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1.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 538, 2022 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196312

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticles have now long demonstrated capabilities that make them attractive to use in biology and medicine. Some of them, such as lipid nanoparticles (SARS-CoV-2 vaccines) or metallic nanoparticles (contrast agents) are already approved for their use in the clinic. However, considering the constantly growing body of different formulations and the huge research around nanomaterials the number of candidates reaching clinical trials or being commercialized is minimal. The reasons behind being related to the "synthetic" and "foreign" character of their surface. Typically, nanomaterials aiming to develop a function or deliver a cargo locally, fail by showing strong off-target accumulation and generation of adverse responses, which is connected to their strong recognition by immune phagocytes primarily. Therefore, rendering in negligible numbers of nanoparticles developing their intended function. While a wide range of coatings has been applied to avoid certain interactions with the surrounding milieu, the issues remained. Taking advantage of the natural cell membranes, in an approach that resembles a cell transfer, the use of cell-derived surfaces has risen as an alternative to artificial coatings or encapsulation methods. Biomimetic technologies are based on the use of isolated natural components to provide autologous properties to the nanoparticle or cargo being encapsulated, thus, improving their therapeutic behavior. The main goal is to replicate the (bio)-physical properties and functionalities of the source cell and tissue, not only providing a stealthy character to the core but also taking advantage of homotypic properties, that could prove relevant for targeted strategies. Such biomimetic formulations have the potential to overcome the main issues of approaches to provide specific features and identities synthetically. In this review, we provide insight into the challenges of nano-biointerfaces for drug delivery; and the main applications of biomimetic materials derived from specific cell types, focusing on the unique strengths of the fabrication of novel nanotherapeutics in cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Biomimetic Materials , COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Humans , Biomimetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Drug Delivery Systems , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism
2.
ACS Nano ; 16(7): 10566-10580, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106345

ABSTRACT

Intravenously infusible nanoparticles to control bleeding have shown promise in rodents, but translation into preclinical models has been challenging as many of these nanoparticle approaches have resulted in infusion responses and adverse outcomes in large animal trauma models. We developed a hemostatic nanoparticle technology that was screened to avoid one component of the infusion response: complement activation. We administered these hemostatic nanoparticles, control nanoparticles, or saline volume controls in a porcine polytrauma model. While the hemostatic nanoparticles promoted clotting as marked by a decrease in prothrombin time and both the hemostatic nanoparticles and controls did not active complement, in a subset of the animals, hard thrombi were found in uninjured tissues in both the hemostatic and control nanoparticle groups. Using data science methods that allow one to work across heterogeneous data sets, we found that the presence of these thrombi correlated with changes in IL-6, INF-alpha, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. While these findings might suggest that this formulation would not be a safe one for translation for trauma, they provide guidance for developing screening tools to make nanoparticle formulations in the complex milieux of trauma as well as for therapeutic interventions more broadly. This is important as we look to translate intravenously administered nanoparticle formulations for therapies, particularly considering the vascular changes seen in a subset of patients following COVID-19. We need to understand adverse events like thrombi more completely and screen for these events early to make nanomaterials as safe and effective as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemostatics , Nanoparticles , Thrombosis , Swine , Animals , Cytokines , Polyesters , Disease Models, Animal , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Polyethylene Glycols
3.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 440, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064811

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to COVID-19 and has become a pandemic worldwide with mortality of millions. Nanotechnology can be used to deliver antiviral medicines or other types of viral reproduction-inhibiting medications. At various steps of viral infection, nanotechnology could suggest practical solutions for usage in the fight against viral infection. Nanotechnology-based approaches can help in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nanoparticles can play an essential role in progressing SARS-CoV-2 treatment and vaccine production in efficacy and safety. Nanocarriers have increased the speed of vaccine development and the efficiency of vaccines. As a result, the increased investigation into nanoparticles as nano-delivery systems and nanotherapeutics in viral infection, and the development of new and effective methods are essential for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this article, we compare the attributes of several nanoparticles and evaluate their capability to create novel vaccines and treatment methods against different types of viral diseases, especially the SARS-CoV-2 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Nanoparticles , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Surg ; 104: 106818, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061278

ABSTRACT

Once the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Infectious Disease-19) outbreak to be pandemic, massive efforts have been launched by researchers around the globe to combat this emerging infectious disease. Strategies that must be investigated such as expanding testing capabilities, developing effective medicines, as well as developing safe and effective vaccines for COVID-19 disease that produce long-lasting immunity to human system. Now-a-days, bio-sensing, medication delivery, imaging, and antimicrobial treatment are just a few of the medical applications for nanoparticles (NPs). Since the early 1990s, nanoparticle drug delivery methods have been employed in clinical trials. Since then, the discipline of nanomedicine has evolved in tandem with expanding technological demands to better medicinal delivery. Newer generations of NPs have emerged in recent decades that are capable of performing additional delivery tasks, allowing for therapy via novel therapeutic modalities. Many of these next generation NPs and associated products have entered clinical trials and have been approved for diverse indications in the present clinical environment. For systemic applications, NPs or nanomedicine-based drug delivery systems have substantial benefits over their non-formulated and free drug counterparts. Nanoparticle systems, for example, are capable of delivering medicines and treating parts of the body that are inaccessible to existing delivery systems. As a result, NPs medication delivery is one of the most studied preclinical and clinical systems. NPs-based vaccines delivering SARS-CoV-2 antigens will play an increasingly important role in prolonging or improving COVID-19 vaccination outcomes. This review provides insights about employing NPs-based drug delivery systems for the treatment of COVID-19 to increase the bioavailability of current drugs, reducing their toxicity, and to increase their efficiency. This article also exhibits their capability and efficacy, and highlighting the future aspects and challenges on nanoparticle products in clinical trials of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use
5.
ACS Nano ; 16(7): 10566-10580, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931306

ABSTRACT

Intravenously infusible nanoparticles to control bleeding have shown promise in rodents, but translation into preclinical models has been challenging as many of these nanoparticle approaches have resulted in infusion responses and adverse outcomes in large animal trauma models. We developed a hemostatic nanoparticle technology that was screened to avoid one component of the infusion response: complement activation. We administered these hemostatic nanoparticles, control nanoparticles, or saline volume controls in a porcine polytrauma model. While the hemostatic nanoparticles promoted clotting as marked by a decrease in prothrombin time and both the hemostatic nanoparticles and controls did not active complement, in a subset of the animals, hard thrombi were found in uninjured tissues in both the hemostatic and control nanoparticle groups. Using data science methods that allow one to work across heterogeneous data sets, we found that the presence of these thrombi correlated with changes in IL-6, INF-alpha, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. While these findings might suggest that this formulation would not be a safe one for translation for trauma, they provide guidance for developing screening tools to make nanoparticle formulations in the complex milieux of trauma as well as for therapeutic interventions more broadly. This is important as we look to translate intravenously administered nanoparticle formulations for therapies, particularly considering the vascular changes seen in a subset of patients following COVID-19. We need to understand adverse events like thrombi more completely and screen for these events early to make nanomaterials as safe and effective as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemostatics , Nanoparticles , Thrombosis , Swine , Animals , Cytokines , Polyesters , Disease Models, Animal , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Polyethylene Glycols
6.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(6): 570-576, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900493

ABSTRACT

Several vaccines against COVID-19 use nanoparticles to protect the antigen cargo (either proteins or nucleic acids), increase the immunogenicity and ultimately the efficacy. The characterization of these nanomedicines is challenging due to their intrinsic complexity and requires the use of multidisciplinary techniques and competencies. The accurate characterization of nanovaccines can be conceptualized as a combination of physicochemical, immunological and toxicological assays. This will help to address key challenges in the preclinical characterization, will guide the rapid development of safe and effective vaccines for current and future health crises, and will streamline the regulatory process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Vaccines/chemistry
7.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 8(5): 1763-1790, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795855

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone (DEX) has been widely used to treat a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, allergies, ocular disorders, cancer, and, more recently, COVID-19. However, DEX usage is often restricted in the clinic due to its poor water solubility. When administered through a systemic route, it can elicit severe side effects, such as hypertension, peptic ulcers, hyperglycemia, and hydro-electrolytic disorders. There is currently much interest in developing efficient DEX-loaded nanoformulations that ameliorate adverse disease effects inhibiting advancements in scientific research. Various nanoparticles have been developed to selectively deliver drugs without destroying healthy cells or organs in recent years. In the present review, we have summarized some of the most attractive applications of DEX-loaded delivery systems, including liposomes, polymers, hydrogels, nanofibers, silica, calcium phosphate, and hydroxyapatite. This review provides our readers with a broad spectrum of nanomedicine approaches to deliver DEX safely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Nanoparticles , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use
9.
ACS Nano ; 15(2): 2738-2752, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036015

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus resulted in economic losses and threatened human health worldwide. The pandemic highlights an urgent need for a stable, easily produced, and effective vaccine. SARS-CoV-2 uses the spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) to bind its cognate receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and initiate membrane fusion. Thus, the RBD is an ideal target for vaccine development. In this study, we designed three different RBD-conjugated nanoparticle vaccine candidates, namely, RBD-Ferritin (24-mer), RBD-mi3 (60-mer), and RBD-I53-50 (120-mer), via covalent conjugation using the SpyTag-SpyCatcher system. When mice were immunized with the RBD-conjugated nanoparticles (NPs) in conjunction with the AddaVax or Sigma Adjuvant System, the resulting antisera exhibited 8- to 120-fold greater neutralizing activity against both a pseudovirus and the authentic virus than those of mice immunized with monomeric RBD. Most importantly, sera from mice immunized with RBD-conjugated NPs more efficiently blocked the binding of RBD to ACE2 in vitro, further corroborating the promising immunization effect. Additionally, the vaccine has distinct advantages in terms of a relatively simple scale-up and flexible assembly. These results illustrate that the SARS-CoV-2 RBD-conjugated nanoparticles developed in this study are a competitive vaccine candidate and that the carrier nanoparticles could be adopted as a universal platform for a future vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells
10.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(7): 5325-5338, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995973

ABSTRACT

In novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the increased frequency and overactivation of T helper (Th) 17 cells and subsequent production of large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines result in hyperinflammation and disease progression. The current study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of nanocurcumin on the frequency and responses of Th17 cells in mild and severe COVID-19 patients. In this study, 40 severe COVID-19 intensive care unit-admitted patients and 40 patients in mild condition were included. The frequency of Th17 cells, the messenger RNA expression of Th17 cell-related factors (RAR-related orphan receptor γt, interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-23, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and the serum levels of cytokines were measured in both nanocurcumin and placebo-treated groups before and after treatment. A significant decrease in the number of Th17 cells, downregulation of Th17 cell-related factors, and decreased levels of Th17 cell-related cytokines were found in mild and severe COVID-19 patients treated by nanocurcumin compared to the placebo group. Moreover, the abovementioned parameters were significantly decreased in the nanocurcumin-treated group after treatment versus before treatment. Curcumin could reduce the frequency of Th17 cells and their related inflammatory factors in both mild and severe COVID-19 patients. Hence, it could be considered as a potential modulatory compound in improving the patient's inflammatory condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Th17 Cells/drug effects , Adult , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/virology , Th17 Cells/metabolism
11.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 15(29): 2883-2894, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949049

ABSTRACT

The discovery of stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and their agonists as primary components that link antiviral innate and adaptive immunity has motivated growing research on STING agonist-mediated immunotherapy and vaccine development. To overcome the delivery challenge in shuttling highly polar STING agonists, typically in the form of cyclic dinucleotides, to target cells and to STING proteins in cellular cytosol, numerous nanoformulation strategies have been implemented for effective STING activation. While many STING-activating nanoparticles are developed to enhance anticancer immunotherapy, their adoption as vaccine adjuvant has vastly propelled antiviral vaccination efforts against challenging public health threats, including HIV, influenza and coronaviruses. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic that has thrusted vaccine development into the public spotlight, this review highlights advances in nanomedicinal STING agonist delivery with an emphasis on their applications in antiviral vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Pandemics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy/trends , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/drug effects
12.
Nanoscale ; 12(47): 23959-23966, 2020 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947558

ABSTRACT

Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) formulations of nucleic acid are leading vaccine candidates for COVID-19, and enabled the first approved RNAi therapeutic, Onpattro. LNPs are composed of ionizable cationic lipids, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipids, and are produced using rapid-mixing techniques. These procedures involve dissolution of the lipid components in an organic phase and the nucleic acid in an acidic aqueous buffer (pH 4). These solutions are then combined using a continuous mixing device such as a T-mixer or microfluidic device. In this mixing step, particle formation and nucleic acid entrapment occur. Previous work from our group has shown that, in the absence of nucleic acid, the particles formed at pH 4 are vesicular in structure, a portion of these particles are converted to electron-dense structures in the presence of nucleic acid, and the proportion of electron-dense structures increases with nucleic acid content. What remained unclear from previous work was the mechanism by which vesicles form electron-dense structures. In this study, we use cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering to show that efficient siRNA entrapment occurs in the absence of ethanol (contrary to the established paradigm), and suggest that nucleic acid entrapment occurs through inversion of preformed vesicles. We also leverage this phenomenon to show that specialized mixers are not required for siRNA entrapment, and that preformed particles at pH 4 can be used for in vitro transfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Lipids , Nanoparticles , RNA, Small Interfering , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cell Line , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lipids/chemistry , Lipids/pharmacology , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , RNA, Small Interfering/chemistry , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology
13.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 161: 15-22, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-816474

ABSTRACT

Amelioration of immune overactivity during sepsis is key to restoring hemodynamics, microvascular blood flow, and tissue oxygenation, and in preventing multi-organ dysfunction syndrome. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome that results from sepsis ultimately leads to degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx and subsequently increased vascular leakage. Current fluid resuscitation techniques only transiently improve outcomes in sepsis, and can cause edema. Nitric oxide (NO) treatment for sepsis has shown promise in the past, but implementation is difficult due to the challenges associated with delivery and the transient nature of NO. To address this, we tested the anti-inflammatory efficacy of sustained delivery of exogenous NO using i.v. infused NO releasing nanoparticles (NO-np). The impact of NO-np on microhemodynamics and immune response in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced endotoxemia mouse model was evaluated. NO-np treatment significantly attenuated the pro-inflammatory response by promoting M2 macrophage repolarization, which reduced the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum and slowed vascular extravasation. Combined, this resulted in significantly improved microvascular blood flow and 72-h survival of animals treated with NO-np. The results from this study suggest that sustained supplementation of endogenous NO ameliorates and may prevent the morbidities of acute systemic inflammatory conditions. Given that endothelial dysfunction is a common denominator in many acute inflammatory conditions, it is likely that NO enhancement strategies may be useful for the treatment of sepsis and other acute inflammatory insults that trigger severe systemic pro-inflammatory responses and often result in a cytokine storm, as seen in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Endotoxemia/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Animals , Blood Circulation/drug effects , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Delayed-Action Preparations/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
14.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 182: 114215, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743871

ABSTRACT

Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a morphogenetically active and metabolic energy-delivering physiological polymer that is released from blood platelets. Here, we show that polyP efficiently inhibits the binding of the envelope spike (S)-protein of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, to its host cell receptor ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). To stabilize polyP against the polyP-degrading alkaline phosphatase, the soluble polymer was encapsulated in silica/polyP nanoparticles. Applying a binding assay, soluble Na-polyP (sizes of 40 Pi and of 3 Pi units) as well as silica-nanoparticle-associated polyP significantly inhibit the interaction of the S-protein with ACE2 at a concentration of 1 µg/mL, close to the level present in blood. This inhibition is attributed to an interaction of polyP with a basic amino acid stretch on the surface of the receptor binding domain of S-protein. PolyP retains its activity in a flushing solution, opening a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the oropharyngeal cavity. The data suggest that supplementation of polyP might contribute to a strengthening of the human innate immunity system in compromised, thrombocytopenic COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Polyphosphates/pharmacology , Receptors, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Models, Molecular , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Polyphosphates/chemistry , Protein Binding/drug effects , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
15.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 15(24): 2411-2427, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740483

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for safe and effective approaches to combat COVID-19. Here, we asked whether lessons learned from nanotoxicology and nanomedicine could shed light on the current pandemic. SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent, may trigger a mild, self-limiting disease with respiratory symptoms, but patients may also succumb to a life-threatening systemic disease. The host response to the virus is equally complex and studies are now beginning to unravel the immunological correlates of COVID-19. Nanotechnology can be applied for the delivery of antiviral drugs or other repurposed drugs. Moreover, recent work has shown that synthetic nanoparticles wrapped with host-derived cellular membranes may prevent virus infection. We posit that nanoparticles decorated with ACE2, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, could be exploited as decoys to intercept the virus before it infects cells in the respiratory tract. However, close attention should be paid to biocompatibility before such nano-decoys are deployed in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Nanomedicine/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Models, Molecular , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Nanotechnology/methods , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Theranostics ; 10(13): 5932-5942, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-501783

ABSTRACT

On the 30th of January 2020, the World Health Organization fired up the sirens against a fast spreading infectious disease caused by a newly discovered Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and gave this disease the name COVID-19. While there is currently no specific treatment for COVID-19, several off label drugs approved for other indications are being investigated in clinical trials across the globe. In the last decade, theranostic nanoparticles were reported as promising tool for efficiently and selectively deliver therapeutic moieties (i.e. drugs, vaccines, siRNA, peptide) to target sites of infection. In addition, they allow monitoring infectious sides and treatment responses using noninvasive imaging modalities. While intranasal delivery was proposed as the preferred administration route for therapeutic agents against viral pulmonary diseases, NP-based delivery systems offer numerous benefits to overcome challenges associated with mucosal administration, and ensure that these agents achieve a concentration that is many times higher than expected in the targeted sites of infection while limiting side effects on normal cells. In this article, we have shed light on the promising role of nanoparticles as effective carriers for therapeutics or immune modulators to help in fighting against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Theranostic Nanomedicine/methods , Administration, Intranasal , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA, Small Interfering/administration & dosage , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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