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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463704

ABSTRACT

The delivery of a dexamethasone formulation directly into the lung appears as an appropriate strategy to strengthen the systemic administration, reducing the dosage in the treatment of lung severe inflammations. For this purpose, a hyaluronic acid-dexamethasone formulation was developed, affording an inhalable reconstituted nanosuspension suitable to be aerosolized. The physico-chemical and biopharmaceutical properties of the formulation were tested: size, stability, loading of the spray-dried dry powder, reconstitution capability upon redispersion in aqueous media. Detailed structural insights on nanoparticles after reconstitution were obtained by light and X-ray scattering techniques. (1) The size of the nanoparticles, around 200 nm, is in the proper range for a possible engulfment by macrophages. (2) Their structure is of the core-shell type, hosting dexamethasone nanocrystals inside and carrying hyaluronic acid chains on the surface. This specific structure allows for nanosuspension stability and provides nanoparticles with muco-inert properties. (3) The nanosuspension can be efficiently aerosolized, allowing for a high drug fraction potentially reaching the deep lung. Thus, this formulation represents a promising tool for the lung administration via nebulization directly in the pipe of ventilators, to be used as such or as adjunct therapy for severe lung inflammation.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone/chemistry , Hyaluronic Acid/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Aerosols , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use
2.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 42(11): 1913-1920, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437673

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a dysregulated immune response to infection and potentially leads to life-threatening organ dysfunction, which is often seen in serious Covid-19 patients. Disulfiram (DSF), an old drug that has been used to treat alcohol addiction for decades, has recently been identified as a potent inhibitor of the gasdermin D (GSDMD)-induced pore formation that causes pyroptosis and inflammatory cytokine release. Therefore, DSF represents a promising therapeutic for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein with potent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities that acts by neutralizing circulating endotoxins and activating cellular responses. In addition, LF has been well exploited as a drug nanocarrier and targeting ligands. In this study, we developed a DSF-LF nanoparticulate system (DSF-LF NP) for combining the immunosuppressive activities of both DSF and LF. DSF-LF NPs could effectively block pyroptosis and inflammatory cytokine release from macrophages. Treatment with DSF-LF NPs showed remarkable therapeutic effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. In addition, this therapeutic strategy was also applied to treat ulcerative colitis (UC), and substantial treatment efficacy was achieved in a murine colitis model. The underlying mode of action of these DSF-LF-NPs may contribute to efficiently suppressing macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and ameliorating the complications caused by sepsis and UC. As macrophage pyroptosis plays a pivotal role in inflammation, this safe and effective biomimetic nanomedicine may offer a versatile therapeutic strategy for treating various inflammatory diseases by repurposing DSF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Disulfiram/pharmacokinetics , Lactoferrin , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Biomimetic Materials/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Disulfiram/pharmacology , Drug Carriers/pharmacology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Lactoferrin/metabolism , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Pyroptosis/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5552, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434105

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by the extreme release of inflammatory mediators into the blood in response to infection (e.g., bacterial infection, COVID-19), resulting in the dysfunction of multiple organs. Currently, there is no direct treatment for sepsis. Here we report an abiotic hydrogel nanoparticle (HNP) as a potential therapeutic agent for late-stage sepsis. The HNP captures and neutralizes all variants of histones, a major inflammatory mediator released during sepsis. The highly optimized HNP has high capacity and long-term circulation capability for the selective sequestration and neutralization of histones. Intravenous injection of the HNP protects mice against a lethal dose of histones through the inhibition of platelet aggregation and migration into the lungs. In vivo administration in murine sepsis model mice results in near complete survival. These results establish the potential for synthetic, nonbiological polymer hydrogel sequestrants as a new intervention strategy for sepsis therapy and adds to our understanding of the importance of histones to this condition.


Subject(s)
Hydrogels/therapeutic use , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Animals , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Cell Adhesion , Cell Survival/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Histones/antagonists & inhibitors , Histones/metabolism , Histones/toxicity , Hydrogels/chemistry , Hydrogels/metabolism , Hydrogels/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/metabolism , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Protein Binding , Sepsis/mortality , Survival Rate
4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 340, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402051

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 continues to spread rapidly worldwide and variants continue to emerge, the development and deployment of safe and effective vaccines are urgently needed. Here, we developed an mRNA vaccine based on the trimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein fused to ferritin-formed nanoparticles (TF-RBD). Compared to the trimeric form of the RBD mRNA vaccine (T-RBD), TF-RBD delivered intramuscularly elicited robust and durable humoral immunity as well as a Th1-biased cellular response. After further challenge with live SARS-CoV-2, immunization with a two-shot low-dose regimen of TF-RBD provided adequate protection in hACE2-transduced mice. In addition, the mRNA template of TF-RBD was easily and quickly engineered into a variant vaccine to address SARS-CoV-2 mutations. The TF-RBD multivalent vaccine produced broad-spectrum neutralizing antibodies against Alpha (B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351) variants. This mRNA vaccine based on the encoded self-assembled nanoparticle-based trimer RBD provides a reference for the design of mRNA vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/pathology , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vero Cells
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009897, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398941

ABSTRACT

The key to battling the COVID-19 pandemic and its potential aftermath is to develop a variety of vaccines that are efficacious and safe, elicit lasting immunity, and cover a range of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Recombinant viral receptor-binding domains (RBDs) are safe vaccine candidates but often have limited efficacy due to the lack of virus-like immunogen display pattern. Here we have developed a novel virus-like nanoparticle (VLP) vaccine that displays 120 copies of SARS-CoV-2 RBD on its surface. This VLP-RBD vaccine mimics virus-based vaccines in immunogen display, which boosts its efficacy, while maintaining the safety of protein-based subunit vaccines. Compared to the RBD vaccine, the VLP-RBD vaccine induced five times more neutralizing antibodies in mice that efficiently blocked SARS-CoV-2 from attaching to its host receptor and potently neutralized the cell entry of variant SARS-CoV-2 strains, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-1-related bat coronavirus. These neutralizing immune responses induced by the VLP-RBD vaccine did not wane during the two-month study period. Furthermore, the VLP-RBD vaccine effectively protected mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge, dramatically reducing the development of clinical signs and pathological changes in immunized mice. The VLP-RBD vaccine provides one potentially effective solution to controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Design , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Domains/immunology
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383877

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, are newly recognized fundamental, universally produced natural nanoparticles of life that are seemingly involved in all biologic processes and clinical diseases. Due to their universal involvements, understanding the nature and also the potential therapeutic uses of these nanovesicles requires innovative experimental approaches in virtually every field. Of the EV group, exosome nanovesicles and larger companion micro vesicles can mediate completely new biologic and clinical processes dependent on the intercellular transfer of proteins and most importantly selected RNAs, particularly miRNAs between donor and targeted cells to elicit epigenetic alterations inducing functional cellular changes. These recipient acceptor cells are nearby (paracrine transfers) or far away after distribution via the circulation (endocrine transfers). The major properties of such vesicles seem to have been conserved over eons, suggesting that they may have ancient evolutionary origins arising perhaps even before cells in the primordial soup from which life evolved. Their potential ancient evolutionary attributes may be responsible for the ability of some modern-day exosomes to withstand unusually harsh conditions, perhaps due to unique membrane lipid compositions. This is exemplified by ability of the maternal milk exosomes to survive passing the neonatal acid/enzyme rich stomach. It is postulated that this resistance also applies to their durable presence in phagolysosomes, thus suggesting a unique intracellular release of their contained miRNAs. A major discussed issue is the generally poorly realized superiority of these naturally evolved nanovesicles for therapies when compared to human-engineered artificial nanoparticles, e.g., for the treatment of diseases like cancers.


Subject(s)
Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Exosomes/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use
7.
Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst ; 38(2): 75-102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251764

ABSTRACT

Viral infections such as AIDS, hepatitis, herpes keratitis, and herpes labialis became resistant to drugs and it is difficult to design vaccine. In current era drug-resistant viruses are now treated by nanoparticles (NPs) and this field is known as nanobiotechnology that relates nanoscience with the biological system. NPs due to their antiviral activity are used in the treatment of viral diseases. The advantages of using the NP is its specific target action and increase the efficiency of treatment with minimum side effects. Liposomes, quantum dots, polymeric NPs, solid lipid NPs, silver NPs, gold NPs, and magnetic NPs are used to treat viral infections. NP-based therapeutics have completely replaced the usage of drugs and vaccines for viral diseases treatment. Nano vaccines have been investigated for the delivery of drugs; biomaterials-based NPs are in development to be formulated into nano vaccines. But there are limitations in the manufacturing and stabilization of NPs in the body. This review focuses on the antiviral activity of several NPs, its uptake by different viruses for viral disease treatment, nano vaccines, and the limitation of the NPs as nanotherapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Compounding/methods , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Drug Resistance, Viral , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Treatment Outcome , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(18): 20995-21006, 2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209173

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been diffusely pandemic around the world, characterized by massive morbidity and mortality. One of the remarkable threats associated with mortality may be the uncontrolled inflammatory processes, which were induced by SARS-CoV-2 in infected patients. As there are no specific drugs, exploiting safe and effective treatment strategies is an instant requirement to dwindle viral damage and relieve extreme inflammation simultaneously. Here, highly biocompatible glycyrrhizic acid (GA) nanoparticles (GANPs) were synthesized based on GA. In vitro investigations revealed that GANPs inhibit the proliferation of the murine coronavirus MHV-A59 and reduce proinflammatory cytokine production caused by MHV-A59 or the N protein of SARS-CoV-2. In an MHV-A59-induced surrogate mouse model of COVID-19, GANPs specifically target areas with severe inflammation, such as the lungs, which appeared to improve the accumulation of GANPs and enhance the effectiveness of the treatment. Further, GANPs also exert antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects, relieving organ damage and conferring a significant survival advantage to infected mice. Such a novel therapeutic agent can be readily manufactured into feasible treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Glycyrrhizic Acid/chemistry , Humans , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/pharmacology , RAW 264.7 Cells , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , THP-1 Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Diseases/pathology , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(6): 2075-2082.e2, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185028

ABSTRACT

Anaphylaxis to vaccines is historically a rare event. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic drove the need for rapid vaccine production applying a novel antigen delivery system: messenger RNA vaccines packaged in lipid nanoparticles. Unexpectedly, public vaccine administration led to a small number of severe allergic reactions, with resultant substantial public concern, especially within atopic individuals. We reviewed the constituents of the messenger RNA lipid nanoparticle vaccine and considered several contributors to these reactions: (1) contact system activation by nucleic acid, (2) complement recognition of the vaccine-activating allergic effector cells, (3) preexisting antibody recognition of polyethylene glycol, a lipid nanoparticle surface hydrophilic polymer, and (4) direct mast cell activation, coupled with potential genetic or environmental predispositions to hypersensitivity. Unfortunately, measurement of anti-polyethylene glycol antibodies in vitro is not clinically available, and the predictive value of skin testing to polyethylene glycol components as a coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccine-specific anaphylaxis marker is unknown. Even less is known regarding the applicability of vaccine use for testing (in vitro/vivo) to ascertain pathogenesis or predict reactivity risk. Expedient and thorough research-based evaluation of patients who have suffered anaphylactic vaccine reactions and prospective clinical trials in putative at-risk individuals are needed to address these concerns during a public health crisis.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Hypersensitivity/immunology , Lipids/adverse effects , Nanoparticles/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug Hypersensitivity/pathology , Humans , Lipids/immunology , Lipids/therapeutic use , Mast Cells/immunology , Mast Cells/pathology , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , Risk Factors
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 743-749, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163841

ABSTRACT

The development of high-end targeted drugs and vaccines against modern pandemic infections, such as COVID-19, can take a too long time that lets the epidemic spin up and harms society. However, the countermeasures must be applied against the infection in this period until the targeted drugs became available. In this regard, the non-specific, broad-spectrum anti-viral means could be considered as a compromise allowing overcoming the period of trial. One way to enhance the ability to resist the infection is to activate the nonspecific immunity using a suitable driving-up agent, such as plant polysaccharides, particularly our drug Panavir isolated from the potato shoots. Earlier, we have shown the noticeable anti-viral and anti-bacterial activity of Panavir. Here we demonstrate the pro-inflammation activity of Panavir, which four-to-eight times intensified the ATP and MIF secretion by HL-60 cells. This effect was mediated by the active phagocytosis of the Panavir particles by the cells. We hypothesized the physiological basis of the Panavir proinflammatory activity is mediated by the indol-containing compounds (auxins) present in Panavir and acting as a plant analog of serotonin.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Carriers , Nanoparticles , Plants/chemistry , Polysaccharides , Probucol , Adolescent , Adult , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Carriers/pharmacokinetics , Drug Carriers/pharmacology , HL-60 Cells , Humans , Male , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Probucol/chemistry , Probucol/pharmacokinetics , Probucol/pharmacology
13.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143538

ABSTRACT

Bioconjugation has allowed scientists to combine multiple functional elements into one biological or biochemical unit. This assembly can result in the production of constructs that are targeted to a specific site or cell type in order to enhance the response to, or activity of, the conjugated moiety. In the case of cancer treatments, selectively targeting chemotherapies to the cells of interest limit harmful side effects and enhance efficacy. Targeting through conjugation is also advantageous in delivering treatments to difficult-to-reach tissues, such as the brain or infections deep in the lung. Bacterial infections can be more selectively treated by conjugating antibiotics to microbe-specific entities; helping to avoid antibiotic resistance across commensal bacterial species. In the case of vaccine development, conjugation is used to enhance efficacy without compromising safety. In this work, we will review the previously mentioned areas in which bioconjugation has created new possibilities and advanced treatments.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)/history , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)/pharmacology , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Immunoconjugates/history , Immunoconjugates/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Vaccines, Conjugate/history , Vaccines, Conjugate/pharmacology
14.
Sci Adv ; 7(12)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142982

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 provides an effective tool to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we combined antigen optimization and nanoparticle display to develop vaccine candidates for SARS-CoV-2. We first displayed the receptor-binding domain (RBD) on three self-assembling protein nanoparticle (SApNP) platforms using the SpyTag/SpyCatcher system. We then identified heptad repeat 2 (HR2) in S2 as the cause of spike metastability, designed an HR2-deleted glycine-capped spike (S2GΔHR2), and displayed S2GΔHR2 on SApNPs. An antibody column specific for the RBD enabled tag-free vaccine purification. In mice, the 24-meric RBD-ferritin SApNP elicited a more potent neutralizing antibody (NAb) response than the RBD alone and the spike with two stabilizing proline mutations in S2 (S2P). S2GΔHR2 elicited twofold higher NAb titers than S2P, while S2GΔHR2 SApNPs derived from multilayered E2p and I3-01v9 60-mers elicited up to 10-fold higher NAb titers. The S2GΔHR2-presenting I3-01v9 SApNP also induced critically needed T cell immunity, thereby providing a promising vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/immunology , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology
16.
ACS Nano ; 15(2): 2738-2752, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036015

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus resulted in economic losses and threatened human health worldwide. The pandemic highlights an urgent need for a stable, easily produced, and effective vaccine. SARS-CoV-2 uses the spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) to bind its cognate receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and initiate membrane fusion. Thus, the RBD is an ideal target for vaccine development. In this study, we designed three different RBD-conjugated nanoparticle vaccine candidates, namely, RBD-Ferritin (24-mer), RBD-mi3 (60-mer), and RBD-I53-50 (120-mer), via covalent conjugation using the SpyTag-SpyCatcher system. When mice were immunized with the RBD-conjugated nanoparticles (NPs) in conjunction with the AddaVax or Sigma Adjuvant System, the resulting antisera exhibited 8- to 120-fold greater neutralizing activity against both a pseudovirus and the authentic virus than those of mice immunized with monomeric RBD. Most importantly, sera from mice immunized with RBD-conjugated NPs more efficiently blocked the binding of RBD to ACE2 in vitro, further corroborating the promising immunization effect. Additionally, the vaccine has distinct advantages in terms of a relatively simple scale-up and flexible assembly. These results illustrate that the SARS-CoV-2 RBD-conjugated nanoparticles developed in this study are a competitive vaccine candidate and that the carrier nanoparticles could be adopted as a universal platform for a future vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells
17.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 112: 110924, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1017020

ABSTRACT

Research on highly effective antiviral drugs is essential for preventing the spread of infections and reducing losses. Recently, many functional nanoparticles have been shown to possess remarkable antiviral ability, such as quantum dots, gold and silver nanoparticles, nanoclusters, carbon dots, graphene oxide, silicon materials, polymers and dendrimers. Despite their difference in antiviral mechanism and inhibition efficacy, these functional nanoparticles-based structures have unique features as potential antiviral candidates. In this topical review, we highlight the antiviral efficacy and mechanism of these nanoparticles. Specifically, we introduce various methods for analyzing the viricidal activity of functional nanoparticles and the latest advances in antiviral functional nanoparticles. Furthermore, we systematically describe the advantages and disadvantages of these functional nanoparticles in viricidal applications. Finally, we discuss the challenges and prospects of antiviral nanostructures. This topic review covers 132 papers and will enrich our knowledge about the antiviral efficacy and mechanism of various functional nanoparticles.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA Viruses/drug effects , DNA Viruses/physiology , Graphite/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/toxicity , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Polymers/chemistry , Quantum Dots/chemistry , Quantum Dots/therapeutic use , Quantum Dots/toxicity , Zika Virus/drug effects , Zika Virus Infection/drug therapy , Zika Virus Infection/veterinary
18.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(7): 5325-5338, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995973

ABSTRACT

In novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the increased frequency and overactivation of T helper (Th) 17 cells and subsequent production of large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines result in hyperinflammation and disease progression. The current study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of nanocurcumin on the frequency and responses of Th17 cells in mild and severe COVID-19 patients. In this study, 40 severe COVID-19 intensive care unit-admitted patients and 40 patients in mild condition were included. The frequency of Th17 cells, the messenger RNA expression of Th17 cell-related factors (RAR-related orphan receptor γt, interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-23, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and the serum levels of cytokines were measured in both nanocurcumin and placebo-treated groups before and after treatment. A significant decrease in the number of Th17 cells, downregulation of Th17 cell-related factors, and decreased levels of Th17 cell-related cytokines were found in mild and severe COVID-19 patients treated by nanocurcumin compared to the placebo group. Moreover, the abovementioned parameters were significantly decreased in the nanocurcumin-treated group after treatment versus before treatment. Curcumin could reduce the frequency of Th17 cells and their related inflammatory factors in both mild and severe COVID-19 patients. Hence, it could be considered as a potential modulatory compound in improving the patient's inflammatory condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Th17 Cells/drug effects , Adult , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/virology , Th17 Cells/metabolism
19.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 15(29): 2883-2894, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949049

ABSTRACT

The discovery of stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and their agonists as primary components that link antiviral innate and adaptive immunity has motivated growing research on STING agonist-mediated immunotherapy and vaccine development. To overcome the delivery challenge in shuttling highly polar STING agonists, typically in the form of cyclic dinucleotides, to target cells and to STING proteins in cellular cytosol, numerous nanoformulation strategies have been implemented for effective STING activation. While many STING-activating nanoparticles are developed to enhance anticancer immunotherapy, their adoption as vaccine adjuvant has vastly propelled antiviral vaccination efforts against challenging public health threats, including HIV, influenza and coronaviruses. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic that has thrusted vaccine development into the public spotlight, this review highlights advances in nanomedicinal STING agonist delivery with an emphasis on their applications in antiviral vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Pandemics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy/trends , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/drug effects
20.
Nanoscale ; 12(47): 23959-23966, 2020 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947558

ABSTRACT

Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) formulations of nucleic acid are leading vaccine candidates for COVID-19, and enabled the first approved RNAi therapeutic, Onpattro. LNPs are composed of ionizable cationic lipids, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipids, and are produced using rapid-mixing techniques. These procedures involve dissolution of the lipid components in an organic phase and the nucleic acid in an acidic aqueous buffer (pH 4). These solutions are then combined using a continuous mixing device such as a T-mixer or microfluidic device. In this mixing step, particle formation and nucleic acid entrapment occur. Previous work from our group has shown that, in the absence of nucleic acid, the particles formed at pH 4 are vesicular in structure, a portion of these particles are converted to electron-dense structures in the presence of nucleic acid, and the proportion of electron-dense structures increases with nucleic acid content. What remained unclear from previous work was the mechanism by which vesicles form electron-dense structures. In this study, we use cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering to show that efficient siRNA entrapment occurs in the absence of ethanol (contrary to the established paradigm), and suggest that nucleic acid entrapment occurs through inversion of preformed vesicles. We also leverage this phenomenon to show that specialized mixers are not required for siRNA entrapment, and that preformed particles at pH 4 can be used for in vitro transfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Lipids , Nanoparticles , RNA, Small Interfering , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cell Line , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lipids/chemistry , Lipids/pharmacology , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , RNA, Small Interfering/chemistry , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology
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