce 99.93% of PEDV and 99.94% of SARS-CoV-2 viruses in 5 min of contact time, which were higher efficacies and faster than those of any previously reported works. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 virus film was coated on a low-cost PET or PVC film. A very small amount of cuprous oxide in zeolite was used to fabricate the antivirus film; therefore, the film was more transparent (79.4% transparency) than the cuprous oxide film or other commercial products. The toxicity of 07Cu-Z nanoparticles was determined by a toxicity test on zebrafish embryo and a skin irritation test to reconstruct a human epidermis (RhE) model. It was found that the impact on the aquatic environment and human skin was lower than that of the pristine Cu2O.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Zeolites , Humans , Swine , Animals , Zeolites/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Oxides , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Zebrafish , Copper/pharmacology , Copper/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
9.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 83: 105394, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115544

ABSTRACT

We previously reported that delivery of nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the lungs of mice synergistically increased IL-6 production and inflammation, and male mice were more susceptible than female mice. The primary goal of this study was to utilize an in vitro human lung epithelial cell model (BEAS-2B) to investigate the intracellular signaling mechanisms that mediate IL-6 production by LPS and NiNPs. We also investigated the effect of sex hormones on NiNP and LPS-induced IL-6 production in vitro. LPS and NiNPs synergistically induced IL-6 mRNA and protein in BEAS-2B cells. TPCA-1, a dual inhibitor of IKK-2 and STAT3, blocked the synergistic increase in IL-6 caused by LPS and NiNPs, abolished STAT3 activation, and reduced C/EBPß. Conversely, SC144, an inhibitor of the gp130 component of the IL-6 receptor, enhanced IL-6 production induced by LPS and NiNPs. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with sex hormones (17ß-estradiol, progesterone, or testosterone) or the anti-oxidant NAC, had no effect on IL-6 induction by LPS and NiNPs. These data suggest that LPS and NiNPs induce IL-6 via STAT3 and C/EBPß in BEAS-2B cells. While BEAS-2B cells are a suitable model to study mechanisms of IL-6 production, they do not appear to be suitable for studying the effect of sex hormones.


Subject(s)
Lipopolysaccharides , Nanoparticles , Animals , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/metabolism , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Nickel , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism
10.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(12): 1141-1159, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115208

ABSTRACT

Considerable efforts have been made on the development of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) for delivering of nucleic acids in LNP-based medicines, including a first-ever short interfering RNA (siRNA) medicine, Onpattro, and the mRNA vaccines against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which have been approved and are currently in use worldwide. The successful rational design of ionizable cationic lipids was a major breakthrough that dramatically increased delivery efficiency in this field. The LNPs would be expected to be useful as a platform technology for the delivery of various therapeutic modalities for genome editing and even for undiscovered therapeutic mechanisms. In this review, the current progress of my research, including the molecular design of pH-sensitive cationic lipids, their applications for various tissues and cell types, and for delivering various macromolecules, including siRNA, antisense oligonucleotide, mRNA, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) system will be described. Mechanistic studies regarding relationships between the physicochemical properties of LNPs, drug delivery, and biosafety are also summarized. Furthermore, current issues that need to be addressed for next generation drug delivery systems are discussed.


Subject(s)
Drug Carriers/chemistry , Lipids/chemistry , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cations/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , RNA, Guide/chemistry , RNA, Guide/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/chemistry , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , /metabolism
11.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109921

ABSTRACT

Adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) molecules on negatively charged polystyrene microparticles was studied using the dynamic light scattering, the electrophoretic and the solution depletion methods involving atomic force microscopy. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of the albumin comprising the hydrodynamic diameter, the zeta potential and the isoelectric point were determined as a function of pH. Analogous characteristics of the polymer particles were acquired, including their size and zeta potential. The formation of albumin corona on the particles was investigated in situ by electrophoretic mobility measurements. The size, stability and electrokinetic properties of the particles with the corona were also determined. The particle diameter was equal to 125 nm, which coincides with the size of the SARS-CoV-2 virion. The isoelectric point of the particles appeared at a pH of 5. The deposition kinetics of the particles was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) under diffusion and by quartz microbalance (QCM) under flow conditions. It was shown that the deposition rate at a gold sensor abruptly vanished with pH following the decrease in the zeta potential of the particles. It is postulated that the acquired results can be used as useful reference systems mimicking virus adsorption on abiotic surfaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Adsorption , Serum Albumin, Human/chemistry , Virion , Surface Properties
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18746, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106473

ABSTRACT

Nanomaterials are prospective candidates for the elimination of viruses due to their multimodal mechanisms of action. Here, we tested the antiviral potential of a largely unexplored nanoparticle of cerium dioxide (CeO2). Two nano-CeO2 with opposing surface charge, (+) and (-), were assessed for their capability to decrease the plaque forming units (PFU) of four enveloped and two non-enveloped viruses during 1-h exposure. Statistically significant antiviral activity towards enveloped coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus was registered already at 20 mg Ce/l. For other two enveloped viruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus and bacteriophage φ6, antiviral activity was evidenced at 200 mg Ce/l. As expected, the sensitivity of non-enveloped viruses towards nano-CeO2 was significantly lower. EMCV picornavirus showed no decrease in PFU until the highest tested concentration, 2000 mg Ce/l and MS2 bacteriophage showed slight non-monotonic response to high concentrations of nano-CeO2(-). Parallel testing of antiviral activity of Ce3+ ions and SiO2 nanoparticles allows to conclude that nano-CeO2 activity was neither due to released Ce-ions nor nonspecific effects of nanoparticulates. Moreover, we evidenced higher antiviral efficacy of nano-CeO2 compared with Ag nanoparticles. This result along with low antibacterial activity and non-existent cytotoxicity of nano-CeO2 allow us to propose CeO2 nanoparticles for specific antiviral applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerium , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanoparticles , Humans , Silicon Dioxide , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Silver/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cerium/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/toxicity
13.
ACS Nano ; 16(7): 10566-10580, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106345

ABSTRACT

Intravenously infusible nanoparticles to control bleeding have shown promise in rodents, but translation into preclinical models has been challenging as many of these nanoparticle approaches have resulted in infusion responses and adverse outcomes in large animal trauma models. We developed a hemostatic nanoparticle technology that was screened to avoid one component of the infusion response: complement activation. We administered these hemostatic nanoparticles, control nanoparticles, or saline volume controls in a porcine polytrauma model. While the hemostatic nanoparticles promoted clotting as marked by a decrease in prothrombin time and both the hemostatic nanoparticles and controls did not active complement, in a subset of the animals, hard thrombi were found in uninjured tissues in both the hemostatic and control nanoparticle groups. Using data science methods that allow one to work across heterogeneous data sets, we found that the presence of these thrombi correlated with changes in IL-6, INF-alpha, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. While these findings might suggest that this formulation would not be a safe one for translation for trauma, they provide guidance for developing screening tools to make nanoparticle formulations in the complex milieux of trauma as well as for therapeutic interventions more broadly. This is important as we look to translate intravenously administered nanoparticle formulations for therapies, particularly considering the vascular changes seen in a subset of patients following COVID-19. We need to understand adverse events like thrombi more completely and screen for these events early to make nanomaterials as safe and effective as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemostatics , Nanoparticles , Thrombosis , Swine , Animals , Cytokines , Polyesters , Disease Models, Animal , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Polyethylene Glycols
14.
Science ; 376(6594): 680-681, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103175

ABSTRACT

New delivery systems aim to increase vaccine potency and reduce side effects.


Subject(s)
Lipids , Nanoparticles , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/adverse effects , Nanoparticles/chemistry , /chemistry
15.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099352

ABSTRACT

Since the 2019-nCoV outbreak was first reported, hundreds of millions of people all over the world have been infected. There is no doubt that improving the cure rate of 2019-nCoV is one of the most effective means to deal with the current serious epidemic. At present, Remdesivir (RDV) has been clinically proven to be effective in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. However, the uncertain side effects make it important to reduce the use of drugs while ensuring the self-healing effect. We report an approach here with targeted therapy for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses illness. In this study, mesoporous silica was used as the carrier of RDV, the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) aptamer was hybridized with the complementary chain, and the double-stranded DNA was combined with gold nanoparticles as the gates of mesoporous silica pores. When the RDV-loaded mesoporous silica is incubated with the N protein, aptamer with gold nanoparticles dissociate from the complementary DNA oligonucleotide on the mesoporous silica surface and bind to the N protein. The releasing of RDV was determined by detecting the UV-vis absorption peak of RDV in the solution. These results show that the RDV delivery system designed in this work has potential clinical application for the treatment of 2019-nCoV.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanoparticles , Humans , Silicon Dioxide , SARS-CoV-2 , Gold , COVID-19/drug therapy
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18155, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096794

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) spreads an extremely infectious disease where there is no specific treatment. COVID-19 virus had a rapid and unexpected spread rate which resulted in critical difficulties for public health and unprecedented daily life disruption. Thus, accurate, rapid, and early diagnosis of COVID-19 virus is critical to maintain public health safety. A graphite oxide-based field-effect transistor (GO-FET) was fabricated and functionalized with COVID-19 antibody for the purpose of real-time detection of COVID-19 spike protein antigen. Thermal evaporation process was used to deposit the gold electrodes on the surface of the sensor substrate. Graphite oxide channel was placed between the gold electrodes. Bimetallic nanoparticles of platinum and palladium were generated via an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible system by sputtering and inert-gas condensation technique. The biosensor graphite oxide channel was immobilized with specific antibodies against the COVID-19 spike protein to achieve selectivity and specificity. This technique uses the attractive semiconductor characteristics of the graphite oxide-based materials resulting in highly specific and sensitive detection of COVID-19 spike protein. The GO-FET biosensor was decorated with bimetallic nanoparticles of platinum and palladium to investigate the improvement in the sensor sensitivity. The in-house developed biosensor limit of detection (LOD) is 1 fg/mL of COVID-19 spike antigen in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, magnetic labelled SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody were studied to investigate any enhancement in the sensor performance. The results indicate the successful fabrication of a promising field effect transistor biosensor for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Nanoparticles , Humans , Oxides , Platinum , Transistors, Electronic , Palladium , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gold
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18071, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087317

ABSTRACT

Lipid based nanocarriers are one of the most effective drug delivery systems that is evident from the recent COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. The main objective of this study was to evaluate toxicity of six lipid based formulations with three surface charges-anionic, neutral or cationic, to establish certified reference materials (CRMs) for liposomes and siRNA loaded lipid nanoparticles (LNP-siRNA). Cytotoxicity was assessed by a proliferation assay in adherent and non-adherent cell lines. High concentration of three LNP-siRNAs did not affect viability of suspension cells and LNP-siRNAs were non-toxic to adherent cells at conventionally used concentration. Systematic evaluation using multiple vials and repeated test runs of three liposomes and three LNP-siRNA formulations showed no toxicity in HL60 and A549 cells up to 128 and 16 µg/mL, respectively. Extended treatment and low concentration of LNPs did not affect the viability of suspension cells and adherent cells at 96 h. Interestingly, 80% of A549 and HL60 cells in 3D conditions were viable when treated with cationic LNP-siRNA for 48 h. Taken together, anionic, cationic and neutral lipid formulations were non-toxic to cells and may be explored further in order to develop them as drug carriers.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , Liposomes , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Lipids/toxicity , Cations
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6309, 2022 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087203

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus vaccines that are highly effective against current and anticipated SARS-CoV-2 variants are needed to control COVID-19. We previously reported a receptor-binding domain (RBD)-sortase A-conjugated ferritin nanoparticle (scNP) vaccine that induced neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and pre-emergent sarbecoviruses and protected non-human primates (NHPs) from SARS-CoV-2 WA-1 infection. Here, we find the RBD-scNP induced neutralizing antibodies in NHPs against pseudoviruses of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 variants including 614G, Beta, Delta, Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/BA.5, and a designed variant with escape mutations, PMS20. Adjuvant studies demonstrate variant neutralization titers are highest with 3M-052-aqueous formulation (AF). Immunization twice with RBD-scNPs protect NHPs from SARS-CoV-2 WA-1, Beta, and Delta variant challenge, and protect mice from challenges of SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant and two other heterologous sarbecoviruses. These results demonstrate the ability of RBD-scNPs to induce broad neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants and to protect animals from multiple different SARS-related viruses. Such a vaccine could provide broad immunity to SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , SARS Virus , Viral Vaccines , Mice , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , Mice, Inbred BALB C , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Ferritins
20.
ACS Nano ; 16(11): 18936-18950, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087127

ABSTRACT

Ionizable cationic lipid-containing lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are the most clinically advanced non-viral gene delivery platforms, holding great potential for gene therapeutics. This is exemplified by the two COVID-19 vaccines employing mRNA-LNP technology from Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna. Herein, we develop a chemical library of ionizable cationic lipids through a one-step chemical-biological enzyme-catalyzed esterification method, and the synthesized ionizable lipids were further prepared to be LNPs for mRNA delivery. Through orthogonal design of experiment methodology screening, the top-performing AA3-DLin LNPs show outstanding mRNA delivery efficacy and long-term storage capability. Furthermore, the AA3-DLin LNP COVID-19 vaccines encapsulating SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNAs successfully induced strong immunogenicity in a BALB/c mouse model demonstrated by the antibody titers, virus challenge, and T cell immune response studies. The developed AA3-DLin LNPs are an excellent mRNA delivery platform, and this study provides an overall perspective of the ionizable cationic lipids, from aspects of lipid design, synthesis, screening, optimization, fabrication, characterization, and application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Mice , Animals , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines , Lipids/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Liposomes , Cations , Catalysis
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