Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 7005-7017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524524

ABSTRACT

The tumor suppressor protein p53 remains in a wild type but inactive form in ~50% of all human cancers. Thus, activating it becomes an attractive approach for targeted cancer therapies. In this regard, our lab has previously discovered a small molecule, Inauhzin (INZ), as a potent p53 activator with no genotoxicity. Method: To improve its efficacy and bioavailability, here we employed nanoparticle encapsulation, making INZ-C, an analog of INZ, to nanoparticle-encapsulated INZ-C (n-INZ-C). Results: This approach significantly improved p53 activation and inhibition of lung and colorectal cancer cell growth by n-INZ-C in vitro and in vivo while it displayed a minimal effect on normal human Wi38 and mouse MEF cells. The improved activity was further corroborated with the enhanced cellular uptake observed in cancer cells and minimal cellular uptake observed in normal cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of these nanoparticles showed that the nanoparticle encapsulation prolongates the half-life of INZ-C from 2.5 h to 5 h in mice. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that we have established a nanoparticle system that could enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of INZ-C as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Indoles/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacokinetics , Indoles/therapeutic use , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Phenothiazines/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacokinetics , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
2.
ACS Nano ; 14(6): 7651-7658, 2020 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387149

ABSTRACT

Layered systems of commonly available fabric materials can be used by the public and healthcare providers in face masks to reduce the risk of inhaling viruses with protection that is about equivalent to or better than the filtration and adsorption offered by 5-layer N95 respirators. Over 70 different common fabric combinations and masks were evaluated under steady-state, forced convection air flux with pulsed aerosols that simulate forceful respiration. The aerosols contain fluorescent virus-like nanoparticles to track transmission through materials that greatly assist the accuracy of detection, thus avoiding artifacts including pore flooding and the loss of aerosol due to evaporation and droplet breakup. Effective materials comprise both absorbent, hydrophilic layers and barrier, hydrophobic layers. Although the hydrophobic layers can adhere virus-like nanoparticles, they may also repel droplets from adjacent absorbent layers and prevent wicking transport across the fabric system. Effective designs are noted with absorbent layers comprising terry cloth towel, quilting cotton, and flannel. Effective designs are noted with barrier layers comprising nonwoven polypropylene, polyester, and polyaramid.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Textiles , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Filtration , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Masks/supply & distribution , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Particle Size , Permeability , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
3.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 956, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354120

ABSTRACT

Lipid Nanoparticles (LNPs) are used to deliver siRNA and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. The main factor known to determine their delivery efficiency is the pKa of the LNP containing an ionizable lipid. Herein, we report a method that can predict the LNP pKa from the structure of the ionizable lipid. We used theoretical, NMR, fluorescent-dye binding, and electrophoretic mobility methods to comprehensively measure protonation of both the ionizable lipid and the formulated LNP. The pKa of the ionizable lipid was 2-3 units higher than the pKa of the LNP primarily due to proton solvation energy differences between the LNP and aqueous medium. We exploited these results to explain a wide range of delivery efficiencies in vitro and in vivo for intramuscular (IM) and intravascular (IV) administration of different ionizable lipids at escalating ionizable lipid-to-mRNA ratios in the LNP. In addition, we determined that more negatively charged LNPs exhibit higher off-target systemic expression of mRNA in the liver following IM administration. This undesirable systemic off-target expression of mRNA-LNP vaccines could be minimized through appropriate design of the ionizable lipid and LNP.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression , Ions/chemistry , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Administration, Intravenous , Animals , Drug Compounding , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Injections, Intramuscular , Mice , Molecular Structure , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/pharmacokinetics , Spectrum Analysis , Tissue Distribution , Transfection
4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 597, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236095

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to wreak havoc as worldwide SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death rates climb unabated. Effective vaccines remain the most promising approach to counter SARS-CoV-2. Yet, while promising results are emerging from COVID-19 vaccine trials, the need for multiple doses and the challenges associated with the widespread distribution and administration of vaccines remain concerns. Here, we engineered the coat protein of the MS2 bacteriophage and generated nanoparticles displaying multiple copies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. The use of these nanoparticles as vaccines generated high neutralizing antibody titers and protected Syrian hamsters from a challenge with SARS-CoV-2 after a single immunization with no infectious virus detected in the lungs. This nanoparticle-based vaccine platform thus provides protection after a single immunization and may be broadly applicable for protecting against SARS-CoV-2 and future pathogens with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems , Female , Humans , Immunization/methods , Levivirus/genetics , Levivirus/immunology , Mesocricetus , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Models, Animal , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Nanotechnology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Engineering , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Combined/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Combined/genetics , Vaccines, Combined/immunology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/genetics , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology
5.
Nano Lett ; 21(1): 651-657, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962235

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has changed many aspects of daily lives. Wearing personal protective equipment, especially respirators (face masks), has become common for both the public and medical professionals, proving to be effective in preventing spread of the virus. Nevertheless, a detailed understanding of respirator filtration-layer internal structures and their physical configurations is lacking. Here, we report three-dimensional (3D) internal analysis of N95 filtration layers via X-ray tomography. Using deep learning methods, we uncover how the distribution and diameters of fibers within these layers directly affect contaminant particle filtration. The average porosity of the filter layers is found to be 89.1%. Contaminants are more efficiently captured by denser fiber regions, with fibers <1.8 µm in diameter being particularly effective, presumably because of the stronger electric field gradient on smaller diameter fibers. This study provides critical information for further development of N95-type respirators that combine high efficiency with good breathability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , N95 Respirators/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Deep Learning , Filtration/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , N95 Respirators/standards , N95 Respirators/statistics & numerical data , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Pandemics/prevention & control , Particle Size , Polypropylenes , Porosity , Textiles/virology , Tomography, X-Ray
6.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 9(19): e2000979, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743611

ABSTRACT

Researchers, engineers, and medical doctors are made aware of the severity of the COVID-19 infection and act quickly against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 using a large variety of tools. In this review, a panoply of nanoscience and nanotechnology approaches show how these disciplines can help the medical, technical, and scientific communities to fight the pandemic, highlighting the development of nanomaterials for detection, sanitation, therapies, and vaccines. SARS-CoV-2, which can be regarded as a functional core-shell nanoparticle (NP), can interact with diverse materials in its vicinity and remains attached for variable times while preserving its bioactivity. These studies are critical for the appropriate use of controlled disinfection systems. Other nanotechnological approaches are also decisive for the development of improved novel testing and diagnosis kits of coronavirus that are urgently required. Therapeutics are based on nanotechnology strategies as well and focus on antiviral drug design and on new nanoarchitectured vaccines. A brief overview on patented work is presented that emphasizes nanotechnology applied to coronaviruses. Finally, some comments are made on patents of the initial technological responses to COVID-19 that have already been put in practice.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Nanotechnology/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nanotechnology/legislation & jurisprudence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patents as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Properties , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
7.
Nano Lett ; 20(6): 4543-4549, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636626

ABSTRACT

Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) packaged mRNA vaccines have been deployed against infectious diseases such as COVID-19, yet their structural features remain unclear. Cholesterol, a major constituent within LNPs, contributes to their morphology that influences gene delivery. Herein, we examine the structure of LNPs containing cholesterol derivatives using electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and membrane fluidity assays. LNPs formulated with C24 alkyl derivatives of cholesterol show a polymorphic shape and various degrees of multilamellarity and lipid partitioning, likely due to phase separation. The addition of methyl and ethyl groups to the C24 alkyl tail of the cholesterol backbone induces multilamellarity (>50% increase compared to cholesterol), while the addition of a double bond induces lipid partitioning (>90% increase compared to cholesterol). LNPs with multilamellar and faceted structures, as well as a lamellar lipid phase, showed higher gene transfection. Unraveling the structure of mRNA-LNPs can enable their rational design toward enhanced gene delivery.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Transfer Techniques , HeLa Cells , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Phase Transition , Phytosterols/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transfection , Viral Vaccines/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...