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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 212: 114406, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850711

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has shown the need for early diagnosis to manage infectious disease outbreaks. Here, we report a label free electrochemical Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide (FTO) Immunosensor coupled with gold nanorods (GNRs) as an electron carrier for ultrasensitive detection of the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of SARS CoV-2 Spike protein. The RBD gene was cloned, and expressed in-house with confirmed molecular weight of ∼31 kDa via Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF). RBD antibodies (Ab) were generated to be used as a bioreceptor for sensor fabrication, and characterized using SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). GNRs were fabricated on the electrode surface, followed by immobilization of RBD Ab. The conjugation steps were confirmed by UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV). The fabricated electrode was further optimized for maximum efficiency and output. The detection limit of the developed electrode was determined as 0.73 fM for RBD antigen (Ag). Furthermore, the patient nasopharyngeal samples were collected in Viral Transport Media (VTM), and tested on the sensor surface that resulted in detection of SARS CoV-2 within 30 s, which was further validated via Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Moreover, the immunosensor showed good repeatability, storage stability, and minimal cross reactivity against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) spike protein. Along with ease of fabrication, the electrodes show future miniaturization potential for extensive and rapid screening of populations for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanotubes , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carrier Proteins , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis
2.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 146: 108106, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828002

ABSTRACT

The development of advanced electrode materials and the combination of aptamer with them have improved dramatically the performance of aptasensors. Herein, a new architecture based on copper hydroxide nanorods (Cu(OH)2 NRs) are directly grown on the surface of screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) using a two-step in situ, very simple and fast strategy and was used as a high-performance substrate for immobilization of aptamer strings, as well as an electrochemical probe to development a label-free electrochemical aptasensor for SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein measurement. The Cu(OH)2 NRs was characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and electron microscopy (FESEM). In the presence of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, a decrease in Cu(OH)2 NRs-associated peak current was observed that can be owing to the target-aptamer complexes formation and thus blocking the electron transfer of Cu(OH)2 NRs on the surface of electrode. This strategy exhibited wide dynamic range in of 0.1 fg mL-1 to 1.2 µg mL-1 and with a high sensitivity of 1974.43 µA mM-1 cm-2 and low detection limit of 0.03 ± 0.01 fg mL-1 of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein deprived of any cross-reactivity in the presence of possible interference species. In addition, the good reproducibility, repeatability, high stability and excellent feasibility in real samples of saliva and viral transport medium (VTM) were found from the provided aptasensor. Also, the aptasensor efficiency was evaluated by real samples of sick and healthy individuals and compared with the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and acceptable results were observed.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanotubes , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Electrodes , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6223, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788319

ABSTRACT

Paper-based biosensors featuring immunoconjugated gold nanoparticles have gained extraordinary momentum in recent times as the platform of choice in key cases of field applications, including the so-called rapid antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2. Here, we propose a revision of this format, one that may leverage on the most recent advances in materials science and data processing. In particular, we target an amplifiable DNA rather than a protein analyte, and we replace gold nanospheres with anisotropic nanorods, which are intrinsically brighter by a factor of ~ 10, and multiplexable. By comparison with a gold-standard method for dot-blot readout with digoxigenin, we show that gold nanorods entail much faster and easier processing, at the cost of a higher limit of detection (from below 1 to 10 ppm in the case of plasmid DNA containing a target transgene, in our current setup). In addition, we test a complete workflow to acquire and process photographs of dot-blot membranes with custom-made hardware and regression tools, as a strategy to gain more analytical sensitivity and potential for quantification. A leave-one-out approach for training and validation with as few as 36 sample instances already improves the limit of detection reached by the naked eye by a factor around 2. Taken together, we conjecture that the synergistic combination of new materials and innovative tools for data processing may bring the analytical sensitivity of paper-based biosensors to approach the level of lab-grade molecular tests.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanotubes , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA , Gold , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
ACS Macro Lett ; 11(3): 317-322, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730252

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for innovative biosensing, diagnostic, and surveillance platforms. Here we report that glycosylated, polymer-stabilized, gold nanorods can bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and show correlation to the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in primary COVID-19 clinical samples. Telechelic polymers were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization, enabling the capture of 2,3-sialyllactose and immobilization onto gold nanorods. Control experiments with a panel of lectins and a galactosamine-terminated polymer confirmed the selective binding. The glycosylated rods were shown to give dose-dependent responses against recombinant truncated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and the responses were further correlated using primary patient swab samples. The essentiality of the anisotropic particles for reducing the background interference is demonstrated. This highlights the utility of polymer tethering of glycans for plasmonic biosensors of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanotubes , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold , Humans , Pandemics , Polymers , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715400

ABSTRACT

Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), discovered in 2004, are thin, long protrusions between cells utilized for intercellular transfer and communication. These newly discovered structures have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in homeostasis, but also in the spreading of diseases, infections, and metastases. Gaining much interest in the medical research field, TNTs have been shown to transport nanomedicines (NMeds) between cells. NMeds have been studied thanks to their advantageous features in terms of reduced toxicity of drugs, enhanced solubility, protection of the payload, prolonged release, and more interestingly, cell-targeted delivery. Nevertheless, their transfer between cells via TNTs makes their true fate unknown. If better understood, TNTs could help control NMed delivery. In fact, TNTs can represent the possibility both to improve the biodistribution of NMeds throughout a diseased tissue by increasing their formation, or to minimize their formation to block the transfer of dangerous material. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction between NMeds and TNTs. In this work, we will explain what TNTs are and how they form and then review what has been published regarding their potential use in nanomedicine research. We will highlight possible future approaches to better exploit TNT intercellular communication in the field of nanomedicine.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane Structures/metabolism , Animals , Biological Transport/physiology , Humans , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanotubes , Tissue Distribution/physiology
6.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 592-593, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550307
7.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(12): 434, 2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536308

ABSTRACT

A novel and sensitive voltammetric nanosensor was developed for the first time for trace level monitoring of favipiravir based on gold/silver core-shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag CSNPs) with conductive polymer poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and functionalized multi carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNTs) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The formation of Au@Ag CSNPs/PEDOT:PSS/F-MWCNT composite was confirmed by various analytical techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under the optimized conditions and at a typical working potential of + 1.23 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the Au@Ag CSNPs/PEDOT:PSS/F-MWCNT/GCE revealed linear quantitative ranges from 0.005 to 0.009 and 0.009 to 1.95 µM with a limit of detection 0.46 nM (S/N = 3) with acceptable relative standard deviations (1.1-4.9 %) for pharmaceutical formulations, urine, and human plasma samples without applying any sample pretreatment (1.12-4.93%). The interference effect of antiviral drugs, biological compounds, and amino acids was negligible, and the sensing system demonstrated outstanding reproducibility, repeatability, stability, and reusability. The findings revealed that this assay strategy has promising applications in diagnosing FAV in clinical samples, which could be attributed to the large surface area on active sites and high conductivity of bimetallic nanocomposite.


Subject(s)
Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Electrochemistry/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanotechnology/methods , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Colloids/chemistry , Electrodes , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Linear Models , Nanotubes , Polymers/chemistry
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15429, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333985

ABSTRACT

Evidences are escalating on the diverse neurological-disorders and asymptomatic cardiovascular-diseases associated with COVID-19 pandemic due to the Sanal-flow-choking. Herein, we established the proof of the concept of nanoscale Sanal-flow-choking in real-world fluid-flow systems using a closed-form-analytical-model. This mathematical-model is capable of predicting exactly the 3D-boundary-layer-blockage factor of nanoscale diabatic-fluid-flow systems (flow involves the transfer of heat) at the Sanal-flow-choking condition. As the pressure of the diabatic nanofluid and/or non-continuum-flows rises, average-mean-free-path diminishes and thus, the Knudsen-number lowers heading to a zero-slip wall-boundary condition with the compressible-viscous-flow regime in the nanoscale-tubes leading to Sanal-flow-choking due to the sonic-fluid-throat effect. At the Sanal-flow-choking condition the total-to-static pressure ratio (ie., systolic-to-diastolic pressure ratio) is a unique function of the heat-capacity-ratio of the real-world flows. The innovation of the nanoscale Sanal-flow-choking model is established herein through the entropy relation, as it satisfies all the conservation-laws of nature. The physical insight of the boundary-layer-blockage persuaded nanoscale Sanal-flow-choking in diabatic flows presented in this article sheds light on finding solutions to numerous unresolved scientific problems in physical, chemical and biological sciences carried forward over the centuries because the mathematical-model describing the phenomenon of Sanal-flow-choking is a unique scientific-language of the real-world-fluid flows. The 3D-boundary-layer-blockage factors presented herein for various gases are universal-benchmark-data for performing high-fidelity in silico, in vitro and in vivo experiments in nanotubes.


Subject(s)
Fluid Shifts/physiology , Models, Theoretical , Nanotubes/chemistry , Rheology/methods , Algorithms , Biophysical Phenomena , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Computational Biology/methods , Humans , Hydrodynamics , Physical Phenomena , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 680891, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291922

ABSTRACT

The network of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) represents the filamentous (F)-actin rich tubular structure which is connected to the cytoplasm of the adjacent and or distant cells to mediate efficient cell-to-cell communication. They are long cytoplasmic bridges with an extraordinary ability to perform diverse array of function ranging from maintaining cellular physiology and cell survival to promoting immune surveillance. Ironically, TNTs are now widely documented to promote the spread of various pathogens including viruses either during early or late phase of their lifecycle. In addition, TNTs have also been associated with multiple pathologies in a complex multicellular environment. While the recent work from multiple laboratories has elucidated the role of TNTs in cellular communication and maintenance of homeostasis, this review focuses on their exploitation by the diverse group of viruses such as retroviruses, herpesviruses, influenza A, human metapneumovirus and SARS CoV-2 to promote viral entry, virus trafficking and cell-to-cell spread. The later process may aggravate disease severity and the associated complications due to widespread dissemination of the viruses to multiple organ system as observed in current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. In addition, the TNT-mediated intracellular spread can be protective to the viruses from the circulating immune surveillance and possible neutralization activity present in the extracellular matrix. This review further highlights the relevance of TNTs in ocular and cardiac tissues including neurodegenerative diseases, chemotherapeutic resistance, and cancer pathogenesis. Taken together, we suggest that effective therapies should consider precise targeting of TNTs in several diseases including virus infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Cytoplasm/ultrastructure , Cytoplasm/virology , Nanotubes/virology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Virus Diseases/etiology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Communication , Humans
10.
Inorg Chem ; 60(9): 6585-6599, 2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195597

ABSTRACT

Silver vanadate nanorods (ß-AgVO3) with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) decorated on the surface of the rods were synthesized by using simple hydrothermal technique and later anchored onto nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) to make a novel nanocomposite. Experimental analyses were carried out to identify the electronic configuration by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, which revealed monoclinic patterns of the C12/m1 space group with Wulff construction forming beta silver vanadate (ß-AgVO3) crystals with optical density and phase transformations. Ag nucleation showed consistent results with metallic formation and electronic changes occurring in [AgO5] and [AgO3] clusters. Transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy with elemental mapping and EDX analysis of the morphology reveals the nanorod structure for ß-AgVO3 with AgNPs on the surface and sheets for N-rGO. Additionally, a novel electrochemical sensor is constructed by using Ag/AgVO3/N-rGO on screen-printed carbon paste electrodes for the detection of antiviral drug levofloxacin (LEV) which is used as a primary antibiotic in controlling COVID-19. Using differential pulse voltammetry, LEV is determined with a low detection limit of 0.00792 nm for a linear range of 0.09-671 µM with an ultrahigh sensitivity of 152.19 µA µM-1 cm-2. Furthermore, modified electrode performance is tested by real-time monitoring using biological and river samples.


Subject(s)
Dielectric Spectroscopy/instrumentation , Dielectric Spectroscopy/methods , Levofloxacin/analysis , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/urine , Carbon/chemistry , Electrodes , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Levofloxacin/blood , Levofloxacin/urine , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanotubes/chemistry , Photoelectron Spectroscopy , Silver/chemistry , Silver Compounds/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Tablets , Vanadates/chemistry , X-Ray Diffraction
11.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 181: 113118, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116327

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is associated with various diseases such as obesity, digestive problems, osteoporosis, depression, and infections, which has emerged as an interest in public healthcare. Recently, vitamin D has received more attention because of the potential implication with coronavirus disease 2019. In this study, we developed a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) aptasensor based on polyethylene-glycol(PEG)-free gold nanorods (AuNRs) for the wide-range and direct detection of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The surfactant on AuNRs was removed by exchanging with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) instead of PEG then the PSS was exchanged with citrate. By exchanging the stabilizer of AuNRs from PEG to PEG-free (i.e., citrate), the sensing efficiency of LSPR aptasensor was significantly improved. Additionally, LSPR aptasensor was functionalized with aptamer and blocking agent to enhance the sensing performance. The LSPR aptasensor achieved the direct, highly sensitive, and selective detection of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 over a wide concentration range (0.1-105 ng/mL), with a limit of detection of 0.1 ng/mL. This detection range included the concentration of vitamin D from deficiency to excess. The PEG-free AuNR-based LSPR aptasensor affords a new avenue for the development of robust sensing technology for vitamins.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biosensing Techniques , Nanotubes , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19 , Calcifediol , Gold , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols , Polyethylenes , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Vitamin D/analysis
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(4): 5678-5690, 2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065790

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has clearly shown the importance of developments in fabrication of advanced protective equipment. This study investigates the potential of using multifunctional electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers decorated with ZnO nanorods and Ag nanoparticles (PMMA/ZnO-Ag NFs) in protective mats. Herein, the PMMA/ZnO-Ag NFs with an average diameter of 450 nm were simply prepared on a nonwoven fabric by directly electrospinning from solutions containing PMMA, ZnO nanorods, and Ag nanoparticles. The novel material showed high performance with four functionalities (i) antibacterial agent for killing of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, (ii) antiviral agent for inhibition of corona and influenza viruses, (iii) photocatalyst for degradation of organic pollutants, enabling a self-cleaning protective mat, and (iv) reusable surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate for quantitative analysis of trace pollutants on the nanofiber. This multi-functional material has high potential for use in protective clothing applications by providing passive and active protection pathways together with sensing capabilities.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Silver/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nanofibers/chemistry , Nanotubes/chemistry , Polymethyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis, Raman
13.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(5): C877-C884, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066951

ABSTRACT

Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) emerged as important specialized actin-rich membrane protrusions for cell-to-cell communication. These structures allow the intercellular exchange of material, such as ions, soluble proteins, receptors, vesicles and organelles, therefore exerting critical roles in normal cell function. Indeed, TNTs participate in a number of physiological processes, including embryogenesis, immune response, and osteoclastogenesis. TNTs have been also shown to contribute to the transmission of retroviruses (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus-1, HIV-1) and coronaviruses. As with other membrane protrusions, the involvement of Rho GTPases in the formation of these elongated structures is undisputable, although the mechanisms involved are not yet fully elucidated. The tight control of Rho GTPase function by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) strongly suggests that localized control of these Rho regulators may contribute to TNT assembly and disassembly. Deciphering the intricacies of the complex signaling mechanisms leading to actin reorganization and TNT development would reveal important information about their involvement in normal cellular physiology as well as unveil potential targets for disease management.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cell Communication , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Nanotubes , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , rho GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , rho GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(20)2020 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890401

ABSTRACT

The COronaVIrus Disease (COVID-19) is a newly emerging viral disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Rapid increase in the number of COVID-19 cases worldwide led the WHO to declare a pandemic within a few months after the first case of infection. Due to the lack of a prophylactic measure to control the virus infection and spread, early diagnosis and quarantining of infected as well as the asymptomatic individuals are necessary for the containment of this pandemic. However, the current methods for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis are expensive and time consuming, although some promising and inexpensive technologies are becoming available for emergency use. In this work, we report the synthesis of a cheap, yet highly sensitive, cobalt-functionalized TiO2 nanotubes (Co-TNTs)-based electrochemical sensor for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 through sensing the spike (receptor binding domain (RBD)) present on the surface of the virus. A simple, low-cost, and one-step electrochemical anodization route was used for synthesizing TNTs, followed by an incipient wetting method for cobalt functionalization of the TNTs platform, which was connected to a potentiostat for data collection. This sensor specifically detected the S-RBD protein of SARS-CoV-2 even at very low concentration (range of 14 to 1400 nM (nano molar)). Additionally, our sensor showed a linear response in the detection of viral protein over the concentration range. Thus, our Co-TNT sensor is highly effective in detecting SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD protein in approximately 30 s, which can be explored for developing a point of care diagnostics for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 in nasal secretions and saliva samples.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Nanotubes/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Titanium/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Electrochemical Techniques , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Point-of-Care Systems , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
15.
Bioconjug Chem ; 31(11): 2553-2563, 2020 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872629

ABSTRACT

As a large enveloped RNA virus, coronavirus is of considerable medical and veterinary significance, and anticoronavirus treatment is challenging due to its biodiversity and rapid variability. In this study, Au@Ag nanorods (Au@AgNRs) were successfully synthesized by coating AuNRs with silver and were shown for the first time to have activity against the replication of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Viral titer analysis demonstrated that Au@AgNRs could inhibit PEDV infection by 4 orders of magnitude at 12 h post-infection, which was verified by viral protein expression analysis. The potential mechanism of action showed that Au@AgNRs could inhibit the entry of PEDV and decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, we demonstrated that a large amount of virus proliferation can cause the generation of reactive oxygen species in cells, and the released Ag+ and exposed AuNRs by Au@AgNRs after the stimulation of reactive oxygen species has superior antiviral activity to ensure long-term inhibition of the PEDV replication cycle. The integrated results support that Au@AgNRs can serve as a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent the replication of coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Gold/chemistry , Gold/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Silver/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gold/toxicity , Nanotubes/chemistry , Vero Cells
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