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1.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(41): 4197-4211, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547089

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by a newly identified coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since its inception in late December 2019, COVID-19 has led to a tremendous loss of human life worldwide. To overcome the unprecedented challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic to the public and economic health, strengthening the healthcare system is of utmost need. In this regard, research communities are putting efforts into developing an advanced healthcare system that could reduce the severe impacts of this pandemic. Nanotechnology is an advanced technology that has contributed significantly to produce powerful arsenals for the frontline warriors in this battle against COVID-19. It has offered opportunities for the development of fast and accurate point-of-care testing, efficient therapeutics and vaccines, potent sanitizers, facemasks, and personal protective equipment against SARS-CoV-2. However, associated toxicity, lengthy procedures of clinical trials, and uncertain health risks are some points that are still debatable. The present paper provides an overview of COVID-19 specific therapeutics and vaccines with an emphasis on nano-based strategies, which are significantly contributing towards the success of mitigation measures and strategies against COVID-19. Furthermore, the associated challenges, current limitations, and opportunities in this field are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Nanotechnology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538466

ABSTRACT

The complexity of molecular communications system, involving a massive number of interacting entities, makes scalability a fundamental property of simulators and modeling tools. A typical scenario is that of targeted drug delivery systems, which makes use of biological nanomachines close to a biological target, able to release molecules in the diseased area. In this paper, we propose a simple but reliable receiver model for diffusion-based molecular communication systems tackling the time needed for analyzing such a system. The proposed model consists of using an equivalent markovian queuing model, which reproduces the aggregate behavior of thousands of receptors spread over the receiver surface. It takes into account not only the fact that the absorption of molecules can occur only through receptors, but also that absorption is not an instantaneous process and may require a significant time during which the receptor is not available to bind to other molecules. Our results, expressed in terms of number of absorbed molecules and average number of busy receptors, demonstrate that the proposed approach is in good agreement with results obtained through particle-based simulations of a large number of receptors, although the time taken for obtaining the results with the proposed model is an order of magnitudes lower than the simulation time. We believe that this model can be the precursor of novel class of models based on similar principles that allow realizing reliable simulations of much larger systems.


Subject(s)
Communication , Nanotechnology , Computer Simulation , Diffusion
4.
Nanotechnology ; 33(6)2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493587

ABSTRACT

Wearing a face mask has become a necessity following the outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) disease, where its effectiveness in containing the pandemic has been confirmed. Nevertheless, the pandemic has revealed major deficiencies in the ability to manufacture and ramp up worldwide production of efficient surgical-grade face masks. As a result, many researchers have focused their efforts on the development of low cost, smart and effective face covers. In this article, following a short introduction concerning face mask requirements, the different nanotechnology-enabled techniques for achieving better protection against the SARS-CoV-2 virus are reviewed, including the development of nanoporous and nanofibrous membranes in addition to triboelectric nanogenerators based masks, which can filter the virus using various mechanisms such as straining, electrostatic attraction and electrocution. The development of nanomaterials-based mask coatings to achieve virus repellent and sterilizing capabilities, including antiviral, hydrophobic and photothermal features are also discussed. Finally, the usability of nanotechnology-enabled face masks is discussed and compared with that of current commercial-grade N95 masks. To conclude, we highlight the challenges associated with the quick transfer of nanomaterials-enabled face masks and provide an overall outlook of the importance of nanotechnology in counteracting the COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Nanotechnology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Filtration , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Nanofibers/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , User-Centered Design
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(43): 51132-51140, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483083

ABSTRACT

Apart from claiming the lives of more than 3.2 million people, the COVID-19 pandemic is worsening the global plastic pollution every day, mainly with the overflux of single-use polypropylene (PP) face masks. In this scenario, as an innovative solution to mitigate plastic pollution as well as to meet the rising electrical energy demand, we are introducing an all-flexible and facile waste material-based triboelectric nanogenerator (WM-TENG), aiding toward the circular economy. The WM-TENG operating in contact separation mode is fabricated using the PP from a used face mask in combination with recovered Mylar sheets from solid wastes as triboelectric contact layers and a flexible supporting structure. After detailed investigation and trials to study the effect of various disinfection mechanisms of PP materials on the energy output of WM-TENG, UV-C radiation is selected for disinfecting the used masks owing to the retention of electrical energy output. Under a tapping force of 3 N, the WM-TENG having an active area of 6 cm2 delivers an open-circuit voltage of 200 V and a short-circuit current density of 0.29 mA/m2, respectively. The WM-TENG also delivered a maximum power density of 71.16 mW/m2 under 108 Ω load. Additionally, the WM-TENG is demonstrated for powering electronic gadgets such as a calculator, digital thermometer, and LCD clock. This flexible and low-cost nanogenerator without any complex fabrication steps is a sustainable solution for the alarming plastic pollution as well as the rising energy demands.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Electric Power Supplies/economics , Masks/economics , Nanotechnology/economics , Polypropylenes/economics , Waste Products/economics , Humans
6.
Acc Chem Res ; 54(21): 3991-4000, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483068

ABSTRACT

The modern healthcare system faces an unrelenting threat from microorganisms, as evidenced by global outbreaks of new viral diseases, emerging antimicrobial resistance, and the rising incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). An effective response to these threats requires rapid and accurate diagnostic tests that can identify causative pathogens at the point of care (POC). Such tests could eliminate diagnostic uncertainties, facilitating patient triaging, minimizing the empiric use of antimicrobial drugs, and enabling targeted treatments. Current standard methods, however, often fail to meet the needs of rapid diagnosis in POC settings. Culture-based assays entail long processing times and require specialized laboratory infrastructure; nucleic acid (NA) tests are often limited to centralized hospitals due to assay complexity and high costs. Here we discuss two new POC tests developed in our groups to enable the rapid diagnosis of infection. The first is nanoPCR that takes advantages of core-shell magnetoplasmonic nanoparticles (MPNs): (i) Au shell significantly accelerates thermocycling via volumetric, plasmonic light-to-heat conversion and (ii) a magnetic core enables sensitive in situ fluorescent detection via magnetic clearing. By adopting a Ferris wheel module, the system expedites multisamples in parallel with a minimal setup. When applied to COVID-19 diagnosis, nanoPCR detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA down to 3.2 copy/µL within 17 min. In particular, nanoPCR diagnostics accurately identified COVID-19 cases in clinical samples (n = 150), validating its clinical applicability. The second is a polarization anisotropy diagnostic (PAD) system that exploits the principle of fluorescence polarization (FP) as a detection modality. Fluorescent probes were designed to alter their molecular weight upon recognizing target NAs. This event modulates the probes' tumbling rate (Brownian motion), which leads to changes in FP. The approach is robust against environmental noise and benefits from the ratiometric nature of the signal readout. We applied PAD to detect clinically relevant HAI bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus). The PAD assay demonstrated detection sensitivity down to the single bacterium level and determined both drug resistance and virulence status. In summary, these new tests have the potential to become powerful tools for rapid diagnosis in the infectious disease space. They do not require highly skilled personnel or labor-intensive analyses, and the assays are quick and cost-effective. These attributes will make nanoPCR and PAD well-aligned with a POC workflow to aid physicians to initiate prompt and informed patient treatment.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fluorescence Polarization , Nanotechnology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108162, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482654

ABSTRACT

>20 months has been passed since the detection of the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection named COVID-19 from Wuhan city of China. This novel coronavirus spread rapidly around the world and became a pandemic. Although different therapeutic options have been considered and approved for the management of COVID-19 infection in different stages of the disease, challenges in pharmacotherapy especially in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 and with underlying diseases have still remained. Prevention of infection through public vaccination would be the only efficient strategy to control the morbidity and mortality caused by COVID-19. To date, several COVID-19 vaccines using different platforms including nucleic acid-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines, protein-based vaccines, and inactivated vaccines have been introduced among which many have received approval for prevention against COVID-19. In this comprehensive review, available COVID-19 vaccines have been discussed. The mechanisms, safety, efficacy, dosage, dosing intervals, possible adverse reactions, storage, and coverage of these four different vaccine platforms against SARS-CoV-2 variants have been discussed in detail and summarized in tabular format for ease of comparison and conclusion. Although each COVID-19 vaccine has various advantages and disadvantages over the others, accessibility and affordability of approved vaccines by the official health organizations, especially in developing countries, would be essential to terminate this pandemic. The main limitation of this study was the lack of access to the clinical data on available COVID-19 vaccines developed in Eastern countries since the data on their efficacy, safety, and adverse reactions were limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Nanotechnology , Vaccination
8.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480582

ABSTRACT

It has been proven that rapid bioinformatics analysis according to patient health profiles, in addition to biomarker detection at a low level, is emerging as essential to design an analytical diagnostics system to manage health intelligently in a personalized manner. Such objectives need an optimized combination of a nano-enabled sensing prototype, artificial intelligence (AI)-supported predictive analysis, and Internet of Medical Things (IoMT)-based bioinformatics analysis. Such a developed system began with a prototype demonstration of efficient diseases diagnostics performance is the future diseases management approach. To explore these aspects, the Special Issue planned for the nano-and micro-technology section of MDPI's Biosensors journal will honor and acknowledge the contributions of Prof. B.D. Malhotra, Ph.D., FNA, FNASc has made in the field of biosensors.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Nanotechnology , Artificial Intelligence , Biomarkers , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems
9.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471001

ABSTRACT

Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the development of a new generation of vaccines, which are playing a critical role in the global control of the COVID-19 pandemic and the return to normalcy. Vaccine development has been conducted, by and large, by countries in the global north. South Africa, as a major emerging economy, has made extensive investments in nanotechnology and bioinformatics and has the expertise and resources in vaccine development and manufacturing. This has been built at a national level through decades of investment. In this perspective article, we provide a synopsis of the investments made in nanotechnology and highlight how these could support innovation, research, and development for vaccines for this disease. We also discuss the application of bioinformatics tools to support rapid and cost-effective vaccine development and make recommendations for future research and development in this area to support future health challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Nanotechnology , Computational Biology , Drug Development , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , South Africa
10.
ACS Nano ; 14(8): 9364-9388, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387150

ABSTRACT

The SARS-Cov-2 pandemic has spread worldwide during 2020, setting up an uncertain start of this decade. The measures to contain infection taken by many governments have been extremely severe by imposing home lockdown and industrial production shutdown, making this the biggest crisis since the second world war. Additionally, the continuous colonization of wild natural lands may touch unknown virus reservoirs, causing the spread of epidemics. Apart from SARS-Cov-2, the recent history has seen the spread of several viral pandemics such as H2N2 and H3N3 flu, HIV, and SARS, while MERS and Ebola viruses are considered still in a prepandemic phase. Hard nanomaterials (HNMs) have been recently used as antimicrobial agents, potentially being next-generation drugs to fight viral infections. HNMs can block infection at early (disinfection, entrance inhibition) and middle (inside the host cells) stages and are also able to mitigate the immune response. This review is focused on the application of HNMs as antiviral agents. In particular, mechanisms of actions, biological outputs, and limitations for each HNM will be systematically presented and analyzed from a material chemistry point-of-view. The antiviral activity will be discussed in the context of the different pandemic viruses. We acknowledge that HNM antiviral research is still at its early stage, however, we believe that this field will rapidly blossom in the next period.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adaptive Immunity , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Delivery Systems , Fullerenes/therapeutic use , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Metal Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Models, Biological , Nanotechnology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reactive Oxygen Species/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization/drug effects
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 5713-5743, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379900

ABSTRACT

A serious viral infectious disease was introduced to the globe by the end of 2019 that was seen primarily from China, but spread worldwide in a few months to be a pandemic. Since then, accurate prevention, early detection, and effective treatment strategies are not yet outlined. There is no approved drug to counter its worldwide transmission. However, integration of nanostructured delivery systems with the current management strategies has promised a pronounced opportunity to tackle the pandemic. This review addressed the various promising nanotechnology-based approaches for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of the pandemic. The pharmaceutical, pharmacoeconomic, and regulatory aspects of these systems with currently achieved or predicted beneficial outcomes, challenges, and future perspectives are also highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Humans , Nanotechnology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(41): 4197-4211, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378154

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by a newly identified coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since its inception in late December 2019, COVID-19 has led to a tremendous loss of human life worldwide. To overcome the unprecedented challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic to the public and economic health, strengthening the healthcare system is of utmost need. In this regard, research communities are putting efforts into developing an advanced healthcare system that could reduce the severe impacts of this pandemic. Nanotechnology is an advanced technology that has contributed significantly to produce powerful arsenals for the frontline warriors in this battle against COVID-19. It has offered opportunities for the development of fast and accurate point-of-care testing, efficient therapeutics and vaccines, potent sanitizers, facemasks, and personal protective equipment against SARS-CoV-2. However, associated toxicity, lengthy procedures of clinical trials, and uncertain health risks are some points that are still debatable. The present paper provides an overview of COVID-19 specific therapeutics and vaccines with an emphasis on nano-based strategies, which are significantly contributing towards the success of mitigation measures and strategies against COVID-19. Furthermore, the associated challenges, current limitations, and opportunities in this field are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Nanotechnology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 5411-5435, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362163

ABSTRACT

Advances in nanobiotechnology have allowed the utilization of nanotechnology through nanovaccines. Nanovaccines are powerful tools for enhancing the immunogenicity of a specific antigen and exhibit advantages over other adjuvant approaches, with features such as expanded stability, prolonged release, decreased immunotoxicity, and immunogenic selectivity. We introduce recent advances in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to induce either a carrier effect as a nanoplatform or an immunostimulatory effect. Several studies of CNT-based nanovaccines revealed that due to the ability of CNTs to carry immunogenic molecules, they can act as nonclassical vaccines, a quality not possessed by vaccines with traditional formulations. Therefore, adapting and modifying the physicochemical properties of CNTs for use in vaccines may additionally enhance their efficacy in inducing a T cell-based immune response. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to renew and awaken interest in and knowledge of the safe use of CNTs as adjuvants and carriers in vaccines.


Subject(s)
Nanotubes, Carbon , Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antigens , Nanotechnology
14.
Microb Pathog ; 159: 105133, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356367

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic viruses originate from birds or animal sources and responsible for disease transmission from animals to people through zoonotic spill over and presents a significant global health concern due to lack of rapid diagnostics and therapeutics. The Corona viruses (CoV) were known to be transmitted in mammals. Early this year, SARS-CoV-2, a novel strain of corona virus, was identified as the causative pathogen of an outbreak of viral pneumonia in Wuhan, China. The disease later named corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), subsequently spread across the globe rapidly. Nano-particles and viruses are comparable in size, which serves to be a major advantage of using nano-material in clinical strategy to combat viruses. Nanotechnology provides novel solutions against zoonotic viruses by providing cheap and efficient detection methods, novel, and new effective rapid diagnostics and therapeutics. The prospective of nanotechnology in COVID 19 is exceptionally high due to their small size, large surface-to-volume ratio, susceptibility to modification, intrinsic viricidal activity. The nano-based strategies address the COVID 19 by extending their role in i) designing nano-materials for drug/vaccine delivery, ii) developing nano-based diagnostic approaches like nano-sensors iii) novel nano-based personal protection equipment to be used in prevention strategies.This review aims to bring attention to the significant contribution of nanotechnology to mitigate against zoonotic viral pandemics by prevention, faster diagnosis and medication point of view.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Animals , Humans , Nanotechnology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 366, 2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351981

ABSTRACT

GFP fusion-based fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC) has been widely employed for membrane protein expression screening. However, fused GFP itself may occasionally affect the expression and/or stability of the targeted membrane protein, leading to both false-positive and false-negative results in expression screening. Furthermore, GFP fusion technology is not well suited for some membrane proteins, depending on their membrane topology. Here, we developed an FSEC assay utilizing nanobody (Nb) technology, named FSEC-Nb, in which targeted membrane proteins are fused to a small peptide tag and recombinantly expressed. The whole-cell extracts are solubilized, mixed with anti-peptide Nb fused to GFP for FSEC analysis. FSEC-Nb enables the evaluation of the expression, monodispersity and thermostability of membrane proteins without the need for purification but does not require direct GFP fusion to targeted proteins. Our results show FSEC-Nb as a powerful tool for expression screening of membrane proteins for structural and functional studies.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Gel , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nanotechnology , Peptides/metabolism , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Animals , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Cysteine Loop Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Receptors/genetics , Cysteine Loop Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Receptors/immunology , Cysteine Loop Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Receptors/metabolism , Fish Proteins/genetics , Fish Proteins/immunology , Fish Proteins/metabolism , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Oryzias/genetics , Oryzias/metabolism , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Protein Stability , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spectrometry, Fluorescence , Temperature , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
16.
J Control Release ; 338: 80-104, 2021 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347165

ABSTRACT

Millions of people die each year from viral infections across the globe. There is an urgent need to overcome the existing gap and pitfalls of the current antiviral therapy which include increased dose and dosing frequency, bioavailability challenges, non-specificity, incidences of resistance and so on. These stumbling blocks could be effectively managed by the advent of nanomedicine. Current review emphasizes over an enhanced understanding of how different lipid, polymer and elemental based nanoformulations could be potentially and precisely used to bridle the said drawbacks in antiviral therapy. The dawn of nanotechnology meeting vaccine delivery, role of RNAi therapeutics in antiviral treatment regimen, various regulatory concerns towards clinical translation of nanomedicine along with current trends and implications including unexplored research avenues for advancing the current drug delivery have been discussed in detail.


Subject(s)
Nanomedicine , Virus Diseases , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Nanotechnology , Polymers , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
18.
ACS Nano ; 15(10): 15940-15952, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331363

ABSTRACT

As the twenty-first century unfolds, nanotechnology is no longer just a buzzword in the field of materials science, but rather a tangible reality. This is evident from the surging number of commercial nanoproducts and their corresponding revenue generated in different industry sectors. However, it is important to recognize that sustainable growth of nanotechnology is heavily dependent on government funding and relevant national incentive programs. Consequently, proper analyses on publicly available nanotechnology data sets comprising information on the past two decades can be illuminating, facilitate development, and amend previous strategies as we move forward. Along these lines, classical statistics and machine learning (ML) allow processing large data sets to scrutinize patterns in materials science and nanotechnology research. Herein, we provide an analysis on nanotechnology progress and investment from an unbiased, computational vantage point and using orthogonal approaches. Our data reveal both well-established and surprising correlations in the nanotechnology field and its actors, including the interplay between the number of research institutes-industry, publications-patents, collaborative research, and top contributors to nanoproducts. Overall, data suggest that, supported by incentive programs set out by stakeholders (researchers, funding agencies, policy makers, and industry), nanotechnology could experience an exponential growth and become a centerpiece for economical welfare. Indeed, the recent success of COVID-19 vaccines is also likely to boost public trust in nanotechnology and its global impact over the coming years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Materials Science , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Nanotechnology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Small Methods ; 5(9): e2100402, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330355

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the main quest of science has been the pioneering of the groundbreaking biomedical strategies needed for achieving a personalized medicine. Ribonucleic acids (RNAs) are outstanding bioactive macromolecules identified as pivotal actors in regulating a wide range of biochemical pathways. The ability to intimately control the cell fate and tissue activities makes RNA-based drugs the most fascinating family of bioactive agents. However, achieving a widespread application of RNA therapeutics in humans is still a challenging feat, due to both the instability of naked RNA and the presence of biological barriers aimed at hindering the entrance of RNA into cells. Recently, material scientists' enormous efforts have led to the development of various classes of nanostructured carriers customized to overcome these limitations. This work systematically reviews the current advances in developing the next generation of drugs based on nanotechnology-assisted RNA delivery. The features of the most used RNA molecules are presented, together with the development strategies and properties of nanostructured vehicles. Also provided is an in-depth overview of various therapeutic applications of the presented systems, including coronavirus disease vaccines and the newest trends in the field. Lastly, emerging challenges and future perspectives for nanotechnology-mediated RNA therapies are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , Nanotechnology/methods , RNA/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Nanostructures/chemistry , RNA/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Nanotechnology ; 32(48)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328908

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak is creating severe impressions on all facets of the global community. Despite strong measures worldwide to try and re-achieve normalcy, the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to survive sturdy ecological settings may contribute to its rapid spread. Scientists from different aspects of life are working together to develop effective treatment strategies against SARS-CoV-2. Apart from using clinical devices for patient recovery, the key focus is on developing antiviral drugs and vaccines. Given the physical size of the SARS-CoV-2 pathogen and with the vaccine delivery platform currently undergoing clinical trials, the link between nanotechnology is clear, and previous antiviral research using nanomaterials confirms this link. Nanotechnology based products can effectively suppress various pathogens, including viruses, regardless of drug resistance, biological structure, or physiology. Thus, nanotechnology is opening up new dimensions for developing new strategies for diagnosing, preventing, treating COVID-19 and other viral ailments. This article describes the application of nanotechnology against the COVID-19 virus in terms of therapeutic purposes and vaccine development through the invention of nanomaterial based substances such as sanitizers (handwashing agents and surface disinfectants), masks and gowns, amongst other personal protective equipment, diagnostic tools, and nanocarrier systems, as well as the drawbacks and challenges of nanotechnology that need to be addressed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Nanotechnology
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