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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 814806, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809386

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread and poses a major threat to public health worldwide. The whole genome sequencing plays a crucial role in virus surveillance and evolutionary analysis. In this study, five genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 were obtained from nasopharyngeal swab samples from Zhengzhou, China. Following RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, multiplex PCR was performed with two primer pools to produce the overlapped amplicons of ~1,200 bp. The viral genomes were obtained with 96% coverage using nanopore sequencing. Forty-five missense nucleotide mutations were identified; out of these, 5 mutations located at Nsp2, Nsp3, Nsp14, and ORF10 genes occurred with a <0.1% frequency in the global dataset. On the basis of mutation profiles, five genomes were clustered into two sublineages (B.1.617.2 and AY.31) or subclades (21A and 21I). The phylogenetic analysis of viral genomes from several regions of China and Myanmar revealed that five patients had different viral transmission chains. Taken together, we established a nanopore sequencing platform for genetic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and identified the variants circulating in Zhengzhou during August 2021. Our study provided crucial support for government policymaking and prevention and control of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanopore Sequencing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1296-1298, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775622

ABSTRACT

We report wastewater surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern by using mutation-specific, real-time PCR and rapid nanopore sequencing. This surveillance might be useful for an early warning in a scenario in which a new variant is emerging, even in areas that have low virus incidences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanopore Sequencing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
3.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(6): 748-754, 2021 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753705

ABSTRACT

To explore the application value of nanopore sequencing technique in the diagnosis and treatment of secondary infections in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 77 clinical specimens from 3 patients with severe COVID-19 were collected. After heat inactivation, all samples were subjected to total nucleic acid extraction based on magnetic bead enrichment. The extracted DNA was used for DNA library construction, then nanopore real-time sequencing detection was performed. The sequencing data were subjected to Centrifuge software database species matching and R program differential analysis to obtain potential pathogen identification. Nanopore sequencing results were compared with respiratory pathogen qPCR panel screening and conventional microbiological testing results to verify the effectiveness of nanopore sequencing detection. Nanopore sequencing results showed that positive pathogen were obtained in 44 specimens (57.1%). The potential pathogens identified by nanopore sequencing included , , and , et al. , , were also detected in clinical microbiological culture-based detection; was detected in respiratory pathogen screening qPCR panel; was only detected by the nanopore sequencing technique. Comprehensive considerations with the clinical symptoms, the patient was treated with antibiotics against , and the infection was controlled. Nanopore sequencing may assist the diagnosis and treatment of severe COVID-19 patients through rapid identification of potential pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Nanopore Sequencing , Nanopores , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1321, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740438

ABSTRACT

Infectious disease monitoring on Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) platforms offers rapid turnaround times and low cost. Tracking low frequency intra-host variants provides important insights with respect to elucidating within-host viral population dynamics and transmission. However, given the higher error rate of ONT, accurate identification of intra-host variants with low allele frequencies remains an open challenge with no viable computational solutions available. In response to this need, we present Variabel, a novel approach and first method designed for rescuing low frequency intra-host variants from ONT data alone. We evaluate Variabel on both synthetic data (SARS-CoV-2) and patient derived datasets (Ebola virus, norovirus, SARS-CoV-2); our results show that Variabel can accurately identify low frequency variants below 0.5 allele frequency, outperforming existing state-of-the-art ONT variant callers for this task. Variabel is open-source and available for download at: www.gitlab.com/treangenlab/variabel .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanopore Sequencing , Nanopores , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 151, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708032

ABSTRACT

A large gap remains between sequencing a microbial community and characterizing all of the organisms inside of it. Here we develop a novel method to taxonomically bin metagenomic assemblies through alignment of contigs against a reference database. We show that this workflow, BugSplit, bins metagenome-assembled contigs to species with a 33% absolute improvement in F1-score when compared to alternative tools. We perform nanopore mNGS on patients with COVID-19, and using a reference database predating COVID-19, demonstrate that BugSplit's taxonomic binning enables sensitive and specific detection of a novel coronavirus not possible with other approaches. When applied to nanopore mNGS data from cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, BugSplit's taxonomic binning accurately separates pathogen sequences from those of the host and microbiota, and unlocks the possibility of sequence typing, in silico serotyping, and antimicrobial resistance prediction of each organism within a sample. BugSplit is available at https://bugseq.com/academic .


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Bacteria/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Metagenome/genetics , Metagenomics/methods , Nanopore Sequencing/methods , Bacteria/classification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Internet , Pandemics/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 211(1): 71-77, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640849

ABSTRACT

On November 26, 2021, the World Health Organization classified B.1.1.529 as a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant of concern (VoC), named omicron. Spike-gene dropouts in conventional SARS-CoV-2 PCR systems have been reported over the last weeks as indirect diagnostic evidence for the identification of omicron. Here, we report the combination of PCRs specific for heavily mutated sites in the spike gene and nanopore-based full-length genome sequencing for the rapid and sensitive identification of the first four COVID-19 patients diagnosed in Germany to be infected with omicron on November 28, 2021. This study will assist the unambiguous laboratory-based diagnosis and global surveillance for this highly contagious VoC with an unprecedented degree of humoral immune escape. Moreover, we propose that specialized diagnostic laboratories should continuously update their assays for variant-specific PCRs in the spike gene of SARS-CoV-2 to readily detect and diagnose emerging variants of interest and VoCs. The combination with established nanopore sequencing procedures allows both the rapid confirmation by whole genome sequencing as well as the sensitive identification of newly emerging variants of this pandemic ß-coronavirus in years to come.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanopore Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580420

ABSTRACT

Rapid molecular surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 S-protein variants leading to immune escape and/or increased infectivity is of utmost importance. Among global bottlenecks for variant monitoring in diagnostic settings are sequencing and bioinformatics capacities. In this study, we aimed to establish a rapid and user-friendly protocol for high-throughput S-gene sequencing and subsequent automated identification of variants. We designed two new primer pairs to amplify only the immunodominant part of the S-gene for nanopore sequencing. Furthermore, we developed an automated "S-Protein-Typer" tool that analyzes and reports S-protein mutations on the amino acid level including a variant of concern indicator. Validation of our primer panel using SARS-CoV-2-positive respiratory specimens covering a broad Ct range showed successful amplification for 29/30 samples. Restriction to the region of interest freed sequencing capacity by a factor of 12-13, compared with whole-genome sequencing. Using either the MinION or Flongle flow cell, our sequencing strategy reduced the time required to identify SARS-CoV-2 variants accordingly. The S-Protein-Typer tool identified all mutations correctly when challenged with our sequenced samples and 50 deposited sequences covering all VOCs (December 2021). Our proposed S-protein variant screening offers a simple, more rapid, and low-cost entry into NGS-based SARS-CoV-2 analysis, compared with current whole-genome approaches.


Subject(s)
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Nanopore Sequencing/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Genotype , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523436

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the need for rapid novel diagnostic strategies. Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing (mNGS) may allow for the detection of pathogens that can be missed in targeted assays. The goal of this study was to assess the performance of nanopore-based Sequence-Independent Single Primer Amplification (SISPA) for the detection and characterization of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We performed mNGS on clinical samples and designed a diagnostic classifier that corrects for barcode crosstalk between specimens. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on genome assemblies. RESULTS: Our assay yielded 100% specificity overall and 95.2% sensitivity for specimens with a RT-PCR cycle threshold value less than 30. We assembled 10 complete, and one near-complete genomes from 20 specimens that were classified as positive by mNGS. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 10/11 specimens from British Columbia had a closest relative to another British Columbian specimen. We found 100% concordance between phylogenetic lineage assignment and Variant of Concern (VOC) PCR results. Our assay was able to distinguish between the Alpha and Gamma variants, which was not possible with the current standard VOC PCR being used in British Columbia. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports future work examining the broader feasibility of nanopore mNGS as a diagnostic strategy for the detection and characterization of viral pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Metagenome , Nanopore Sequencing/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259277, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496534

ABSTRACT

Surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 variants including the quickly spreading mutants by rapid and near real-time sequencing of the viral genome provides an important tool for effective health policy decision making in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Here we evaluated PCR-tiling of short (~400-bp) and long (~2 and ~2.5-kb) amplicons combined with nanopore sequencing on a MinION device for analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences. Analysis of several sequencing runs demonstrated that using the long amplicon schemes outperforms the original protocol based on the 400-bp amplicons. It also illustrated common artefacts and problems associated with PCR-tiling approach, such as uneven genome coverage, variable fraction of discarded sequencing reads, including human and bacterial contamination, as well as the presence of reads derived from the viral sub-genomic RNAs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nanopore Sequencing/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481015

ABSTRACT

The causative agent of COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, has a 29,903 bases positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. RNAs exhibit about 150 modified bases that are essential for proper function. Among internal modified bases, the N6-methyladenosine, or m6A, is the most frequent, and is implicated in SARS-CoV-2 immune response evasion. Although the SARS-CoV-2 genome is RNA, almost all genomes sequenced thus far are, in fact, reverse transcribed complementary DNAs. This process reduces the true complexity of these viral genomes because the incorporation of dNTPs hides RNA base modifications. Here, we present an initial exploration of Nanopore direct RNA sequencing to assess the m6A residues in the SARS-CoV-2 sequences of ORF3a, E, M, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF7b, ORF8, N, ORF10 and the 3'-untranslated region. We identified fifteen m6A methylated positions, of which, six are in ORF N. Additionally, because m6A is associated with the DRACH motif, we compared its distribution in major SARS-CoV-2 variants. Although DRACH is highly conserved among variants, we show that variants Beta and Eta have a fourth position C > U change in DRACH at 28,884b that could affect methylation. This is the first report of direct RNA sequencing of a Brazilian SARS-CoV-2 sample coupled with the identification of modified bases.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/virology , Immune Evasion/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , 3' Untranslated Regions , Adenosine/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genome, Viral , Humans , Methylation , Nanopore Sequencing/methods , Open Reading Frames , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Vero Cells
12.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430978

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is crucial and mainly achieved by amplicon sequencing protocols. Overlapping tiled-amplicons are generated to establish contiguous SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences, which enable the precise resolution of infection chains and outbreaks. We investigated a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in a local hospital and used nanopore sequencing with a modified ARTIC protocol employing 1200 bp long amplicons. We detected a long deletion of 168 nucleotides in the ORF8 gene in 76 samples from the hospital outbreak. This deletion is difficult to identify with the classical amplicon sequencing procedures since it removes two amplicon primer-binding sites. We analyzed public SARS-CoV-2 sequences and sequencing read data from ENA and identified the same deletion in over 100 genomes belonging to different lineages of SARS-CoV-2, pointing to a mutation hotspot or to positive selection. In almost all cases, the deletion was not represented in the virus genome sequence after consensus building. Additionally, further database searches point to other deletions in the ORF8 coding region that have never been reported by the standard data analysis pipelines. These findings and the fact that ORF8 is especially prone to deletions, make a clear case for the urgent necessity of public availability of the raw data for this and other large deletions that might change the physiology of the virus towards endemism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genes, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Deletion , Genetic Variation , Humans , Nanopore Sequencing , Open Reading Frames , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Whole Genome Sequencing
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 327-334, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410052

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays an important role in COVID-19 pandemic control and elimination efforts, especially by elucidating its global transmission network and illustrating its viral evolution. The deployment of multiplex PCR assays that target SARS-CoV-2 followed by either massively parallel or nanopore sequencing is a widely-used strategy to obtain genome sequences from primary samples. However, multiplex PCR-based sequencing carries an inherent bias of sequencing depth among different amplicons, which may cause uneven coverage. Here we developed a two-pool, long-amplicon 36-plex PCR primer panel with ~1000-bp amplicon lengths for full-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2. We validated the panel by assessing nasopharyngeal swab samples with a <30 quantitative reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold value and found that ≥90% of viral genomes could be covered with high sequencing depths (≥20% mean depth). In comparison, the widely-used ARTIC panel yielded 79%-88% high-depth genome regions. We estimated that ~5 Mbp nanopore sequencing data may ensure a >95% viral genome coverage with a ≥10-fold depth and may generate reliable genomes at consensus sequence levels. Nanopore sequencing yielded false-positive variations with frequencies of supporting reads <0.8, and the sequencing errors mostly occurred on the 5' or 3' ends of reads. Thus, nanopore sequencing could not elucidate intra-host viral diversity.


Subject(s)
Genome, Viral/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Nanopore Sequencing/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , COVID-19 , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods
14.
Cell Rep ; 36(7): 109530, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330686

ABSTRACT

A recent study proposed that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) hijacks the LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition machinery to integrate into the DNA of infected cells. If confirmed, this finding could have significant clinical implications. Here, we apply deep (>50×) long-read Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing to HEK293T cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 and do not find the virus integrated into the genome. By examining ONT data from separate HEK293T cultivars, we completely resolve 78 L1 insertions arising in vitro in the absence of L1 overexpression systems. ONT sequencing applied to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive liver cancer tissues located a single HBV insertion. These experiments demonstrate reliable resolution of retrotransposon and exogenous virus insertions by ONT sequencing. That we find no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 integration suggests that such events are, at most, extremely rare in vivo and therefore are unlikely to drive oncogenesis or explain post-recovery detection of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , DNA, Viral/genetics , Genome, Human , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Virus Integration , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/virology , Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements , Male , Nanopore Sequencing , Vero Cells
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282511

ABSTRACT

Transcript sequencing is a crucial tool for gaining a deep understanding of biological processes in diagnostic and clinical medicine. Given their potential to study novel complex eukaryotic transcriptomes, long-read sequencing technologies are able to overcome some limitations of short-read RNA-Seq approaches. Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) offers the ability to generate long-read sequencing data in real time via portable protein nanopore USB devices. This work aimed to provide the user with the number of reads that should be sequenced, through the ONT MinION platform, to reach the desired accuracy level for a human cell RNA study. We sequenced three cDNA libraries prepared from poly-adenosine RNA of human primary cardiac fibroblasts. Since the runs were comparable, they were combined in a total dataset of 48 million reads. Synthetic datasets with different sizes were generated starting from the total and analyzed in terms of the number of identified genes and their expression levels. As expected, an improved sensitivity was obtained, increasing the sequencing depth, particularly for the non-coding genes. The reliability of expression levels was assayed by (i) comparison with PCR quantifications of selected genes and (ii) by the implementation of a user-friendly multiplexing method in a single run.


Subject(s)
Nanopore Sequencing , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Open Reading Frames/genetics , RNA-Seq
16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(9): 1348.e1-1348.e7, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201402

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Rapid, high throughput diagnostics are a valuable tool, allowing the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in populations so as to identify and isolate people with asymptomatic and symptomatic infections. Reagent shortages and restricted access to high throughput testing solutions have limited the effectiveness of conventional assays such as quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), particularly throughout the first months of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. We investigated the use of LamPORE, where loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is coupled to nanopore sequencing technology, for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic and asymptomatic populations. METHODS: In an asymptomatic prospective cohort, for 3 weeks in September 2020, health-care workers across four sites (Birmingham, Southampton, Basingstoke and Manchester) self-swabbed with nasopharyngeal swabs weekly and supplied a saliva specimen daily. These samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using the Oxford Nanopore LamPORE system and a reference RT-qPCR assay on extracted sample RNA. A second retrospective cohort of 848 patients with influenza-like illness from March 2020 to June 2020 were similarly tested from nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: In the asymptomatic cohort a total of 1200 participants supplied 23 427 samples (3966 swab, 19 461 saliva) over a 3-week period. The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 detection using LamPORE was 0.95%. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of LamPORE was >99.5% (decreasing to approximately 98% when clustered estimation was used) in both swab and saliva asymptomatic samples when compared with the reference RT-qPCR test. In the retrospective symptomatic cohort, the incidence was 13.4% and the sensitivity and specificity were 100%. CONCLUSIONS: LamPORE is a highly accurate methodology for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in both symptomatic and asymptomatic population settings and can be used as an alternative to RT-qPCR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nanopore Sequencing , Nasopharynx/virology , Polyproteins/genetics , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/genetics
17.
Virol Sin ; 36(5): 901-912, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182321

ABSTRACT

Genome sequencing has shown strong capabilities in the initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic such as pathogen identification and virus preliminary tracing. While the rapid acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 genome from clinical specimens is limited by their low nucleic acid load and the complexity of the nucleic acid background. To address this issue, we modified and evaluated an approach by utilizing SARS-CoV-2-specific amplicon amplification and Oxford Nanopore PromethION platform. This workflow started with the throat swab of the COVID-19 patient, combined reverse transcript PCR, and multi-amplification in one-step to shorten the experiment time, then can quickly and steadily obtain high-quality SARS-CoV-2 genome within 24 h. A comprehensive evaluation of the method was conducted in 42 samples: the sequencing quality of the method was correlated well with the viral load of the samples; high-quality SARS-CoV-2 genome could be obtained stably in the samples with Ct value up to 39.14; data yielding for different Ct values were assessed and the recommended sequencing time was 8 h for samples with Ct value of less than 20; variation analysis indicated that the method can detect the existing and emerging genomic mutations as well; Illumina sequencing verified that ultra-deep sequencing can greatly improve the single read error rate of Nanopore sequencing, making it as low as 0.4/10,000 bp. In summary, high-quality SARS-CoV-2 genome can be acquired by utilizing the amplicon amplification and it is an effective method in accelerating the acquisition of genetic resources and tracking the genome diversity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanopore Sequencing , Genome, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(6)2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158099

ABSTRACT

LamPORE is a novel diagnostic platform for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA combining loop-mediated isothermal amplification with nanopore sequencing, which could potentially be used to analyze thousands of samples per day on a single instrument. We evaluated the performance of LamPORE against reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) using RNA extracted from spiked respiratory samples and stored nose and throat swabs collected at two UK hospitals. The limit of detection of LamPORE was 10 genome copies/µl of extracted RNA, which is above the limit achievable by RT-PCR, but was not associated with a significant reduction of sensitivity in clinical samples. Positive clinical specimens came mostly from patients with acute symptomatic infection, and among them, LamPORE had a diagnostic sensitivity of 99.1% (226/228; 95% confidence interval [CI], 96.9% to 99.9%). Among negative clinical specimens, including 153 with other respiratory pathogens detected, LamPORE had a diagnostic specificity of 99.6% (278/279; 98.0% to 100.0%). Overall, 1.4% (7/514; 0.5% to 2.9%) of samples produced an indeterminate result on first testing, and repeat LamPORE testing on the same RNA extract had a reproducibility of 96.8% (478/494; 94.8% to 98.1%). LamPORE has a similar performance as RT-PCR for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in symptomatic patients and offers a promising approach to high-throughput testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanopore Sequencing , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6272, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965783

ABSTRACT

Viral whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides critical insight into the transmission and evolution of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Long-read sequencing devices from Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) promise significant improvements in turnaround time, portability and cost, compared to established short-read sequencing platforms for viral WGS (e.g., Illumina). However, adoption of ONT sequencing for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance has been limited due to common concerns around sequencing accuracy. To address this, here we perform viral WGS with ONT and Illumina platforms on 157 matched SARS-CoV-2-positive patient specimens and synthetic RNA controls, enabling rigorous evaluation of analytical performance. We report that, despite the elevated error rates observed in ONT sequencing reads, highly accurate consensus-level sequence determination was achieved, with single nucleotide variants (SNVs) detected at >99% sensitivity and >99% precision above a minimum ~60-fold coverage depth, thereby ensuring suitability for SARS-CoV-2 genome analysis. ONT sequencing also identified a surprising diversity of structural variation within SARS-CoV-2 specimens that were supported by evidence from short-read sequencing on matched samples. However, ONT sequencing failed to accurately detect short indels and variants at low read-count frequencies. This systematic evaluation of analytical performance for SARS-CoV-2 WGS will facilitate widespread adoption of ONT sequencing within local, national and international COVID-19 public health initiatives.


Subject(s)
Nanopore Sequencing/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954925

ABSTRACT

Shotgun metagenomic sequencing (SMg) enables the simultaneous detection and characterization of viruses in human, animal and environmental samples. However, lack of sensitivity still poses a challenge and may lead to poor detection and data acquisition for detailed analysis. To improve sensitivity, we assessed a broad scope targeted sequence capture (TSC) panel (ViroCap) in both human and animal samples. Moreover, we adjusted TSC for the Oxford Nanopore MinION and compared the performance to an SMg approach. TSC on the Illumina NextSeq served as the gold standard. Overall, TSC increased the viral read count significantly in challenging human samples, with the highest genome coverage achieved using the TSC on the MinION. TSC also improved the genome coverage and sequencing depth in clinically relevant viruses in the animal samples, such as influenza A virus. However, SMg was shown to be adequate for characterizing a highly diverse animal virome. TSC on the MinION was comparable to the NextSeq and can provide a valuable alternative, offering longer reads, portability and lower initial cost. Developing new viral enrichment approaches to detect and characterize significant human and animal viruses is essential for the One Health Initiative.


Subject(s)
Genome, Viral , Metagenomics , Nanopore Sequencing , Animals , Computational Biology/methods , Humans , Metagenomics/methods , Nanopore Sequencing/methods , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/virology
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