Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934133

ABSTRACT

Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase and is upregulated in human obesity. CX-4945 (Silmitasertib) is a CK2 inhibitor with anti-cancerous and anti-adipogenic activities. However, the anti-adipogenic and pro-lipolytic effects and the mode of action of CX-4945 in (pre)adipocytes remain elusive. Here, we explored the effects of CX-4945 on adipogenesis and lipolysis in differentiating and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, a murine preadipocyte cell line. CX-4945 at 15 µM strongly reduced lipid droplet (LD) accumulation and triglyceride (TG) content in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells, indicating the drug's anti-adipogenic effect. Mechanistically, CX-4945 reduced the expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and perilipin A in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. Strikingly, CX-4945 further increased the phosphorylation levels of cAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and liver kinase B-1 (LKB-1) while decreasing the intracellular ATP content in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. In differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, CX-4945 had abilities to stimulate glycerol release and elevate the phosphorylation levels of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), pointing to the drug's pro-lipolytic effect. In addition, CX-4945 induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), and PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK-1/2, attenuated the CX4945-induced glycerol release and HSL phosphorylation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, indicating the drug's ERK-1/2-dependent lipolysis. In summary, this investigation shows that CX-4945 has strong anti-adipogenic and pro-lipolytic effects on differentiating and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, mediated by control of the expression and phosphorylation levels of CK2, C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, ACC, perilipin A, AMPK, LKB-1, ERK-1/2, and HSL.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis , Casein Kinase II , Naphthyridines , Phenazines , 3T3-L1 Cells , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Animals , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha/metabolism , Casein Kinase II/antagonists & inhibitors , Casein Kinase II/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Glycerol/pharmacology , Humans , Lipolysis/drug effects , Mice , Naphthyridines/pharmacology , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Perilipin-1/metabolism , Phenazines/pharmacology , Sterol Esterase/metabolism
2.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(6): 1147-1160, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860283

ABSTRACT

There are currently relatively few small-molecule antiviral drugs that are either approved or emergency-approved for use against severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). One of these is remdesivir, which was originally repurposed from its use against Ebola. We evaluated three molecules we had previously identified computationally with antiviral activity against Ebola and Marburg and identified pyronaridine, which inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 replication in A549-ACE2 cells. The in vivo efficacy of pyronaridine has now been assessed in a K18-hACE transgenic mouse model of COVID-19. Pyronaridine treatment demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of viral load in the lungs of SARS-CoV-2-infected mice, reducing lung pathology, which was also associated with significant reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokine and cell infiltration. Pyronaridine inhibited the viral PLpro activity in vitro (IC50 of 1.8 µM) without any effect on Mpro, indicating a possible molecular mechanism involved in its ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication. We have also generated several pyronaridine analogs to assist in understanding the structure activity relationship for PLpro inhibition. Our results indicate that pyronaridine is a potential therapeutic candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Mice , Naphthyridines , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518611

ABSTRACT

Inhaled nebulized interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-ß have been shown to be effective in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to construct a virus-free rapid detection system for high-throughput screening of IFN-like compounds that induce viral RNA degradation and suppress the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We prepared a SARS-CoV-2 subreplicon RNA expression vector which contained the SARS-CoV-2 5'-UTR, the partial sequence of ORF1a, luciferase, nucleocapsid, ORF10, and 3'-UTR under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The expression vector was transfected into Calu-3 cells and treated with IFN-α and the IFNAR2 agonist CDM-3008 (RO8191) for 3 days. SARS-CoV-2 subreplicon RNA degradation was subsequently evaluated based on luciferase levels. IFN-α and CDM-3008 suppressed SARS-CoV-2 subreplicon RNA in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 193 IU/mL and 2.54 µM, respectively. HeLa cells stably expressing SARS-CoV-2 subreplicon RNA were prepared and treated with the IFN-α and pan-JAK inhibitor Pyridone 6 or siRNA-targeting ISG20. IFN-α activity was canceled with Pyridone 6. The knockdown of ISG20 partially canceled IFN-α activity. Collectively, we constructed a virus-free rapid detection system to measure SARS-CoV-2 RNA suppression. Our data suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 subreplicon RNA was degraded by IFN-α-induced ISG20 exonuclease activity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Genetic Vectors , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Naphthyridines/administration & dosage , Naphthyridines/pharmacology , Oxadiazoles/administration & dosage , Oxadiazoles/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/drug effects , Replicon
5.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 379(1): 96-107, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483965

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, drug repurposing has been highlighted for rapid introduction of therapeutics. Proposed drugs with activity against SARS-CoV-2 include compounds with positive charges at physiologic pH, making them potential targets for the organic cation secretory transporters of kidney and liver, i.e., the basolateral organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2; and the apical multidrug and toxin extruders, MATE1 and MATE2-K. We selected several compounds proposed to have in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinacrine, tilorone, pyronaridine, cetylpyridinium, and miramistin) to test their interaction with OCT and MATE transporters. We used Bayesian machine learning models to generate predictions for each molecule with each transporter and also experimentally determined IC50 values for each compound against labeled substrate transport into CHO cells that stably expressed OCT2, MATE1, or MATE2-K using three structurally distinct substrates (atenolol, metformin and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) to assess the impact of substrate structure on inhibitory efficacy. For the OCTs substrate identity influenced IC50 values, although the effect was larger and more systematic for OCT2. In contrast, inhibition of MATE1-mediated transport was largely insensitive to substrate identity. Unlike MATE1, inhibition of MATE2-K was influenced, albeit modestly, by substrate identity. Maximum unbound plasma concentration/IC50 ratios were used to identify potential clinical DDI recommendations; all the compounds interacted with the OCT/MATE secretory pathway, most with sufficient avidity to represent potential DDI issues for secretion of cationic drugs. This should be considered when proposing cationic agents as repurposed antivirals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Drugs proposed as potential COVID-19 therapeutics based on in vitro activity data against SARS-CoV-2 include compounds with positive charges at physiological pH, making them potential interactors with the OCT/MATE renal secretory pathway. We tested seven such molecules as inhibitors of OCT1/2 and MATE1/2-K. All the compounds blocked transport activity regardless of substrate used to monitor activity. Suggesting that plasma concentrations achieved by normal clinical application of the test agents could be expected to influence the pharmacokinetics of selected cationic drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Organic Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , CHO Cells , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Naphthyridines/pharmacology , Organic Cation Transport Proteins/drug effects , Quinacrine/pharmacology , Tilorone/pharmacology
6.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159011

ABSTRACT

Protein kinases are a large class of enzymes with numerous biological roles and many have been implicated in a vast array of diseases, including cancer and the novel coronavirus infection COVID-19. Thus, the development of chemical probes to selectively target each kinase is of great interest. Inhibition of protein kinases with ATP-competitive inhibitors has historically been the most widely used method. However, due to the highly conserved structures of ATP-sites, the identification of truly selective chemical probes is challenging. In this review, we use the Ser/Thr kinase CK2 as an example to highlight the historical challenges in effective and selective chemical probe development, alongside recent advances in the field and alternative strategies aiming to overcome these problems. The methods utilised for CK2 can be applied to an array of protein kinases to aid in the discovery of chemical probes to further understand each kinase's biology, with wide-reaching implications for drug development.


Subject(s)
Casein Kinase II/metabolism , Molecular Probes/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinases/chemistry , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Casein Kinase II/chemistry , Dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole/chemistry , Dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Probes/metabolism , Naphthyridines/chemistry , Naphthyridines/pharmacology , Phenazines/chemistry , Phenazines/pharmacology , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1876, 2021 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152854

ABSTRACT

Viruses hijack host cell metabolism to acquire the building blocks required for replication. Understanding how SARS-CoV-2 alters host cell metabolism may lead to potential treatments for COVID-19. Here we profile metabolic changes conferred by SARS-CoV-2 infection in kidney epithelial cells and lung air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures, and show that SARS-CoV-2 infection increases glucose carbon entry into the TCA cycle via increased pyruvate carboxylase expression. SARS-CoV-2 also reduces oxidative glutamine metabolism while maintaining reductive carboxylation. Consistent with these changes, SARS-CoV-2 infection increases the activity of mTORC1 in cell lines and lung ALI cultures. Lastly, we show evidence of mTORC1 activation in COVID-19 patient lung tissue, and that mTORC1 inhibitors reduce viral replication in kidney epithelial cells and lung ALI cultures. Our results suggest that targeting mTORC1 may be a feasible treatment strategy for COVID-19 patients, although further studies are required to determine the mechanism of inhibition and potential efficacy in patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Citric Acid Cycle/physiology , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Benzamides/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Glucose/metabolism , Glutamine/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Morpholines/pharmacology , Naphthyridines/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Pyruvate Carboxylase/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(9): 3899-3906, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948622

ABSTRACT

This research is a recent effort to explore some new heterocyclic compounds as novel and potential nonstructural protein-16-nonstructural protein-10 (Nsp16-Nsp10) inhibitors for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) inhibition. The SARS-CoV-2 is causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A set of 58 molecules belongs to the naphthyridine and quinoline derivatives have been recently synthesized and considered for structure-based virtual screening against Nsp16-Nsp10. Molecular docking was virtually performed to screen for anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity against Nsp16-Nsp10. Fourteen out of fifty-eight compounds were exhibited binding affinity higher than co-crystal bound ligand s-adenosylmethionine (SAM) toward Nsp16-Nsp10. Further, the in silico pharmacokinetics assessment was carried out and it was found that two molecules possess the acceptable pharmacokinetic profile, hence considered promising Nsp16-Nsp10 inhibitors. The binding interaction analysis was revealed some crucial binding interactions between the final selected two molecules and ligand-binding amino acid residues of Nsp16-Nsp10 protein. In order to explore the characteristics of the protein-ligand complex and how selected small molecules retained inside the receptor cavity in dynamic states, all-atoms conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed. Several factors were obtained from the MD simulation trajectory evidently suggested the potentiality of the molecules and stability of the protein-ligand complex. Finally, the binding affinity of both molecules and SAM was explored through the MM-GBSA approach which explained that both molecules possess strong affection towards the Nsp16-Nsp10. Hence, from the pharmacoinformatics assessment, it can be concluded that both heterocyclic compounds might be crucial for SARS-CoV-2 inhibition, subjected to experimental validation.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Ligands , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Naphthyridines/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
9.
Trends Parasitol ; 37(1): 8-11, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872441

ABSTRACT

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have demonstrated in vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Artemisinins have also shown anti-inflammatory effects, including inhibition of interleukin-6 (IL-6) that plays a key role in the development of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is now sufficient evidence for the effectiveness of ACTs, and in particular artesunate/pyronaridine, to support clinical studies for COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Artemisinins/pharmacology , Artesunate/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Naphthyridines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
10.
Life Sci ; 258: 118205, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695845

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has appeared in Wuhan, China but the fast transmission has led to its widespread prevalence in various countries, which has made it a global concern. Another concern is the lack of definitive treatment for this disease. The researchers tried different treatment options which are not specific. The current study aims to identify potential small molecule inhibitors against the main protease protein of SARS-CoV-2 by the computational approach. MAIN METHODS: In this study, a virtual screening procedure employing docking of the two different datasets from the ZINC database, including 1615 FDA approved drugs and 4266 world approved drugs were used to identify new potential small molecule inhibitors for the newly released crystal structure of main protease protein of SARS-CoV-2. In the following to validate the docking result, molecular dynamics simulations were applied on selected ligands to identify the behavior and stability of them in the binding pocket of the main protease in 150 nanoseconds (ns). Furthermore, binding energy using the MMPBSA approach was also calculated. KEY FINDINGS: The result indicates that simeprevir (Hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and pyronaridine (antimalarial agent) could fit well to the binding pocket of the main protease and because of some other beneficial features including broad-spectrum antiviral properties and ADME profile, they might be a promising drug candidate for repurposing to the treatment of COVID-19. SIGNIFICANCE: Simeprevir and pyronaridine were selected by the combination of virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulation approaches as a potential candidate for treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Naphthyridines/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Simeprevir/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/enzymology , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteases , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL