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1.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963721

ABSTRACT

Two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials have been commonly employed in the field of biosensors to improve their sensitivity/limits of detection and shorten the analysis time. These nanomaterials act as efficient transducers because of their unique characteristics, such as high surface area and optical, electrical, and magnetic properties, which in turn have been exploited to create simple, quick, and low-cost biosensing platforms. In this review, graphene and two-dimensional carbon material-based fluorescent biosensors are covered between 2010 and 2021, for the detection of different human viruses. This review specifically focuses on the new developments in graphene and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials for fluorescent biosensing based on the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism. The high-efficiency quenching capability of graphene via the FRET mechanism enhances the fluorescent-based biosensors. The review provides a comprehensive reference for the different types of carbon nanomaterials employed for the detection of viruses such as Rotavirus, Ebola virus, Influenza virus H3N2, HIV, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Hepatitis B virus (HBV). This review covers the various multiplexing detection technologies as a new direction in the development of biosensing platforms for virus detection. At the end of the review, the different challenges in the use of fluorescent biosensors, as well as some insights into how to overcome them, are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Graphite , Nanostructures , Viruses , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Carbon , Humans
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12828, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960502

ABSTRACT

Binding interactions of the spike proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to a peptide fragment derived from the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor are investigated. The peptide is employed as capture moiety in enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and quantitative binding interaction measurements that are based on fluorescence proximity sensing (switchSENSE). In both techniques, the peptide is presented on an oligovalent DNA nanostructure, in order to assess the impact of mono- versus trivalent binding modes. As the analyte, the spike protein and several of its subunits are tested as well as inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and pseudo viruses. While binding of the peptide to the full-length spike protein can be observed, the subunits RBD and S1 do not exhibit binding in the employed concentrations. Variations of the amino acid sequence of the recombinant full-length spike proteins furthermore influence binding behavior. The peptide was coupled to DNA nanostructures that form a geometric complement to the trimeric structure of the spike protein binding sites. An increase in binding strength for trimeric peptide presentation compared to single peptide presentation could be generally observed in ELISA and was quantified in switchSENSE measurements. Binding to inactivated wild type viruses could be shown as well as qualitatively different binding behavior of the Alpha and Beta variants compared to the wild type virus strain in pseudo virus models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , Humans , Peptides/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 18(4): 1121-1130, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950558

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused significant death, economic crisis, and the world to almost completely shut down. This present study focused on targeting the novel SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein, which has not been frequently mutating, and the S protein with a much larger peptide capable of inhibiting virus-mammalian cell attraction. In doing so, molecular dynamics software was used here to model six peptides including: NapFFTLUFLTUTE, NapFFSLAFLTATE, NapFFSLUFLSUTE, NapFFTLAFLTATE, NapFFSLUFLSUSE, and NapFFMLUFLMUME. Results showed that two of these completely hydrophobic peptides (NapFFTLUFLTUTE and NapFFMLUFLMUME) had a strong ability to bind to the virus, preventing its binding to a mammalian cell membrane, entering the cell, and replicating by covering many cell attachment sites on SARS-CoV-2. Further cell modeling results demonstrated the low toxicity and suitable pharmacokinetic properties of both peptides making them ideal for additional in vitro and in vivo investigation. In this manner, these two peptides should be further explored for a wide range of present and future COVID-19 therapeutic and prophylactic applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Mammals/metabolism , Peptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934141

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system (CNS) diseases are the leading causes of death and disabilities in the world. It is quite challenging to treat CNS diseases efficiently because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). It is a physical barrier with tight junction proteins and high selectivity to limit the substance transportation between the blood and neural tissues. Thus, it is important to understand BBB transport mechanisms for developing novel drug carriers to overcome the BBB. This paper introduces the structure of the BBB and its physiological transport mechanisms. Meanwhile, different strategies for crossing the BBB by using nanomaterial-based drug carriers are reviewed, including carrier-mediated, adsorptive-mediated, and receptor-mediated transcytosis. Since the viral-induced CNS diseases are associated with BBB breakdown, various neurotropic viruses and their mechanisms on BBB disruption are reviewed and discussed, which are considered as an alternative solution to overcome the BBB. Therefore, most recent studies on virus-mimicking nanocarriers for drug delivery to cross the BBB are also reviewed and discussed. On the other hand, the routes of administration of drug-loaded nanocarriers to the CNS have been reviewed. In sum, this paper reviews and discusses various strategies and routes of nano-formulated drug delivery systems across the BBB to the brain, which will contribute to the advanced diagnosis and treatment of CNS diseases.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems , Nanostructures/chemistry , Animals , Biological Transport , Humans
5.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 8(7): 2954-2959, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931302

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence and global spread of the COVID-19 causing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its subsequent mutated strains has caused unprecedented health, economic, and social devastation. Respiratory viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through both direct and indirect channels, including aerosol respiratory droplets, contamination of inanimate surfaces (fomites), and direct person-to-person contact. Current methods of virus inactivation on surfaces include chemicals and biocides, and while effective, continuous and repetitive cleaning of all surfaces is not always viable. Recent work in the field of biomaterials engineering has established the antibacterial effects of hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanostructured surfaces against both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. The current study investigates the effectiveness of said TiO2 nanostructured surfaces against two enveloped human coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63, and nonenveloped HRV-16 for surface-based inactivation. Results show that structured surfaces reduced infectious viral loads of SARS-CoV-2 (5 log), HCoV-NL63 (3 log), and HRV-16 (4 log) after 5 h, compared to nonstructured and tissue culture plastic control surfaces. Interestingly, infectious virus remained present on control tissue culture plastic after 7 h exposure. These encouraging results establish the potential use of nanostructured surfaces to reduce the transmission and spread of both enveloped and nonenveloped respiratory viruses, by reducing their infectious period on a surface. The dual antiviral and antibacterial properties of these surfaces support their potential application in a wide variety of settings such as hospitals and healthcare environments, public transport and community hubs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2 , Titanium
6.
Small Methods ; 5(5): e2001108, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930144

ABSTRACT

During the global outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, "cytokine storm" conditions are regarded as the fatal step resulting in most mortality. Hemoperfusion is widely used to remove cytokines from the blood of severely ill patients to prevent uncontrolled inflammation induced by a cytokine storm. This article discoveres, for the first time, that 2D Ti3 C2 Tx MXene sheet demonstrates an ultrahigh removal capability for typical cytokine interleukin-6. In particular, MXene shows a 13.4 times higher removal efficiency over traditional activated carbon absorbents. Molecular-level investigations reveal that MXene exhibits a strong chemisorption mechanism for immobilizing cytokine interleukin-6 molecules, which is different from activated carbon absorbents. MXene sheet also demonstrates excellent blood compatibility without any deleterious side influence on the composition of human blood. This work can open a new avenue to use MXene sheets as an ultraefficient hemoperfusion absorbent to eliminate the cytokine storm syndrome in treatment of severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Hemoperfusion/methods , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Titanium/administration & dosage , Adsorption , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Titanium/chemistry
7.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(28): 5323-5343, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921742

ABSTRACT

The world has been suffering from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, and millions of people have been infected through human-to-human transmission and lost their lives within months. Although multidisciplinary scientific approaches have been employed to fight against this deadly pandemic, various mutations and diverse environments keep producing constraints in treating SARS-CoV-2. Indeed, the efficacy of the developed vaccines has been limited, and inoculation with the vaccines does not guarantee complete protection even though multiple doses are required, which is a frustrating process. Historically, coinage metals (Cu, Ag, and Au) have been well-known for their effectiveness in antiviral action as well as good biocompatibility, binding receptor inhibition, reactive oxygen species, and phototherapy properties. Thus, this review highlights the diagnostic and therapeutic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 using the antivirus ability and mode of action of coinage metals such as viral entry mechanisms into host cells and the NP-inhibition process, which are explained in detail. This article also draws attention to coinage metal nanomaterial-based approaches to treat other contagious viruses. In addition, coinage metal-based biosensors and an overview of some other biocompatible metal-based nanomaterials to fight against SARS-CoV-2 variants are discussed. Finally, the advantages, perspectives and challenges of coinage metal nanoparticles are given to fight against viral infections in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917638

ABSTRACT

Coming into the second year of the pandemic, the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants continue to be a serious health hazard globally. A surge in the omicron wave, despite the discovery of the vaccines, has shifted the attention of research towards the discovery and use of bioactive compounds, being potential inhibitors of the viral structural proteins. The present study aimed at the green synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with seed extracts of Nigella sativa and Pimpinella anisum-loaded nanostructured oil carriers (NLC)-using a mixture of olive and black seed essential oils. The synthesized ZnO NLC were extensively characterized. In addition, the constituent compounds in ZnO NLC were investigated as a potential inhibitor for the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (3CLpro or Mpro) where 27 bioactive constituents, along with ZnO in the nanostructure, were subjected to molecular docking studies. The resultant high-score compounds were further validated by molecular dynamics simulation. The study optimized the compounds dithymoquinone, δ-hederin, oleuropein, and zinc oxide with high docking energy scores (ranging from -7.9 to -9.9 kcal/mol). The RMSD and RMSF data that ensued also mirrored these results for the stability of proteins and ligands. RMSD and RMSF data showed no conformational change in the protein during the MD simulation. Histograms of every simulation trajectory explained the ligand properties and ligand-protein contacts. Nevertheless, further experimental investigations and validation of the selected candidates are imperative to take forward the applicability of the nanostructure as a potent inhibitor of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) for clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Nigella sativa , Pimpinella , Zinc Oxide , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nigella sativa/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Seeds/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
9.
Nano Lett ; 22(13): 5269-5276, 2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905595

ABSTRACT

The intranasal administration of drugs allows an effective and noninvasive therapeutic action on the respiratory tract. In an era of rapidly increasing antimicrobial resistance, new approaches to the treatment of communicable diseases, especially lung infections, are urgently needed. Metal nanoparticles are recognized as a potential last-line defense, but limited data on the biosafety and nano/biointeractions preclude their use. Here, we quantitatively and qualitatively assess the fate and the potential risks associated with the exposure to a silver nanomaterial model (i.e., silver ultrasmall-in-nano architectures, AgNAs) after a single dose instillation. Our results highlight that the biodistribution profile and the nano/biointeractions are critically influenced by both the design of the nanomaterial and the chemical nature of the metal. Overall, our data suggest that the instillation of rationally engineered nanomaterials might be exploited to develop future treatments for (non)communicable diseases of the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Metal Nanoparticles , Nanostructures , Metal Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Silver , Tissue Distribution
10.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(18): 5507-5517, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906016

ABSTRACT

This paper reports the development of a low-cost (< US$ 0.03 per device) immunosensor based on gold-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). As a proof of concept, the immunosensor was tested for a fast and sensitive determination of S proteins from both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, by a single disposable device. Gold nanoparticles were electrochemically deposited via direct reduction of gold ions on the electrode using amperometry. Capture antibodies from spike (S) protein were covalently immobilized on carboxylic groups of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) attached to the gold nanoparticles. Label-free detection of S proteins from both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 was performed with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The immunosensor fabricated with 9 s gold deposition had a high performance in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, and low limit of detection (LOD) (3.16 pmol L-1), thus permitting the direct determination of the target proteins in spiked saliva samples. The complete analysis can be carried out within 35 min using a simple one-step assay protocol with small sample volumes (10 µL). With such features, the immunoplatform presented here can be deployed for mass testing in point-of-care settings.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanostructures , SARS Virus , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Electrodes , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Chem Soc Rev ; 51(14): 5805-5841, 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900672

ABSTRACT

The effect of the on-going COVID-19 pandemic on global healthcare systems has underlined the importance of timely and cost-effective point-of-care diagnosis of viruses. The need for ultrasensitive easy-to-use platforms has culminated in an increased interest for rapid response equipment-free alternatives to conventional diagnostic methods such as polymerase chain reaction, western-blot assay, etc. Furthermore, the poor stability and the bleaching behavior of several contemporary fluorescent reporters is a major obstacle in understanding the mechanism of viral infection thus retarding drug screening and development. Owing to their extraordinary surface-to-volume ratio as well as their quantum confinement and charge transfer properties, nanomaterials are desirable additives to sensing and imaging systems to amplify their signal response as well as temporal resolution. Their large surface area promotes biomolecular integration as well as efficacious signal transduction. Due to their hole mobility, photostability, resistance to photobleaching, and intense brightness, nanomaterials have a considerable edge over organic dyes for single virus tracking. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of combining carbon-allotrope, inorganic and organic-based nanomaterials with virus sensing and tracking methods, starting with the impact of human pathogenic viruses on the society. We address how different nanomaterials can be used in various virus sensing platforms (e.g. lab-on-a-chip, paper, and smartphone-based point-of-care systems) as well as in virus tracking applications. We discuss the enormous potential for the use of nanomaterials as simple, versatile, and affordable tools for detecting and tracing viruses infectious to humans, animals, plants as well as bacteria. We present latest examples in this direction by emphasizing major advantages and limitations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Viruses , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Pandemics
12.
Food Environ Virol ; 14(2): 105-119, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877974

ABSTRACT

The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant consideration toward innovative strategies for overcoming the viral spread. Nanotechnology will change our lives in several forms as its uses span from electronics to pharmaceutical procedures. The use of nanoparticles provides a possibility to promote new antiviral treatments with a low possibility of increasing drug resistance compared to typical chemical-based antiviral treatments. Since the long-term usage of disinfectants and antiseptics at high concentrations has deleterious impacts on well-being and the environment, this review was intended to discuss the antiviral activity of disinfectants and antiseptics required for their activity against respiratory viruses especially SARS-CoV-2. It could improve the inhibition of viral penetration into cells, solvation of the lipid bilayer envelope, and ROS production, therefore enhancing the effect of disinfectants. However, significant concerns about nanomaterial's hazardous effects on individuals and the environment are increasing as nanotechnology flourishes. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential types of nanomaterials, especially silver and copper, that could be used as antiviral agents and their viral entry mechanisms into host cells. Further, we consider the toxicity on health, and environmental concerns of nanoparticles. Eventually, we present our outlook on the fate of nanomaterials toward viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Nanostructures , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 507, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864775

ABSTRACT

Protein-lipid interactions are vital for numerous transmembrane signaling pathways. However, simple tools to characterize these interactions remain scarce and are much needed to advance our understanding of signal transduction across lipid bilayers. To tackle this challenge, we herein engineer nanodisc as a robust fluorescent sensor for reporting membrane biochemical reactions. We circularize nanodiscs via split GFP and thereby create an intensity-based fluorescent sensor (isenND) for detecting membrane binding and remodeling events. We show that isenND responds robustly and specifically to the action of a diverse array of membrane-interacting proteins and peptides, ranging from synaptotagmin and synuclein involved in neurotransmission to viral fusion peptides of HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Together, isenND can serve as a versatile biochemical reagent useful for basic and translational research of membrane biology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Biophysical Phenomena , Coloring Agents , Humans , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
14.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 5(6): 2431-2460, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852370

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2, a ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus that emerged less than two years ago but has caused nearly 6.1 million deaths to date. Recently developed variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus have been shown to be more potent and expanded at a faster rate. Until now, there is no specific and effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2 in terms of reliable and sustainable recovery. Precaution, prevention, and vaccinations are the only ways to keep the pandemic situation under control. Medical and scientific professionals are now focusing on the repurposing of previous technology and trying to develop more fruitful methodologies to detect the presence of viruses, treat the patients, precautionary items, and vaccine developments. Nanomedicine or nanobased platforms can play a crucial role in these fronts. Researchers are working on many effective approaches by nanosized particles to combat SARS-CoV-2. The role of a nanobased platform to combat SARS-CoV-2 is extremely diverse (i.e., mark to personal protective suit, rapid diagnostic tool to targeted treatment, and vaccine developments). Although there are many theoretical possibilities of a nanobased platform to combat SARS-CoV-2, until now there is an inadequate number of research targeting SARS-CoV-2 to explore such scenarios. This unique mini-review aims to compile and elaborate on the recent advances of nanobased approaches from prevention, diagnostics, treatment to vaccine developments against SARS-CoV-2, and associated challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccine Development
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129173, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851500

ABSTRACT

Current human research on COVID-19 - SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus) showed that ACE2 (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2) is a functional receptor to which the spike proteins attach. Invertebrates have been exposed to a wide array of threats for millennia and their immune system has evolved to deal with these efficiently. The annelid Enchytraeus crypticus, a standard ecotoxicological species, is an invertebrate species where extensive mechanisms of response studies are available, covering all levels from gene to population responses. Nanomaterials (NMs) are often perceived as invaders (e.g. virus) and can enter the cell covered by a corona, triggering similar responses. We created a database on E. crypticus ACE gene expression, aiming to analyse the potential knowledge transfer between invertebrates and vertebrates. Total exposure experiments sum 87 stress conditions for 18 different nanomaterials (NMs). ACE expression following TiO2 NM exposure was clearly different from other NMs showing a clear (6-7 fold) ACE down-regulation, not observed for any other NMs. Other NMs, notably Ag NMs, and to some extent Cu NMs, caused ACE up-regulation (up to 4 fold). The extensive knowledge from response to NMs can support the immuno-research community, especially to develop therapies for virus that trigger the innate immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Oligochaeta , Animals , Humans , Immune System , Nanostructures/toxicity , Oligochaeta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Anal Biochem ; 648: 114680, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850518

ABSTRACT

The world today lives in a state of terrible fear due to the mutation of the emerging COVID-19. With the continuation of this pandemic, there is an urgent need for fast, accurate testing devices to detect the emerging SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in terms of biosensors and point-of-care testing. Besides, the urgent development in personal defense tools, anti-viral surfaces and wearables, and smartphones open the door for simplifying the self-diagnosis process everywhere. This review introduces a quick COVID-19 overview: definition, transmission, pathophysiology, the identification and diagnosis, mutation and transformation, and the global situation. It also focuses on an overview of the rapidly advanced technologies based on nanomaterials and MOFs for biosensing, diagnosing, and viral control of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Finally, highlight the latest technologies, applications, existing achievements, and preventive diagnostic strategies to control this epidemic and combat the emerging coronavirus. This humble effort aims to provide a helpful survey that can be used to develop a creative solution and to lay down the future vision of diagnosis against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal-Organic Frameworks , Nanostructures , Viruses , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847337

ABSTRACT

Nanozymes are synthetic nanoparticulate materials that mimic the biological activities of enzymes by virtue of their surface chemistry. Enzymes catalyze biological reactions with a very high degree of specificity. Examples include the horseradish peroxidase, lactate, glucose, and cholesterol oxidases. For this reason, many industrial uses of enzymes outside their natural environments have been developed. Similar to enzymes, many industrial applications of nanozymes have been developed and used. Unlike the enzymes, however, nanozymes are cost-effectively prepared, purified, stored, and reproducibly and repeatedly used for long periods of time. The detection and identification of pathogens is among some of the reported applications of nanozymes. Three of the methodologic milestones in the evolution of pathogen detection and identification include the incubation and growth, immunoassays and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategies. Although advances in the history of pathogen detection and identification have given rise to novel methods and devices, these are still short of the response speed, accuracy and cost required for point-of-care use. Debuting recently, nanozymology offers significant improvements in the six methodological indicators that are proposed as being key in this review, including simplicity, sensitivity, speed of response, cost, reliability, and durability of the immunoassays and PCR strategies. This review will focus on the applications of nanozymes in the detection and identification of pathogens in samples obtained from foods, natural, and clinical sources. It will highlight the impact of nanozymes in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent and PCR strategies by discussing the mechanistic improvements and the role of the design and architecture of the nanozyme nanoconjugates. Because of their contribution to world health burden, the three most important pathogens that will be considered include viruses, bacteria and fungi. Although not quite seen as pathogens, the review will also consider the detection of cancer cells and helminth parasites. The review leaves very little doubt that nanozymology has introduced remarkable advances in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and PCR strategies for detecting these five classes of pathogens. However, a gap still exists in the application of nanozymes to detect and identify fungal pathogens directly, although indirect strategies in which nanozymes are used have been reported. From a mechanistic point of view, the nanozyme technology transfer to laboratory research methods in PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay studies, and the point-of-care devices such as electronic biosensors and lateral flow detection strips, that is currently taking place, is most likely to give rise to no small revolution in each of the six methodological indicators for pathogen detection and identification. While the evidence of widespread research reports, clinical trials and point-of-care device patents support this view, the gaps that still exist point to a need for more basic research studies to be conducted on the applications of nanozymology in pathogen detection and identification. The multidisciplinary nature of the research on the application of nanozymes in the detection and identification of pathogens requires chemists and physicists for the design, fabrication, and characterization of nanozymes; microbiologists for the design, testing and analysis of the methodologies, and clinicians or clinical researchers for the evaluation of the methodologies and devices in the clinic. Many reports have also implicated required skills in mathematical modelling, and electronic engineering. While the review will conclude with a synopsis of the impact of nanozymology on the detection and identification of viruses, bacteria, fungi, cancer cells, and helminths, it will also point out opportunities that exist in basic research as well as opportunities for innovation aimed at novel laboratory methodologies and devices. In this regard there is no doubt that there are numerous unexplored research areas in the application of nanozymes for the detection of pathogens. For example, most research on the applications of nanozymes for the detection and identification of fungi is so far limited only to the detection of mycotoxins and other chemical compounds associated with fungal infection. Therefore, there is scope for exploration of the application of nanozymes in the direct detection of fungi in foods, especially in the agricultural production thereof. Many fungal species found in seeds severely compromise their use by inactivating the germination thereof. Fungi also produce mycotoxins that can severely compromise the health of humans if consumed.


Subject(s)
Mycotoxins , Nanostructures , Bacteria , Catalysis , Humans , Immunoassay , Nanostructures/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results
18.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 207: 114209, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838599

ABSTRACT

The sudden increase of the COVID-19 outbreak and its continued growth with mutations in various forms has created a global health crisis as well as devastating social and economic effects over the past two years. In this study, a screen-printed carbon electrode reinforced with boron nitride quantum dots/flower-like gold nanostructures (BNQDs/FGNs/SPCE) and functionalized by highly specific antisense DNA oligonucleotide presents an alternative and promising solution for targeting SARS-CoV-2 RNA without nucleic acid amplification. The platform was tested on 120 SARS-CoV-2 RNA isolated from real clinical samples (60 positive and 60 negative confirmed by conventional RT-PCR method). Based on obtained quantitative results and statistical analysis (box-diagram, cutoff value, receiver operating characteristic curve, and t-test), the biosensor revealed a significant difference between the two positive and negative groups with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. To evaluate the quantitation capacity and detection limit of the biosensor for clinical trials, the detection performance of the biosensor for continuously diluted RNA isolated from SARS-CoV-2-confirmed patients was compared to those obtained by RT-PCR, demonstrating that the detection limit of the biosensor is lower than or comparable to that of RT-PCR. The ssDNA/BNQDs/FGNs/SPCE showed negligible cross-reactivity with RNA fragments isolated from Influenza A (IAV) clinical samples and also remained stable for up to 14 days. In conclusion, the fabricated biosensor may serve as a promising tool for point-of-care applications.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Quantum Dots , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Boron Compounds , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 212: 114340, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819434
20.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(4)2022 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809706

ABSTRACT

Thrombin plays a central role in hemostasis and its imbalances in coagulation can lead to various pathologies. It is of clinical significance to develop a fast and accurate method for the quantitative detection of thrombin. Electrochemical aptasensors have the capability of combining the specific selectivity from aptamers with the extraordinary sensitivity from electrochemical techniques and thus have attracted considerable attention for the trace-level detection of thrombin. Nanomaterials and nanostructures can further enhance the performance of thrombin aptasensors to achieve high sensitivity, selectivity, and antifouling functions. In highlighting these material merits and their impacts on sensor performance, this paper reviews the most recent advances in label-free electrochemical aptasensors for thrombin detection, with an emphasis on nanomaterials and nanostructures utilized in sensor design and fabrication. The performance, advantages, and limitations of those aptasensors are summarized and compared according to their material structures and compositions.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biosensing Techniques , Nanostructures , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques , Nanostructures/chemistry , Thrombin
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